Native americans arthur hall
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Transcripts - Native americans arthur hall
240 tribal histories Crazy Horse Tecumseh GeronimoChief Seattle Sitting Bull
Peace or War?• Two different Native American views• Why the difference?
"Teach your children what we have taught our children that the earth is our mother. What ever befalls the earth befalls the sons and daughters of the earth. This we know. The earth does not belong to us. We belong to the earth. This we know. All things are connected-like the blood which unites one family. All things are connected. What ever befalls the earth befalls the sons and daughters of the earth. We did not weave the web of life; we are merely a strand in it. Whatever we do to the web, We do to ourselves". Chief SeattleBorn 1780, Blake IslandDied 1866, Port Madison
Sitting Bullwas a Hunkpapa Lakota Sioux holy manwho led his people as a tribal chief during years of resistanceto United States government policies.He was born in 1831, Grand RiverHe died 1890 on Standing Rock Indian Reservation
“The Indian" has been recklessly portrayedthroughout American historyThe gross caricatures of Native Americans inHollywood westerns are only the most familiarexampleDuring the nineteenth century, cheap novelspainted a similarly unreal and stereotypic portrait ofthe Indian as a bloodthirsty savageMore serious writers, like James FennimoreCooper, sometimes portrayed the Indian as a"noble savage" rather than a barbaric warrior
But it’s a more complicated story…A more accurate historical narrative begins with the fact that two centuriesafter the first English settlers reached Virginia in 1607, the fate of the NorthAmerican continent was still undeterminedIn 1763, the British drew a line limiting Anglo-American expansion tothe east side of the Appalachian MountainsThey acknowledged Indian rights to the land as the continents firstoccupants and they mandated that Indian lands only be obtained bytreaty and purchase
But after the American Revolution Britain gave all of its NorthAmerican holdings south of Canada to the United StatesThe territorial claims of Native Americans were basicallycancelled by this action and for a few years, the newly foundedUnited States operated under the concept that the Indians werea defeated people, and therefore a people with no rightsBut during George Washingtons presidency Secretary of WarHenry Knox tried to place US-Indian relations on a more fair basisHe believed that treating Americas Indians with justice was theyoung republics first testSo he therefore tried to negotiate treaties rooted in the idea that theIndians possessed rights under natural law as the original occupantsof the land
Knoxs policies were not implemented with complete success nor werethey followed by other administrationsPresident Andrew Jackson resolved during the 1830s to removeall eastern Indians to land west of the Mississippi River
America‘s Seventh President 1829 - 1837The efforts of this "Indian-hating" president have been contrasted withthe more humane attempts of judges, congressmen, missionaries, andphilanthropists to defend Native Americans and their claims to the landBut the truth is more complex –Jackson believed he was dealing with a defeated nation who hadonly passed through hunting lands and had no legal ownership oflandIn modern terms Jackson would be seen as a racist (although heencouraged inter-racial marriage and adopted an Indian child)
For twenty years following removal US-Indian relations werecomparatively calmBut as western expansion accelerated after 1860 frontier violenceincreased Homesteaders flocking west hunting for cheap public landsRailroad companies laying tracks across the hunting grounds of the Plains Indians started wars lasting almost 20 years
By the end of the nineteenth century, the Indian "threat" againstAmericas frontier was gone (mostly through violence)Defeated in war and confined to reservations the Indian nationsthat had once filled the continent had been reduced to about250,000 peopleBut even in this framework the complexityof Native Americans condition shouldn’tbe simplifiedThe Indians who filled these reservations in 1900 were not exactlythe same as those of 1800Mixing with Anglo-Americans changed them and their beliefsWithin the Ghost Dance western Indians combined traditionalIndian spirituality with Christian beliefs to forge a powerful religious-political movement that revitalized communities (and terrified whiteauthorities)
The conclusion has to be that it was a tragedybut it was not simple to understand or followit wasn‘t entirely one –sided eitherthe effect remains that the settlers destroyed Indian culturekilled the Indianskilled their foodand stole their land
Thanks for listening!