The properties, uses and the structure of polypropylene fiber is discussed in this presentation.
Published on: Mar 6, 2016
Transcripts - Polypropylene fiber
Polypropylene is a100% synthetic fiber
which is transformed from 85% propylene.
The monomer of polypropylene is
propylene. Polypropylene is a by-product of
Polypropylene (PP) is a thermoplastic.
It is a linear structure based on the monomer CnH2n. It is
manufactured from propylene gas in presence of a catalyst
such as titanium chloride. Beside PP is a by-product of oil refining
Most polypropylene used is highly crystalline and geometrically
regular (i.e. isotactic) opposite to amorphous thermoplastics,
such as polystyrene, PVC, polyamide, etc., which radicals are
placed randomly (i.e. atactic).
It is said that PP has an intermediate level of crystallinity between
low density polyethylene (LDPE) and high density polyethylene
(HDPE); On the other hand PP has higher working temperatures
and tensile strength than polyethylene
Polypropylene chips can be converted to fiber/filament by
traditional melt spinning. As an example, the staple fiber
production is shown in following figure.
Identifiers are shown with the figure. Additional comments and
description are as follows:
Metering: one or more spinning gear pumps receives the molten
polymer and sends it through the spinning pack to homogenize the
product, feed the spinning pack at a constant rate, and prevent
fluctuation due to screw extruder.
Spinning: the spinning pack consists of three parts-filters, distributor
(which distributes the molten polymer over to die surface) and the die.
Quenching: newly extruded filaments are cooled in a good “box" which
will distribute 3 m3/min of cool air without damaging the filaments.
Finishing: to improve antistatic and reduce abrasion.
Hot Stretching: to enhance the physico-mechanical properties.
Crimping: to improve the bulk.
Thermosetting: it is a treatment in hot air or steam that removes the
internal stresses and relaxes fibers. The resultant fibers are heat-set with
Cutting: fibers are cut into 20 to 120 mm length depending on whether
they are intended for cotton or woolen system.
Polypropylene fibers are composed of crystalline and non-crystalline
regions. The spherulites developed from a nucleus can range in size from
fractions of a micrometer to centimeters in diameter. The a-axis of the
crystal unit cell is aligned radially and the chain axis is homogeneously
distributed in planes perpendicular to this radial direction. Each crystal is
surrounded by non-crystalline material. Fiber spinning and drawing may
cause the orientation of both crystalline and amorphous regions. If the
extension is less than 0.5%, the spherulite deformation is elastic and no
disruption of the structure occurs, otherwise spherulites are highly
oriented in the direction of the force and finally are converted to micro
fibrils. These highly anisotropic microfibrillar structures lead to
anisotropic fiber properties.
Tensile strength (gf/den) 3.5 to 5.5
Elongation (%) 40 to 100
Abrasion resistance Good
Moisture absorption (%) 0 to 0.05
Softening point (ºC) 140
Melting point (ºC) 165
Chemical resistance Generally excellent
Relative density 0.91
Thermal conductivity 6.0 (with air as 1.0)
Electric insulation Excellent
Resistance to mildew, moth Excellent
Effect of Acids
Excellent resistance to most acids except chlorosulphonic and
concentrated sulfuric acid.
Effect of Alkalis
Excellent resistance with the exception of some oxidizing agents.
Effect of Bleaches and Solvents
Excellent resistance. However, chlorinated hydrocarbons cause swelling
at room temperature and dissolve polypropylene at 71 °C. and higher.
Organic solvent does not cause harm during action.
Protection ability against light
It looses energy in sunlight.
Protection ability against mild dew
Protection ability against insects
It does not get affected by insects.
Difficult to dye polypropylene because its moisture regain is 0% . But
pigment dye is possible .
Polypropylene is a major polymer used in nonwovens, with over 50%
used for diapers or sanitary products
Other uses include filters for air, gas, and liquids. Such applications could
be seen in the house as water filters or air-conditioning-type filters.
The high surface area and naturally oleophilic polypropylene
nonwovens are ideal absorbers of oil spills with the familiar floating
barriers near oil spills on rivers
Polypropylene is also used in warm-weather clothing, which transports
sweat away from the skin
Polypropylene has been used in hernia and pelvic organ prolapse repair
operations to protect the body from new hernias in the same location.
Application Fiber Grade Industry
Cigarette Filter Staple fiber 3 denier Cigarette
Technical filters Staple fiber 5 denier, needle
Wet filtration, excellent, chemical resistance,
used in water, milk, bear, paints, coatings,
PP woven socks PP film fiber, with 10-15% LDPE to
reduce fibrillation and cost
Fertilizers, flour, wheat, sugar, cement
Ropes and Twines PP film and fiber Agriculture
PP bale warp Spun Bonded PP Synthetic fibers
PP tapes High modulus PP obtained by
increasing draw ratio
Construction material like asphalt and concrete
PP construction / industry
Filling grade and staple fiber Construction materials like asphalt and concrete
Substrate fabrics Nonwoven needle punched 3-4
denier staple fibers
Furniture fabrics as backing material for visual
furniture fabrics, it serves as reinforcement. Also
used for wall covering, luggage, table-clothes,
tarpaulins, and automobile
Outdoor Applications Heavy deniers containing
stabilizers, UV absorber, etc
Non-electric fuses for
PP slit film tapes Mining industry
PP staple fiber nonwovens, Face