Pomegranate - Global Scenario
Popular in Eastern as well as Western Western parts of the world Pomegranate is a well known fruit.
This presentation gives an overview about the Pomegranate scenario globally as well as in India.
Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Transcripts - Pomegranate - Global Scenario
POMEGRANATE – NATIONAL AND
Dr. G.K.Vasantha Kumar
Director of Horticulture,
Department of Horticulture
Government of Karnataka, Lalbagh,
Bangalore – 560 004, Karnataka, India
PHONE: 91 - 80 - 26571925
FAX: 91 - 80 – 26578072
Popular in Eastern as well as Western Western parts of
The crop is also cultivated in the Mediterranean region.
Pomegranates thrive well in regions with semi-arid to
sub-tropical climatic conditions.
The crop is cultivated in Spain, Iran, India, Turkey,
South East Asia, Afghanistan, tropical Africa, parts of
It is grown for its fully luscious grains called ‘Arils’; the
fruits are very attractive with sweet acidic taste.
The fruits are mainly used for dessert purposes.
The fruits are also processed to make juice, syrup, jam,
jelly, wine, to flavour cakes, baked apples, etc.
Of late, its nutritional and medicinal values are given
Pomegranate Cultivation in India
Area - About 63,000 Hectares.
Production - About 5.00 lakh tons/annum
Comparative Advantage -
Production of Pomegranate almost throughout the year.
Supply of Pomegranates even during off - season to the European
Cultivation in Arid and Semi-arid tracts of the states – Karnataka,
Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Rajasthan, Uttar
Pradesh, Haryana, Tamil Nadu
Maharastra is the largest producer.
Farmers Cultivate the crop by :
Carefully selecting varieties.
Adopting advanced technologies.
Spurt in cultivation and trading of Pomegranate in India from the
last two decades.
Important varieties cultivated are Ganesh, Dholka,
Seedless(Bedana), Bhagwa, Araktha.
Seedless verities such as Paper Shell, Spanish Ruby, Mascut Red
and Velladu show great potential
Peak harvest – January to April
Consumer preference - changing from time to
time and from country to country.
Earlier, Ganesh variety with big sized fruits was
the preferred one, and the fruits were exported
to the Gulf countries.
Now, in Europe and other parts of the world,
varieties such as Bhagwa (Kesar), Mridula are
the suitable and accepted ones.
Soft seeded, coloured varieties with high per
cent of juice with easy to remove arils are
Fruits weighing more than 500 gms with
superior qualities - immediate and ready
acceptance in the international markets.
Grading of fruits
Grading based on size and colour.
1. Super size – Fruits are free from spots and
individual fruit weight is more
2. King size – Fruits are attractive and
individual fruit weight is 500-700 grams.
3. Queen size – Fruits are attractive, red and
individual fruit weight is 400-500 grams.
4. Prince size – Fruits are attractive, red and
individual fruit weight is 300-400 grams.
The desirable fruit characters of fresh
pomegranate for export purpose
Dark rose pink colour of the fruit.
Fruit weight around 500 gms.
Round shape of the fruit.
Uniform size and shape of the fruit in a pack
Dark rose pink arils.
Softness of the seeds.
Higher sugars near about 16-170 Brix.
Free from scars, russetting, disease spots,
insect injury, scratches, etc.
Smooth cutting at the stem end.
Bracts/calyx without any damage and having
Pleasant flavour and aroma.
Marketing and Export Potential
No organized marketing systems for
Domestic marketing for pomegranate is fairly
balanced as of now.
Farmers normally dispose their produce to
contractors who take the responsibility of
transport to far off markets.
Some progressive farmers who have developed
contacts in urban areas despatch them on their
own and are able to get a reasonable price for
Fruits ready for Packing for Export
Changes in varietal selection and in
Pest and disease incidence, fall in demand and
price - effect on the cultivation of
pomegranate in the state.
Cultivation for export purpose - improved due
to exploring of market potentialities.
Farmers of Bijapur and Bagalkot districts –
exporting pomegranate through their
associations to Gulf and European Union for
the last 5 years.
Koppal district - New entrant – Exports
began in 2004.
The pomegranate fruit is considered an exotic
in European and Middle East countries.
There is scope for exporting Indian
pomegranates to Bangladesh, Bahrain, Canada,
Germany, United Kingdom, Japan, Kuwait, Sri
Lanka, Omen, Pakistan, Qatar, Saudi Arabia,
Singapore, Switzerland, U.A.E. and U.S.A.
The other potential markets are, Belgaum,
Spain, France, Italy, Netherlands, Philippines,
South Africa, Brazil and Mexico.
Pomegranate in Karnataka
Advent of Ganesh variety revolutionized
pomegranate cultivation in Northern
Karnataka especially in the districts of
Bijapur, Bagalkot, Koppal and Raichur.
In the initial years, big sized fruits with TSS
15° Brix were exported mainly to the Gulf
Kustagi and Yelburga taluks of Koppal district
– remote and most backward areas of the State.
Poor rainfall, frequent droughts, high
temperature, soils are also either calcarious or
Low precipitation levels and distribution of
rainfall have added to the crop failures.
Predominant crop – Agricultural crops and
onion and chillies.
Horticultural crops – Grapes, Pomegranate,
Banana, Mango, Ber, Sweet orange have been
grown since the last two decades.
Cultivation of Pomegranate – Farmers have
been pro-active in adopting new technology for
cultivation and post harvest handling of
Benefited from the efforts of the State
Department of Horticulture in training the
farmers in export oriented production.
Training Programmes – conducted in the
farmers’ fields in six steps, in collaboration
with the Agricultural and Processed Food
Products Export Development Authority
(APEDA) during 2003.
Farmers given suitable guidance regarding
cultivation and care of regulating the number
of fruits, irrigation with fertigation, plant
protection schedule and care in harvesting.
Out of 50 farmers trained, nearly 30 farmers
were successful and 20 farmers exported the
Exports started in 2004.
About 250 tons of pomegranate were exported from
this small area and volume of trade was in the tune
of Rs.8.50 crores.
The produce fetched a price of Rs.35,000/- (750 $)
On an average, they have exported 7.5 – 10 tons of
fruits per hectare remaining 10 – 12. 5 tons were
Farmers have earned about Rs.4.5 lakhs to 5.75
lakhs per hectare (9600 – 12300 $.
Incurred an expenditure of Rs.75,000/- per hectare
Net Profit - Rs.3.75 lakhs to Rs.5.00 lakhs per
hectare (8000 – 10700 $); in some cases, it has
crossed Rs.6.25 lakhs per hectare (13400 $).
Farmers convinced about- profitability of
pomegranate cultivation as there is considerable
demand for the pomegranate grown in the region.
Farmers prefer separate packing units, cold
A small but significant intervention by the
Government- helped farmers to boost the
production and quality of the fruits and gave
them higher returns.
Similar efforts in other dry belts of the state.
Problems due to diseases such as bacterial blight,
pomegranate wilt have a deleterious effect on the
crop in northern districts of the state.
In Bijapur and Bagalkot areas, utmost care has
to be taken specially in maintaining hygienic
India’s contribution to the export is less than
5%, although we are in first position in
production of Pomegranate.
Scope for diversified use of pomegranate and
hence value added products can be promoted.
Consumer preference, colour,TSS and demand
for crop are important aspects to be focused
Time of export, choice of variety, quality
maintenance and regulation of fruit size are
important aspects in the production of
pomegranate for export.
Pomegranate –– IInntteerrnnaattiioonnaall SScceennaarriioo
The technical sessions during the International
Symposium on Pomegranate and Minor
Mediterranean Fruits held at Adana, Turkey,
from October 16– 19, 2006 comprised of -
Orchard Culture and Management – Countries of
focus were Bangladesh, Israel, Iran, Turkey and
Genetic Conservation and Germplasm.
Breeding and Genetics.
Nutrition and Health.
Post Harvest Technology.
Processing, Marketing & Economy.
Israel and Turkey have taken up varietal trials on
Iran too has been in the forefront with regard to
research on Pomegranate.
There is a lot of germplasm / breeding collection in
Iran, Israel and also Turkey.
Exchange of germplasm between countries if not
available in research stations will go a long way in
developing new varieties.
Most of the varieties in the Mediterranean region are
sour with few sweet varieties.
Sweet sour varieties with good colour are not
Bacterial Blight (Xanthomonas sp.) and Wilt are not a
major problem in other pomegranate growing
countries as the same was not presented / discussed by
scientists (Pathologists) in the symposium.
Our Sweet sour variety Bhagwa (Kesar) and
Wonderful variety of U.S in Italy found appreciation
in general and are suited for marketing in the
international market. One of the findings presented
was that sweetness in pomegranates is not only due to
sugar content but also due to low acidic content.
Nutritional aspects of pomegranate were discussed
and it is felt that it can enhance its utility. Value
addition is also important to increase the acceptability
of pomegranates by consumers.
India has a very good potential provided we
meet the quality standards of the importing
countries. The exports can be enhanced from
the present 3000 – 4000 MT tons to about
20,000 – 30,000 tons.
A presentation was made regarding aril
separating machine for pomegranates in
Israel – which separates arils to different
grades. Similar mechanization may be tried in
A presentation was also made by a firm based
in United Kingdom regarding different
packaging films to enhance the shelf life of
fruits under normal temperature.
Different grades of films suitable for other fruits,
vegetables, flowers are also available. Such grades of
films can be tried for packing traditional flowers / loose
flowers like jasmine, etc.
Dubai Airport has developed an extensive cargo system
to handle perishable cargos in an area of 34,000
Sq.Mtr. with a capacity of 1.80 lakh tons per year.
Alstemier Airport and Dubai Airport are mainly
providing facilities for C & F agents for downloading
and uploading cargos.
The Government provides office space and
information facilities at a cost to international
companies. Similar facilities can also be created in our
international airports for customs, phytosanitary
clearances, Municipal, Domestic certification for
easing procedural formalities under single window
In order to improve the quality and increase
marketing prospects, good infrastructure at
production centers, at district level and in the terminal
markets need to be provided / upgraded.
Visit to European markets by farmers will give greater
benefit for studying the quality requirements and taste
changes preferred by the consumers. Pomegranate
should also be projected as an important fruit having
nutritional as well as medicinal values.
Pomegranate Scenario in US
Cultivated in dry regions
California and Arizona- major centres for
Harvesting – August to January
Varities – Wonderful, Grenada
US market – Preference for solid red
An Importer from US (Schramm, Williams &
Associates, Inc., Washington DC, USA) has made
a contact. India has ample scope for exporting
pomegranates to the US. The Government of
India should take steps regarding policy issues
and agreement with US to encourage exports to
The advent of new varieties having high consumer
preference and technical advancement in cultivation
has made this crop more popular.
Owing to the nutritional and medicinal values of the
fruits, there is preference among the consumers in the
domestic and international markets.
Bhagwa (Kesar) variety is best suited for cultivation in
the tropical areas. This variety is one of the best
varieties suitable for export purpose and it is gaining
popularity among consumers.
Most of the Pomegranates produced is consumed
locally and about 1 per cent is exported. The exports
have not been substantial since the international
standards were not known.
Of late, Indian Pomegranates have penetrated into the
European Union since suitable varieties conforming to
international standards are being produced.
Karnataka has exported about 2000 MT to other
countries during the last few years. There is potential
for export to the United State of America also. Diseases
such as Bacterial Blight, Wilt, etc., have created
problems in obtaining economic yields.
In view of the scope for value addition in pomegranate
for alternative use, medicinal uses of pomegranate,
better shelf life, and the export potential, its cultivation
in the semi-arid areas under protected irrigation needs
to be encouraged.
Proper varietal selection, crop and post harvest
management, infrastructure such as cold chain,
facilities for marketing etc, will augment the
cultivation of quality pomegranate and will help in
increasing the exports to a tune of about 20,000 –
30,000 MT tons.
In this background, India can definitely make a dent
in pomegranate trade in the world market.