Pollock ethics 8e_ch14
Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Transcripts - Pollock ethics 8e_ch14
Making Ethical Choices
Lecture slides prepared by Lisa J. Taylor
Review of Major Themes
• There is presence of authority, power, force, and
discretion in each of the sub-systems of the criminal
• Informal practices and value systems among criminal
justice actors vary from formal principles of behavior.
• The importance of ethical leadership.
• The tension between deontological ethical systems
and teleological or “means–end” ethical analysis.
The Threat of Terrorism
“Deliberate, negligent, or reckless use of
force against noncombatants, by state or
non-state actors for ideological ends and
in the absence of a substantively just
The “Just War” Debate
Philosophers have debated the idea of “just”
wars since the time of Cicero (c. 106–43 B.C.)
•Natural Law: War is acceptable
o To uphold the good of the community
o When unjust injuries are inflicted on others
o To protect the state
•Positivist Law: (man-made) when international
law is followed; e.g. United Nations.
Justification for War Includes
• A grave, lasting, and certain threat.
• No other means to avert the threat.
• A good probability of success.
• The means must not create a
greater evil than the threat
Ethical Justifications for War
and Means Utilized
Utilitarianism: when the benefits outweigh the
negatives; e.g., when there is a grave threat and
civilian deaths are minimized
Ethical formalism: use of aggression can be
principle of forfeiture
principle of double effect
Response to Terrorism
• Can “just war” arguments be
• Can “Dirty Harry” arguments be
Response to 9/11
• There has been a fundamental shift in the goals
and mission of law enforcement and public
• New goals include more national law enforcement
and a reduction of civil liberties.
• There is a greater emphasis on surveillance and
• There are increasing links between local law
enforcement and immigration services and
federal law enforcement.
• Detainments and greater governmental secrecy
• The Patriot Act and the Department of Homeland
• Wiretapping and threats to privacy
• Renditions and secret prisons
• Guantanamo and the Military Commissions
• The use of torture
• Publicly said the Authorization for the
Use of Military Force (AUMF) gave the
President the power to order targeted
killings of individuals—even American
citizens—believed to have engaged in
terrorist activity in the U.S.
• This was after a targeted drone attack
killed Anwar al-Awlaki, an American
radical cleric believed to be responsible
for soliciting and initiating several terror
plots in the U.S.
• The ACLU and other organizations are
engaged in a Freedom of Information
Act request to obtain the memo and
what evidence existed to justify the
Detainments and Government
• Immediately after 9/11, hundreds of non-citizens were
detained on either immigration charges or material
• The Patriot Act required that all individuals on visas
report to immigration offices. Many were detained on
minor violations of their visa and held for months in
federal facilities and county jails without hearings.
• Names and even the number of detainees were
withheld for months.
• Deportation hearings were closed to the media and
• Japanese-American internment was the
relocation and internment by the United States
government in 1942 of about 110,000
Japanese Americans and Japanese who lived
along the Pacific coast of the U.S., to camps
called "War Relocation Camps," in the wake of
Imperial Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor.
• In 1988, Congress passed and President
Ronald Reagan signed legislation which
apologized for the internment. The legislation
indicated that government actions were based
on "race prejudice, war hysteria, and a failure
of political leadership.”
• The U.S. government eventually disbursed
more than $1.6B in reparations to Japanese
Americans who had been interned and their
The Patriot Act
• Authorizes federal agents to spy on Americans without
probable cause or reasonable suspicion.
• Allows authorities to share with state prosecutors information
obtained via FISA search warrants which do not require
• Authorizes deportation of anyone who financially supports a
• Requires all Arab-born citizens to register under the National
Security Entry-Exit Registration system.
The Act was extended in 2006 (to 2009), with modifications.
Wiretapping and Threats
• Patriot Act—“sneak and peek,” “national
security letters,” pen registers
• “Data mining” programs
• Presidential secret warrantless wiretappings
• DNA data banks
Renditions and Secret
• Renditions—kidnapping suspects in
Canada, Sweden, Germany, and Italy
sometimes without knowledge or approval of
• Secret prisons—subjects of renditions
taken to countries to be tortured or to secret
prisons (closed in 2006?)
Guantanamo and the
Military Commissions Act
• Hamdi v. Rumsfeld (2004)—U.S. citizens could not be held
indefinitely without charges even if they were labled “enemy
• Rasul v. Bush (2004)—Detainees in Guantanamo could
challenge their detention in U.S. federal courts.
• Clark v. Martinez (2005)—Government may not indefinitely
detain even illegal immigrants without some due process.
• Hamdan v. Rumsfeld (2005)—“Military commissions,” set up
as a type of due process for the detainees, were outside the
President’s power to create and were, therefore, invalid.
Military Commissions Act
• Congress passed the Act after Hamdan v.
Rumsfeld invalidated presidential decree.
• Widespread criticism that the Act ignored ancient
right of habeas corpus.
• Boumediene v. Bush (No. 06-1195, Decided
June 12, 2008)—the Supreme Court rejected the
military commissions as a due process substitute
for federal courts and habeas corpus; also,
Detainee Treatment Act was not a substitute for
habeas corpus rights.
Deliberate infliction of violence and, through violence, severe
mental and/or physical suffering upon individuals:
• Subjected to loud noises and extreme heat and cold
• Deprived of sleep, light, food, and water
• Bound or forced to stand in painful positions for long periods of time
• Kept naked and hooded
• Thrown into walls
• Sexually humiliated
• Threatened with attack dogs
• Shackled to the ceiling
o Utilitarianism (doctrine of necessity)
o Does torture result in the truth?
o Does it matter?
o Secret prisons
o Bagram prison—Afghanistan
o Abu Ghraib—Iraq
In May of 2010, Faisal Shahzad made
an attempt to set off a car bomb in Time
Square. Shahzad has since been
charged with an act of terrorism and
mass destruction. Shahzad became a
U.S. citizen in April of 2009. He had
recently reentered the country after
spending five months in Pakistan.
Shahzad claims he acted alone in his
Knowing Shazad’s history, would it be ethical
to use certain torture methods to ensure he
is being honest?
Crime Control and
The desired end (deterring/preventing terrorist attack) is
seen as justifying such means as restricting:
• privacy rights
• due-process rights
• rights to associate (as when individuals are deported simply
for associating with groups that have been defined as
• right not to be tortured (water boarding and other “coercive
The Crime Control
A utilitarian approach can be used to justify invasive
or restrictive police actions:
• The end must itself be good.
• The means must be a plausible way to achieve the
• There must be no alternative, better means to achieve
the same end.
• The means must not undermine some other equal or
Crime Control vs. Human
• “Dirty Harry” reasoning
• Ends-means thinking
• Doctrine of necessity
Rights Based Policing
• Emphasis on law
• Emphasis on due process
• Emphasis on inalienable
• Ethical formalism
Rights Based Police
1. To fulfill the duties imposed on them by the law
2. To respect human dignity and uphold human rights
3. To act with integrity, dignity, and impartiality
4. To use force only when strictly necessary, and then
5. To maintain confidentiality
6. Not to use torture or use ill-treatment
7. To protect the health of those in their custody
8. Not to commit any act of corruption
9. To respect the law and the code of conduct and oppose
violations of them
10. To be personally liable for their acts
Is War on Terror Related to
Criminal Justice Ethics?
• The War on Terror has affected police policies and added
• Powers created to fight terror have been used against
“garden variety” criminals and governmental
surveillance/spying has been used against American
• The Patriot Act renewal had provision for speeding death
• There are routine partnerships (and conflicts) between local
law enforcement and DHS.
• Civil liberties take centuries to create, but only a few
generations to destroy (Wilson).
• Intelligence division – 1000 employees.
• Led by ex-CIA agent.
• Unit includes 2 dozen civilian experts,
lawyers, academics, linguists, and other
specialists in addition to law enforcement
• Unit monitors jihad websites and gathers
tips regarding terrorist activity.
• Use cameras on mosques and Muslim-
frequented businesses, collected license
plate numbers, and engaged “mosque
crawlers” to infiltrate mosques and
• Privacy concerns raised by the ACLU and
Arab Islamic rights organizations
• Should torture be used to gain confessions?
• Is there a difference between information to save
a victim and information to prosecute the
• Do innocent people confess to crimes they did
not commit because of mental or physical
“Dirty Harry” Problem
• Police received a hysterical call from an
apartment where a Vietnamese-American
teenager lived with her 13-month-old son,
Khyle, her boyfriend, her mother, and her
• Khyle wasn't breathing, and later, a doctor
at a nearby hospital pronounced him dead.
• Truong later admitted to suffocating her
son. She was arrested and spent almost
three years awaiting trial for murder.
• Police told her that if she confessed, she
will get help and leniency in the juvenile
• She made the coerced admission, thinking
she could go on with her life, but not
processing at 16 years old that she just
admitted to homicide.