National Geographic Inglés 2015
National Geographic Inglés 2015
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Transcripts - National Geographic Inglés 2015
YEAR OF LIFE
CITY OF AFRICA
GLIMPSE OF THE
HOW A TINY
JJJANUARUARUAUAAUUAUAUUUUUUAUUUUU Y 22015015
JANUARY 2015 • VOL. 227 • NO. 1
The First Artists
Credit them with a piv-
otal innovation in human
history: the invention of
By Chip Walter
Photographs by Stephen
The First Year
In the incredible
learning machine that
is a baby’s brain,
on loving caretakers.
By Yudhijit Bhattacharjee
Photographs by Lynn Johnson
A First Glimpse of the
As scientists map the
universe, what they can’t
see—dark energy and
dark matter—is key.
By Timothy Ferris
Photographs by Robert Clark
Genetic data and
discoveries offer clues
to the mystery of early
By Glenn Hodges
138 Proof | First Bird
The bald eagle may be a majestic national
symbol—but it’s also one tough bird.
By Klaus Nigge
Africa’s First City
In Lagos, Nigeria, a boom economy widens the rift between the wealthy and the poor.
By Robert Draper Photographs by Robin Hammond
The wedding of
Gbenga Adeoti and his
bride, Funmi Olojede,
customs and attire of
the Yoruba, Lagos’s
main ethnic group.
On the Cover Geneticists say that Native Americans’ ancestors
were Asians who separated from other Asian populations and
remained isolated for about 10,000 years. Art by Tomer Hanuka
Corrections and Clariﬁcations Go to ngm.com/more.
O F F I C IA L J O U R NA L O F T H E NAT I O NA L G E O G R A P H I C S O C I E T Y
FROM THE EDITOR
This issue of National Geographic is built
around the idea of “ﬁrsts”—discoveries,
innovations, and actions that changed
the world. As a ﬁrst, it’s hard to top the
bravery of Ruby Bridges, who tells us in
our 3 Questions feature what it was like
to be the ﬁrst child to desegregate an
American public elementary school in the
South. We also use the term less formally,
as in a photo essay on America’s “ﬁrst”
bird (the bald eagle) or a vibrant story on
Africa’s “ﬁrst” city (Lagos, Nigeria’s com-
mercial center, which is driving the biggest
economy on the continent).
So in an issue of ﬁrsts, how do we forecast
what comes next? What will be the next
“ﬁrsts” that will change us, our families,
our communities, and our planet?
In an attempt to answer some of those
questions, we went to the experts and
futurists who contemplate coming changes
both prosaic and profound. Take Paul
Saffo, a Silicon Valley seer who, in 1994
(four years before the founding of Google),
predicted that the future belonged to
“those who control the ﬁltering, search,
and sensemaking tools we will rely on to
navigate through the banal expanses of
Whether it’s about the anticipated
demise of the combustion engine or a de-
crease in divorce, we hope you’ll ﬁnd these
experts’ ideas thought provoking as we en-
ter 2015. One cautionary note: No predictor
is always right. In what he calls his “worst
forecast,” Saffo wrote in 1993 that “cyber-
punks are to the 1990s what the beatniks
were to the ’60s—harbingers of a mass
movement waiting in the wings.” That’s one
mass movement we still await. Onward to
the next ﬁrsts—and Happy New Year!
Susan Goldberg, Editor in Chief
HOW WE WILL LOVE
WITHIN 10 TO 20 YEARS
Professor, University of Washington
Divorce may decrease after the baby boomers, who have
a high divorce rate, age into their 50s and 60s.
We will also see more people who are in love but do not
share a domicile. Though definitely couples, these people
are tied to different places because of a job or family, or be-
cause they love where they live. Maybe we will see people
going back and forth between assisted living facilities.
HOW WE WILL LIVE
WITHIN 5 TO 10 YEARS
Paul Saffo, Technology Forecaster
Driverless cars will share roadways with conventional cars.
This will happen in urban areas first and will take a decade
to fully diffuse. In the long run, people won’t own cars at all.
When you need to go somewhere, you’ll have a subscrip-
tion to an auto service, and it will show up at your door.
We’re moving away from a purchase economy. We will
subscribe to access rather than pay money for possessions
such as smartphones. We won’t buy software anymore;
we’ll subscribe to it.
A new religion could emerge in the next decade or two,
perhaps based around the environment. Digital technology
is the solvent leaching the glue out of our global structure—
including shaking our belief systems to the core.
“THERE IS A REAL CHANCE YOU WILL NEVER DIE,
SINCE MORTALITY MAY BE JUST A TECHNICAL
PROBLEM WE SOLVE.” —Byron Reese
HOW WE WILL HEAL
WITHIN 10 TO 20 YEARS
Author of The Guide to
the Future of Medicine
The next decades of medicine and
health care will be about using
technologies and keeping the hu-
man touch in practicing medicine.
Everyone’s genomes will be se-
quenced to access personalized
We’ll measure almost any health
parameters at home with diagnos-
tic devices and smartphones.
The 3-D printing revolution will
produce affordable exoskeletons
and prosthetic devices.
ART: OLIVER MUNDAY
HOW WE WILL BE POWERED
WITHIN 50 YEARS
Michael Brune, Executive Director, the Sierra Club
Author of Coming Clean: Breaking America’s Addiction to Oil and Coal
Within 50 years the world should be able to achieve a 100 percent clean
energy economy. Within the next couple of decades, every time you turn
on a light or power up your computer, every bit of that electricity will come
from clean, renewable, carbon-free sources. Soon after that, solar and
wind will displace nuclear as well, at which point we’ll be getting 100 per-
cent of our electricity from renewables. By 2030 we should be able to cut
transportation oil use in half and then cut it in half again a decade later.
Once we’re finally fossil-fuel free, we’ll not only see our climate stabilize but
we’ll also rest secure knowing that we can get all our power from sources
that are safe, secure, and sustainable. It’s already within our grasp.
HOW WE WILL AGE
WITHIN 20 YEARS
Byron Reese, Tech Entrepreneur
Author of Inﬁnite Progress: How the Internet and Technology Will End
Ignorance, Disease, Poverty, Hunger, and War
Since technology grows exponentially, not in a linear way, we will see
dramatic improvements in our way of life in just a few years. Though it
took us 4,000 years to get from the abacus to the iPad, in 20 years we will
have something as far ahead of the iPad as it is ahead of the abacus. This
means that soon we will be able to solve all problems that are fundamen-
tally technical. These problems include disease, poverty, hunger, energy,
and scarcity. If you can live a few years more, there is a real chance you
will never die, since mortality may be just a technical problem we solve. All
these advances will usher in a new golden age, freed from the scourges
that have plagued humanity throughout our history.
national geographic • January
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How I Felt to Be First
DID YOU EVER TALK TO YOUR MOTHER ABOUT HOW
SHE FELT, SENDING YOU TO SCHOOL THAT FIRST DAY?
We never really spoke about it. My parents deﬁnitely
displayed courage. I’m the mother of four. I’m very
protective, but I just don’t think that I possess that kind
of courage. I know it was a different time, but as African
Americans, my parents knew that if they wanted to see
change in their lifetime, they had to step up to the plate to
make that happen. And as we know, lots of people did that.
Lots of people who made those bold sacriﬁces lost their
lives. I remember driving up to the school, seeing all these
people screaming. But in New Orleans that’s what we do
at Mardi Gras. I thought we’d stumbled upon a parade.
And so I really wasn’t afraid at all.
YOUR FOUNDATION’S MISSION IS TO “EMPOWER
CHILDREN TO ADVANCE SOCIAL JUSTICE AND RACIAL
HARMONY.” HOW DO YOU HELP CHILDREN DO THIS?
I just draw from my own experience. I guess that six-year-
old is still inside of me. Once my school was integrated and
I was there with white kids and a few black kids, it really
didn’t matter to us what we looked like. Now I reach out to
different communities and bring their kids together.
A STATUE OF YOU WAS RECENTLY DEDICATED AT YOUR
FORMER SCHOOL. HOW DOES THAT MAKE YOU FEEL?
My school was hit by Hurricane Katrina, and they were going
to tear it down. I worked hard to get it on the National Reg-
ister of Historic Places. I’m really proud of that, and of the
statue. I want to inspire kids. There are all kinds of monu-
ments to adults—usually dead and usually white. But we
don’t often lift up the extraordinary work of children.
On November 14, 1960, six-year-old Ruby Bridges walked
past an angry crowd to become the first child to integrate
a public elementary school in the American South. Now
a mother, grandmother, and activist, the lifelong New
Orleans resident heads the Ruby Bridges Foundation
and travels all over the United States to tell her story.
Nominate someone for 3 Questions at nationalgeographic.com/3Q.
Can the “Emerald Isle of the Caribbean” be the first to go green?
Montserrat is trying. Nearly 20 years after the Soufriere Hills volcano
began erupting—rendering much of the island nation uninhabit-
able and exiling two-thirds of the population—the same geological
forces could provide reliable, renewable geothermal energy.
Like much of the Caribbean, this British overseas territory runs
on costly oil and gas imports. But as on other islands, plate tecton-
ics and volcanic activity bring magma close enough to the surface
for geothermal wells to tap into the heated reservoirs just below.
A single well can cost several million U.S. dollars, though. Last
year, with U.K. funding, University of Auckland researcher Gra-
ham Ryan and an international team of scientists and engineers
mapped two promising spots. Initial findings suggest there’s
enough geothermal juice there to power the grid, warrant a third
well—and maybe even sell to neighbors. —Jeremy Berlin
A Geothermal First?
Very hot water is brought to
the surface, turning to steam
as pressure decreases.
At a power plant, steam is
separated from water.
Steam flows through a
turbine, powering a generator
that produces electricity.
Cool water is pumped down
into a natural reservoir.
Natural water reservoir
Underground reservoirs are usually
a complex system of porous rocks
and heated water. That makes the
drilling process (shown generally
here) a major challenge on Mont-
serrat and other Lesser Antilles
islands with geothermal potential.
PHOTO: CARSTEN PETER. GRAPHIC: SAMANTHA WELKER
(apixaban) is a prescription medicine used to reduce the risk of stroke and blood clots in
people who have atrial ﬁbrillation, a type of irregular heartbeat, not caused by a heart valve problem.
For people with a higher risk of stroke due to
Atrial Fibrillation (AFib) not caused by a heart valve problem
Do not stop taking ELIQUIS for atrial ﬁbrillation
without talking to the doctor who prescribed it for
you. Stopping ELIQUIS increases your risk of having
a stroke. ELIQUIS may need to be stopped, prior
to surgery or a medical or dental procedure. Your
doctor will tell you when you should stop taking
ELIQUIS and when you may start taking it again. If
you have to stop taking ELIQUIS, your doctor may
prescribe another medicine to help prevent a blood
clot from forming.
ELIQUIS can cause bleeding, which can be serious,
and rarely may lead to death.
You may have a higher risk of bleeding if you take
ELIQUIS and take other medicines that increase your
risk of bleeding, such as aspirin, NSAIDs, warfarin
), heparin, SSRIs or SNRIs, and other
blood thinners. Tell your doctor about all medicines,
vitamins and supplements you take. While taking
ELIQUIS, you may bruise more easily and it may
take longer than usual for any bleeding to stop.
Get medical help right away if you have any of
these signs or symptoms of bleeding:
- unexpected bleeding, or bleeding that lasts a
long time, such as unusual bleeding from the
gums; nosebleeds that happen often, or
menstrual or vaginal bleeding that is heavier
- bleeding that is severe or you cannot control
- red, pink, or brown urine; red or black stools
(looks like tar)
- coughing up or vomiting blood or vomit that looks
like coffee grounds
- unexpected pain, swelling, or joint pain; headaches,
feeling dizzy or weak
ELIQUIS is not for patients with artiﬁcial heart valves.
Spinal or epidural blood clots (hematoma). People
who take ELIQUIS, and have medicine injected
into their spinal and epidural area, or have a
spinal puncture have a risk of forming a blood
clot that can cause long-term or permanent loss of
the ability to move (paralysis).
Ask your doctor if ELIQUIS is right for you.
This risk is higher if, an epidural catheter is placed
in your back to give you certain medicine, you take
NSAIDs or blood thinners, you have a history of
difﬁcult or repeated epidural or spinal punctures.
Tell your doctor right away if you have tingling,
numbness, or muscle weakness, especially in your
legs and feet.
Before you take ELIQUIS, tell your doctor if you
have: kidney or liver problems, any other medical
condition, or ever had bleeding problems. Tell
your doctor if you are pregnant or breastfeeding,
or plan to become pregnant or breastfeed.
Do not take ELIQUIS if you currently have certain
types of abnormal bleeding or have had a serious
allergic reaction to ELIQUIS. A reaction to ELIQUIS
can cause hives, rash, itching, and possibly
trouble breathing. Get medical help right away if
you have sudden chest pain or chest tightness,
have sudden swelling of your face or tongue,
have trouble breathing, wheezing, or feeling
dizzy or faint.
You are encouraged to report negative side effects
of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit www.fda.gov/
medwatch, or call 1-800-FDA-1088.
Please see additional
Important Product Information
on the adjacent page.
Individual results may vary.
or call 1-855-ELIQUIS
©2014 Bristol-Myers Squibb Company
I was taking warfarin.
But ELIQUIS was a better ﬁnd.
I TAKE ELIQUIS®
(apixaban) FOR 3 GOOD REASONS:
1 ELIQUIS reduced the risk of stroke better than warfarin.
2 ELIQUIS had less major bleeding than warfarin.
3 Unlike warfarin, there’s no routine blood testing.
ELIQUIS and other blood thinners increase the risk of bleeding which can be
serious, and rarely may lead to death.
The information below does not take the place of talking with your healthcare professional.
Only your healthcare professional knows the speciﬁcs of your condition and how ELIQUIS
may ﬁt into your overall therapy. Talk to your healthcare professional if you have any questions
about ELIQUIS (pronounced ELL eh kwiss).
IMPORTANT FACTS about ELIQUIS® (apixaban) tablets
This independent, non-proﬁt organization provides assistance to qualifying patients with ﬁnancial hardship who
generally have no prescription insurance. Contact 1-800-736-0003 or visit www.bmspaf.org for more information.
(Continued on adjacent page)
What is the most important information I should
know about ELIQUIS (apixaban)?
For people taking ELIQUIS for atrial ﬁbrillation:
Do not stop taking ELIQUIS without talking to
the doctor who prescribed it for you. Stopping
ELIQUIS increases your risk of having a stroke.
ELIQUIS may need to be stopped, prior to surgery or
a medical or dental procedure. Your doctor will tell
you when you should stop taking ELIQUIS and when
you may start taking it again. If you have to stop
taking ELIQUIS, your doctor may prescribe another
medicine to help prevent a blood clot from forming.
ELIQUIS can cause bleeding which can be serious,
and rarely may lead to death. This is because
ELIQUIS is a blood thinner medicine that reduces
You may have a higher risk of bleeding if
you take ELIQUIS and take other medicines
that increase your risk of bleeding, such as
aspirin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
(called NSAIDs), warfarin (COUMADIN®), heparin,
selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
or serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors
(SNRIs), and other medicines to help prevent or treat
Tell your doctor if you take any of these medicines.
Ask your doctor or pharmacist if you are not sure if
your medicine is one listed above.
While taking ELIQUIS:
• you may bruise more easily
• it may take longer than usual for any bleeding
Call your doctor or get medical help right away
if you have any of these signs or symptoms of
bleeding when taking ELIQUIS:
• unexpected bleeding, or bleeding that lasts a long
time, such as:
• unusual bleeding from the gums
• nosebleeds that happen often
• menstrual bleeding or vaginal bleeding that is
heavier than normal
• bleeding that is severe or you cannot control
• red, pink, or brown urine
• red or black stools (looks like tar)
• cough up blood or blood clots
• vomit blood or your vomit looks like coffee
• unexpected pain, swelling, or joint pain
• headaches, feeling dizzy or weak
ELIQUIS (apixaban) is not for patients with
artiﬁcial heart valves.
Spinal or epidural blood clots (hematoma).
People who take a blood thinner medicine
(anticoagulant) like ELIQUIS, and have medicine
injected into their spinal and epidural area, or have
a spinal puncture have a risk of forming a blood clot
that can cause long-term or permanent loss of the
ability to move (paralysis). Your risk of developing a
spinal or epidural blood clot is higher if:
• a thin tube called an epidural catheter is placed in
your back to give you certain medicine
• you take NSAIDs or a medicine to prevent blood
• you have a history of difﬁcult or repeated epidural
or spinal punctures
• you have a history of problems with your spine or
have had surgery on your spine
If you take ELIQUIS and receive spinal anesthesia or
have a spinal puncture, your doctor should watch
you closely for symptoms of spinal or epidural
blood clots or bleeding. Tell your doctor right away
if you have tingling, numbness, or muscle weakness,
especially in your legs and feet.
What is ELIQUIS?
ELIQUIS is a prescription medicine used to:
• reduce the risk of stroke and blood clots in people
who have atrial ﬁbrillation.
• reduce the risk of forming a blood clot in the legs
and lungs of people who have just had hip or knee
IMPORTANT FACTS about ELIQUIS® (apixaban) tablets (Continued)
© 2014 Bristol-Myers Squibb Company
ELIQUIS is a trademark of Bristol-Myers Squibb Company.
Based on 1289808A1 / 1289807A1 / 1298500A1 / 1295958A1
• treat blood clots in the veins of your legs (deep
vein thrombosis) or lungs (pulmonary embolism),
and reduce the risk of them occurring again.
It is not known if ELIQUIS is safe and effective in
Who should not take ELIQUIS (apixaban)?
Do not take ELIQUIS if you:
• currently have certain types of abnormal bleeding
• have had a serious allergic reaction to ELIQUIS.
Ask your doctor if you are not sure
What should I tell my doctor before taking
Before you take ELIQUIS, tell your doctor if you:
• have kidney or liver problems
• have any other medical condition
• have ever had bleeding problems
• are pregnant or plan to become pregnant. It is not
known if ELIQUIS will harm your unborn baby
• are breastfeeding or plan to breastfeed. It is
not known if ELIQUIS passes into your breast milk.
You and your doctor should decide if you will
Tell all of your doctors and dentists that you are
taking ELIQUIS. They should talk to the doctor
who prescribed ELIQUIS for you, before you have
any surgery, medical or dental procedure. Tell
your doctor about all the medicines you take,
including prescription and over-the-counter
medicines, vitamins, and herbal supplements.
Some of your other medicines may affect the way
ELIQUIS works. Certain medicines may increase your
risk of bleeding or stroke when taken with ELIQUIS.
How should I take ELIQUIS?
Take ELIQUIS exactly as prescribed by your
doctor. Take ELIQUIS twice every day with or
without food, and do not change your dose or
stop taking it unless your doctor tells you to. If
you miss a dose of ELIQUIS, take it as soon as you
remember, and do not take more than one dose at
the same time. Do not run out of ELIQUIS. Refill
the hospital following hip or knee replacement,
be sure that you will have ELIQUIS (apixaban)
available to avoid missing any doses. If you are
taking ELIQUIS for atrial fibrillation, stopping
ELIQUIS may increase your risk of having a stroke.
What are the possible side effects of ELIQUIS?
• See “What is the most important information
I should know about ELIQUIS?”
• ELIQUIS can cause a skin rash or severe allergic
reaction. Call your doctor or get medical help right
away if you have any of the following symptoms:
• chest pain or tightness
• swelling of your face or tongue
• trouble breathing or wheezing
• feeling dizzy or faint
Tell your doctor if you have any side effect that
bothers you or that does not go away.
These are not all of the possible side effects of
ELIQUIS. For more information, ask your doctor or
Call your doctor for medical advice about side
effects. You may report side effects to FDA at
This is a brief summary of the most important infor-
mation about ELIQUIS. For more information, talk
with your doctor or pharmacist, call 1-855-ELIQUIS
(1-855-354-7847), or go to www.ELIQUIS.com.
Bristol-Myers Squibb Company
Princeton, New Jersey 08543 USA
Bristol-Myers Squibb Company
Princeton, New Jersey 08543 USA
New York, New York 10017 USA
COUMADIN® is a trademark of Bristol-Myers Squibb Pharma Company.
PHOTO: LAUREN GREENFIELD, INSTITUTE. GRAPHIC: LAWSON PARKER
SOURCE: FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION
over half of
U.S. teens get
If Jack Kerouac were writing today, he might title his book Off the Road. After six
decades of growth in driving, America’s love affair with the automobile has hit a
ditch. More teens and young adults are waiting to get their first driver’s license—
or opting not to get one at all. In 2009 people ages 16 to 34 drove 23 percent
fewer miles than in 2001. Some say they’re too busy to get a license. Others cite
cars’ cost and hassle or the benefits of biking, walking, and taking mass transit.
A 2013 study by the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute
found vehicle registration down 6 percent since 2008, when the recession hit.
But the decline may be about more than economics. Online and mobile technolo-
gies—which fuel telework, e-commerce, and ride sharing—are also factors, says a
study by the U.S. Public Interest Research Group. “In 21st-century America, cars
aren’t freedom machines anymore,” says Cotten Seiler, author of Republic of Driv-
ers. “They’re just a way to get around.” Of course, since younger drivers average
more auto accidents, fewer of them could mean safer roads. —Jeremy Berlin
Peak for 16- to 19-year-olds
with a license
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The Holy Land Revealed
Taught by Professor Jodi Magness
THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA AT CHAPEL HILL
1. The Land of Canaan
2. The Arrival of the Israelites
3. Jerusalem—An Introduction to the City
4. The Jerusalem of David and Solomon
5. Biblical Jerusalem’s Ancient Water Systems
6. Samaria and the Northern Kingdom of Israel
7. Fortiﬁcations and Cult Practices
8. Babylonian Exile and the Persian Restoration
9. Alexander the Great and His Successors
10. The Hellenization of Palestine
11. The Maccabean Revolt
12. The Hasmonean Kingdom
13. Pharisees and Sadducees
14. Discovery and Site of the Dead Sea Scrolls
15. The Sectarian Settlement at Qumran
16. The Dead Sea Scrolls and the Essenes
17. The Life of the Essenes
18. From Roman Annexation to Herod the Great
19. Herod as Builder—Jerusalem’s Temple Mount
20. Caesarea Maritima—Harbor and Showcase City
21. From Herod’s Last Years to Pontius Pilate
22. Galilee—Setting of Jesus’s Life and Ministry
23. Synagogues in the Time of Jesus
24. Sites of the Trial and Final Hours of Jesus
25. Early Jewish Tombs in Jerusalem
26. Monumental Tombs in the Time of Jesus
27. The Burials of Jesus and James
28. The First Jewish Revolt; Jerusalem Destroyed
29. Masada—Herod’s Desert Palace and the Siege
30. Flavius Josephus and the Mass Suicide
31. The Second Jewish Revolt against the Romans
32. Roman Jerusalem—Hadrian’s Aelia Capitolina
33. Christian Emperors and Pilgrimage Sites
34. Judaism and Synagogues under Christian Rule
35. Islam’s Transformation of Jerusalem
36. What and How Archaeology Reveals
The Holy Land Revealed
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PHOTOS: ALEXI HOBBS (TOP); NASA GLENN RESEARCH CENTER
VANGUARD 1, FIRST SOLAR-POWERED SATELLITE
The size of a cantaloupe and weighing about three pounds, Vanguard 1
was the ﬁrst solar-powered satellite and an important U.S. entry in the
space race. Playing catch-up after the Soviet Union’s 1957 launches of
Sputniks 1 and 2, the U.S. sent Vanguard 1 into orbit on March 17, 1958.
Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev
derided the compact satellite as a
“grapefruit.” Yet the much larger
Sputniks fell from orbit and burned up
on reentry in 1958, while Vanguard 1
remains aloft today. It stopped trans-
mitting in 1964, after its last solar cells
gave out. But it still holds the title of
oldest artiﬁcial satellite in space and is
projected to remain in orbit about 240
more years. —Tim Wendel
Love them or hate them,
genetically modified foods are
making their way into grocery
stores. Soybeans and corn
have been for sale in the U.S.
since the 1990s. Now, if the
FDA gives the green light,
the first GM edible animal,
a farmed fish known as
AquAdvantage salmon, could
one day join their ranks.
Developed by Canadian
scientists, the fish (right) is
an Atlantic salmon with two
tweaks to its DNA: a growth
hormone gene from the large
king salmon and genetic
material from the eel-like ocean
pout, to keep that growth
hormone activated. The fish,
which is female and sterile,
should reach maximum size
quickly in the land-based tanks
where it would be raised. To
help feed a hungry planet, the
GM technology could be used
in other species, says spokes-
man Dave Conley: “Many of
its benefits have been down-
played or ignored.”
Still, the company was fined
for environmental violations,
and critics worry the fish could
escape into the wild and create
new problems. The FDA has
yet to approve it for human
consumption. If allowed, says
Ocean Conservancy chief
scientist George H. Leonard,
“it’s imperative it be labeled, so
consumers can vote with their
wallets.” —Catherine Zuckerman
©2014 NGC Network US, LLC and NGC Network International, LLC. NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC CHANNEL and the Yellow Border design are trademarks of National Geographic Society; used with permission.
PHOTOS: EMILY BERL (TOP); ALEXANDER SEMENOV
These captive Magellanic penguin chicks are pioneers: Theirs is the first penguin
species to produce young via artificial insemination. Success took more than a
decade, as researchers acquired detailed knowledge of Magellanics’ reproductive
biology. The near-threatened species was an ideal candidate for artificial insemi-
nation trials, says Justine O’Brien, scientific director of SeaWorld’s reproductive
programs. That’s because the birds are easy to work with, and they’re closely
related to endangered species such as Galápagos and African penguins.
Now that the method has worked with Magellanics, researchers hope it can
one day be employed with endangered penguin species. The ultimate goal, says
O’Brien, is to use it to maintain genetically diverse captive penguin populations
and perhaps even replenish depleted populations in the wild. —Jane J. Lee
a First for
WHO SPLIT FIRST?
The announcement jolted the gelatinous world: The comb jelly lineage
was likely the ﬁrst to split from the common ancestor of all animals.
Scientists long believed that sponges broke off ﬁrst, some 600 million
years ago. Resolving the question could help explain how nervous sys-
tems evolved, says the University of Florida’s Leonid L. Moroz. Comb
jellies (right) have nerve cells; sponges don’t. If comb jellies split ﬁrst,
they may have the oldest neurons of any extant species, says Heather
Marlow of the European Molecular Biology Laboratory. —JJL
A legacy of firsts
In 1865, the American Midwest
was a blank canvas, poised for
transformation. Our founder saw
the potential and began his trade
business there, storing and moving
grain on a revolutionary scale.
It was the first milestone in our rich
history of innovation, and 150 years
later, our firsts have given way to
new markets, new ingredients and
new ways of transporting food.
We’ve pioneered agricultural systems
that yield sustainable crops and
increase farmer incomes. And as we
approach a future with even higher
stakes, we’re behind the innovations
that are shaping a nourished world
that can thrive.
Learn more at cargill.com/150
of helping the
In Kutch, India, im
used by farmers t
Because the Gulf
designed a floatin
With integrated c
from large vessel
When we brought
ideas to life in ou
define new ethica
A renowned expe
a blueprint that p
nsport food across vast lakes and down
ng rivers, the world needed a better boat.
l entered the shipbuilding industry to create
ng the nimble towboat and big barge into
er and more cost-efficient ship.
anged the food industry when we filled
ire train—all 115 cars—with Illinois corn,
ring it more affordable for consumers and
able for farmers. On one of our earliest trips
uisiana, we moved over 400,000 bushels for
e cost—and in record time.
e first grain
e first hybrid
e first to deliver crops
h newfound efficiency
The first t
palm oil c
The first fl
The first t
Our Hindoli palm
Not only is it cited
site for ISPO audi
moving toward an
supply chain for p
l was born into the uncertainty of post-
War America as a single storage site in
W. W. Cargill followed the construction
new railroad, expanding his network to
armers move their grain to market.
mport demand for fertilizer is high,
to withstand the region’s long droughts.
f of Kutch’s waters are quite shallow, we
ng structure stationed miles from land.
cranes, the port unloads vital resources
ls—later transferred to shore by ferry—
usly loading other cargo for export.
t Dr. Temple Grandin’s systematic
r beef processing facilities, we helped
al standards across the industry.
ert in animal science, Grandin drafted
romotes more peaceful and insightful
s, and in effect, safer and more
to achieve sustainable
port in India
plantation was the first to achieve
Sustainable Palm Oil (ISPO) certification.
d as the model of sustainability for the
de, but also, it serves as the benchmark
itor training. Today, Cargill is actively
nother major first: a 100% sustainable
palm oil across the globe.
MIDDLE AGES 1400
Major literary work
by a woman
Murasaki Shikibu, a
writes The Tale of Genji.
Chocolate to Europe
The Aztec introduce
chocolate to Hernán Cortés,
who later takes cacao pods
back to Europe.
Otto von Guericke invents
the air pump, which he
uses to study light and
sound in a vacuum.
Dutch engineer Cornelis
waterproofs the craft
with greased leather.
manufacture of books.
Complete world map
Hemisphere is shown
for the ﬁrst time.
begin using paper
money to avoid having
to carry heavy coins.
A tool is designed t
longitude by measu
the angular distance
between the moon an
a nearby star.
(of comet fame)
receives the patent.
of the moon
Giovanni Cassini draws
lunar landscapes seen
through a telescope.
allegedly creates the
The ﬁrst use of
is recorded in Italy.
iversity of al Qarawiyyin
cco is founded by a
Fatima al Fihri.
EARLIEST IDEAS 500B.C
THERE’S A FIRST TIME for everything. In fact we are so i
by “ﬁrsts” that it’s easy to lose sight of when the milestones t
Some ﬁrsts happened earlier than you might think: The ﬁrst
cesarean in the United States was performed in 1794—by the p
husband. Others occurred in an order that seems unexpected:
was mapped centuries before the ocean ﬂoor.
to control ﬁre.
Early wheels are used
as pottery turntables
and to transport
goods via sledges.
Sheep and goats
are tamed in the
Middle East, then
pigs and cattle.
closely linked to festivals
honoring the god Zeus.
for an immort
The Firsts Issue
1914 19WAR & POSTWAR
INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION1760 1900
A B C
ﬂight takes place in a
hot-air balloon that rises
500 feet above Paris.
On the telephone he
Graham Bell’s ﬁrst
words to his aide are
“Mr. Watson, come
here, I want to
German chemist Felix
aspirin in the lab—and
two weeks later, heroin.
Earle Dickson, a cotton
buyer, invents this for his
kidney from on
Chemist Carl Djerassi
creates the pill by
the antibiotic in a
Chicago’s steel-frame Home
Insurance Building is built,
ten stories high.
Taken in France, the ﬁrst
photo is titled “View From
the Window at Le Gras.”
The ﬁrst stamp features
Queen Victoria’s proﬁle
and cost just a penny.
Abbé Charles Michel de l’Épée
invents the ﬁrst widely used sign
language for the deaf.
Elizabeth Bennett and
her baby girl are ﬁne after
Bennett’s husband, a phy-
sician, performs nation’s
ﬁrst successful C-section.
Benjamin Franklin and
his son invent a way to
protect buildings from
SPACE AGE1957 1980
George Klein invents a
motorized chair to assist
Human in space
Gagarin orbits Earth
for 108 minutes.
Satellite in space
The Soviet Union launches
the beach-ball-size Sputnik 1,
the ﬁrst artiﬁcial satellite
to orbit Earth.
Map of the seaﬂoor
grantees create the
Data are sent
setting the stage
for the Internet’s
Dolly the sheep is
cloned from a
mammary cell and
named for Dolly Parton.
The spacecraft is
the ﬁrst human-
made object to
IBM’s Simon is the
ﬁrst cellular phone to
have “personal digital
such as email.
The Jarvik-7 is successfully
implanted in a human, who
lives another 112 days.
Man on the moon
American Neil Armstrong’s
words as he becomes the ﬁrst
person to walk on the moon:
“That’s one small step for a man,
one giant leap for mankind.”
KELSEY NOWAKOWSKI, NGM STAFF. GRAPHIC: ÁLVARO VALIÑO
JEROME N. COOKSON, NGM STAFF. SOURCE: RON BLAKEY, COLORADO PLATEAU GEOSYSTEMS
Hot off the presses in 1915, Alfred Wegener’s book The Origin of Continents
and Oceans sent tremors through the foundations of earth science. The
German meteorologist was the first to weave together multidisciplinary
evidence to support a then controversial theory of continental drift.
While perusing a world atlas in 1910, Wegener pondered whether the
shapes of the continents corresponded by mere coincidence. He later
pieced them into a single “primordial continent” he called Pangaea,
Greek for “all Earth.” Wegener theorized that this massive landform had
existed until roughly 250 million to 200 million years ago, when today’s
continents began to creep apart.
For biologists, this explained the related plant and animal species on
lands divided by oceans. For paleontologists, the theory fit with mesosaur
fossils found in both South Africa and Brazil. To geologists, Wegener pointed
out similar land formations on separate continents and suggested, among
other things, that South Africa’s Cape Fold Belt range once joined up with
Argentina’s Sierra de la Ventana.
Wegener’s work was rejected by leading geologists who had a stake in
long-standing, competing theories of Earth’s evolution. Critics complained
that he had failed to explain the exact mechanism that would have driven
the drifting motion. Wegener agreed with that point, writing in 1929 that “the
Newton of drift theory has not yet appeared.” The next year Wegener died,
at age 50. It would take 30 more years—and geophysicists’ conclusion
that plate tectonics results in continental drift—for Wegener’s theory to be
vindicated. —Karen de Seve
Present-day country boundaries and shorelines are superimposed on the Pangaea of 250 million
years ago. Some areas of the modern world aren’t seen; their continental crust formed later.
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A genteel disquisition on love and lust in the animal kingdom
PHOTO: PIOTR NASKRECKI
For humans, sexual initiation can be a big deal—obsessed about, ro-
manticized. The loss of virginity, it’s said, leaves one forever changed.
“Tell me about it,” says the male hump-winged grig. The ﬁrst fe-
male he mates with takes not just his innocence but bites of his body.
Grigs are cricket-like insects whose annual mating season involves
what behavioral ecologist Scott Sakaluk calls “an unusual form of
sexual cannibalism.” To entice a female grig, a male makes a call by
rubbing his forewings together, an act called stridulation. The male
then seals the deal by letting the female munch on his hind wings
during sex and lap up the hemolymph, the bug version of blood. “One
night he’s a virgin. The next night he’s been chewed on,” Sakaluk says.
Why do some males get several of these grisly trysts (which are
seldom, if ever, fatal) but others get none? The call is key. When
Sakaluk’s colleague Geoff Ower compared the insects’ calls, he found
“fundamental differences” between the sound made by grigs that had
mating success and those that did not.
Being a sex snack can sap the strength a male grig needs for
stridulation, Sakaluk says. By the end of mating season, “there’s only
a few left calling. Those are the males that have gotten superlucky—
and they are chewed right down to the nub.” —Patricia Edmonds
Forests of northwestern U.S.
and southwestern Canada
In the insect order that grigs
share with grasshoppers
and katydids, there are three
North American grig species.
The mating of
form of sexual
The First Time
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COPYRIGHT © 2014 NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY EDWARD MICHALSKI, NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC YOUR SHOT
national geographic • January
Waking up on a tree
branch near Guayacán
de Siquirres, a red-
eyed tree frog peers
through a gold-striped,
The scarlet eyes on
this toxic, three-inch-
long amphibian might
be an example of
defense strategy some
animals use to ward
PHOTO: INGO ARNDT
Fatme Inus wears face
paint, tinsel, and many-
hued sequins on her
wedding day in Ribnovo.
The colorful tradition,
which symbolizes sta-
tus change, is called
gelina. It’s practiced
Muslims—also known as
ding celebrations span
two days and involve
hundreds of villagers.
PHOTO: SEAN GALLUP,
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Seen from a flowering
hillside, the Honghe
Hani Rice Terraces are
a mosaic of color: green
shrubs, red duckweed,
and blue sky reflected in
the irrigated fields. The
Hani people have farmed
these 41,000 acres—
now a World Heritage
site—on the slopes of
the Ailao Mountains for
Settlements have been reached with
Building Materials Corporation of America
(known as GAF Materials Corp.) (“GAF”)
(“Shingles”). The lawsuits claim a defect
that might cause the rooﬁng Shingles to
prematurely crack, split or tear. GAF
claims that the Shingles were not defective
and that GAF’s warranty appropriately
covers any problems.
The Settlements include two Classes
covering Shingles made: (1) between
1999 and 2007 at GAF’s plant in Mobile,
Alabama and (2) between 1998 and 2009 at
other GAF manufacturing plants.
Am I included?
You may be included if you own any
property in the United States with
Shingles made during the
relevant time periods.
What do the Settlements provide?
The beneﬁts you may be eligible to receive
are based on: (1) the location of your
property, (2) where your Shingles were
made, (3) the date your Shingles were
installed and the date on which you make
a claim, (4) the type and extent of damage
to your Shingles, and (5) the size of your
You may be eligible to receive: (1)
replacement shingles (comparable to
the Shingles installed) and/or (2) a cash
payment. The Settlements will not reduce
the beneﬁts you may be entitled to under
any existing GAF warranty.
If You Own Property With GAF Timberline®
Rooﬁng Shingles Made Between 1998 and 2009,
You Could Receive Beneﬁts from Class Action Settlements
For more information: 1-866-759-6518 www.RoofSettlement.com
The attorneys representing the Classes are
asking the Court for attorneys’ fees (up to
$6,890,000 in total) and costs and expenses
(up to $1,115,000 in total). Counsel will also
request an incentive payment for the Class
Representatives. The payment of costs and
expenses, and the incentive awards, will be
paid by GAF and will not reduce the beneﬁts
under the Settlements.
The attorneys representing the Class
covering Shingles made in Mobile are
also asking for a portion of the additional
beneﬁts going to Class Members with
property outside South Carolina. These fees
will not be paid by GAF and would in these
instances reduce the beneﬁts to some Class
How can I make a claim?
In order to get beneﬁts, you need to ﬁle a
claim. You can ﬁnd out how to ﬁle a claim
by visiting www.RoofSettlement.com or
calling 1-866-759-6518. You can ﬁle a
claim over the next seven years after the
effective date of the Settlements.
What are my rights?
If you do nothing, you will be bound by the
Settlements and the Court’s decisions. If
you want to keep your right to sue GAF, you
must exclude yourself from the Classes by
March 16, 2015. If you stay in the Classes,
you may object to the Settlements by March
16, 2015. The Court will hold a hearing
on April 22, 2015 to consider whether to
approve the Settlements. You or your own
lawyer may appear at the hearing at your
own expense, but you do not have to attend.
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IF YOU PURCHASED A WELLESSE JOINT MOVEMENT GLUCOSAMINE
PRODUCT YOU MAY BE ENTITLED TO RECEIVE UP TO $15.00 TO $18.00
FOR EACH PRODUCT YOU PURCHASED, NOT TO EXCEEED $100.00.
The United States District Court for the Southern District of California authorized this notice. This is not a solicitation from a lawyer.
Para una notiﬁcation en Espanol, visite nuestro sitio web, www.WELLESSEJMGSETTLEMENT.com
WHAT IS THIS SETTLEMENT ABOUT? Plaintiff claims that
Defendants, Botanical Laboratories, Inc., Schwabe North America,
Inc., and Botanical Laboratories, LLC’s (“Defendants”), Wellesse
Joint Movement Glucosamine did not provide certain health
beneﬁts as advertised, including joint health beneﬁts, mobility,
ﬂexibility, and lubrication. Defendants strongly deny the allegations
made in the lawsuit. The Court has not decided who is right and
who is wrong. Instead, the parties decided to settle the dispute.
WHAT DOES THE SETTLEMENT PROVIDE? Each Settlement
Class Member who submits a valid claim form may be entitled to
receive cash payment of up to $15.00 to $18.00 for each bottle of
Wellesse Joint Movement Glucosamine purchased prior to October
8, 2014, not to exceed one hundred dollars ($100) in total recovery.
Defendants will make payments of $3.1 million into a Settlement
Fund to reimburse Settlement Class Members for the Wellesse
Joint Movement Glucosamine they purchased, to pay for costs and
expenses of settlement administration not to exceed $580,000.00,
an award of attorneys’ fees not to exceed $930,000.00, and a service
award to the Class Representatives, not to exceed $3,500.00. In
the event that the dollar amount of approved claims submitted by
Settlement Class Members exceeds the amount remaining in the
Settlement Fund after payment of costs and expenses of settlement
administration, the Court’s award of attorneys’ fees, and a service
award to the Class Representatives, payments on approved Claims
to Settlement Class Members shall be reduced pro rata. In the event
that the dollar amount of approved claims submitted by Settlement
Class Members does not meet or exceed the amount remaining
in the Settlement Fund after payment of costs and expenses of
settlement administration, the Court’s award of attorneys’ fees, and
a service award to the Class Representatives as well as the tallied
amount of all Authorized Claims, the Settlement Administrator
shall divide the remaining cash amount equally by the number of
Authorized Claimants and shall pay each such Authorized Claimant
his or her share of the remaining cash amount.
AM I A CLASS MEMBER? You’re a Class Member if you
purchased a Wellesse Joint Movement Glucosamine product
anywhere in the nation at any time prior to October 8, 2014.
WHAT ARE MY LEGAL OPTIONS? To ask for cash and remain in
the Class, you must mail, fax, or submit online a completed claim
form by February 19, 2015. If you do not wish to participate in the
settlement, you may exclude yourself from the Class by February
19, 2015, or you may stay in the Class and object to the settlement
by February 19, 2015. Visit www.WELLESSEJMGSETTLEMENT.
com for important information about these options.
HEARING ON THE PROPOSED SETTLEMENT: The Court will
hold a Final Approval Hearing on March 19, 2015 at 11:00 a.m.,
to determine whether the proposed settlement is fair, reasonable,
and adequate, to approve attorneys’ fees and expenses, and any
service award for the Class Representatives. The Final Approval
Hearing will take place at U.S. District Court, Southern District of
California, 940 Front Street, San Diego, CA 92101. You do not
have to attend the hearing.
HOW CAN I GET MORE INFORMATION? For more information
or to view all relevant documents in the litigation, or if you have
questions, visit www.WELLESSEJMGSETTLEMENT.com, or call
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Daily Dozen Editors pick 12 photos from those submitted online each
day. Here are our favorites this month.
Comanescu was in the Danube Delta
and met an 86-year-old fisherman
named Artiom. The man sat on his
lejanca, a traditional bed that’s an
extension of the oven. Comanescu
framed the fisherman in a mirror
surrounded by family photos.
In a park in his hometown Dey
liked to watch kids play in the water
fountains. One summer day right
before sunset, he went inside the
fountain and pointed his camera
toward the sun, then waited for one
of the children to jump.
“I love the visceral, youthful, and joyful feeling Ujjal captured
[below]. The way he waited for a speciﬁc gesture adds emotional
punch to what might have been an ordinary moment.”
—Jessie Wender, National Geographic senior photo editor
national geographic • January
Scientists scrape samples for dating from the polychrome
ceiling in Spain’s Altamira Cave, festooned with animals
painted 19,000 to 15,000 years ago. Abstract symbols on the
ceiling can be traced back at least another 20,000 years.
ALTAMIRA MUSEUM, MINISTRY OF EDUCATION, CULTURE, AND SPORT
innovation in the
history of humankind
was neither the stone
tool nor the steel
sword, but the
invention of symbolic
expression by the
35,000 Uncovered in 2008, the Venus ﬁgurine from Hohle
Fels Cave in Germany is the oldest undisputed image
of a human being. The loop above her torso suggests
the carving was meant to be worn as a pendant. ACTUAL SIZE
25,000 Delicately carved from mammoth tusk, the Lady of
Brassempouy was discovered in southwest France in
1894. Whether a “lady” or a youth, it is among the
oldest representations of a human face.
HILDE JENSEN, TÜBINGEN UNIVERSITY, GERMANY (LEFT); SISSE BRIMBERG, NATIONAL
GEOGRAPHIC CREATIVE, AT MUSÉE DES ANTIQUITÉS NATIONALES, FRANCE
100,000 Perched near Africa’s southern tip, Blombos Cave has
yielded some of the earliest evidence of symbolic
expression, including shell beads, engraved ocher,
and ocher-processing kits that are 100,000 years old.
national geographic • january
looking at now, in the deepest part of the cave.
Hidden by a rock slide for 22,000 years, the
cave came to light in December 1994, when
three spelunkers named Eliette Brunel, Chris-
tian Hillaire, and Jean-Marie Chauvet scrambled
through a narrow crevice in a cliff and dropped
into the dark entry. Since then, what is now
known as the Cave of Chauvet-Pont-d’Arc has
been ferociously protected by the French Min-
istry of Culture. We are among the rare few who
have been allowed to make the same journey the
ancient artists did. The age of these drawings
makes youngsters of Egypt’s storied pyramids,
yet every charcoal stroke, every splash of ocher
looks as fresh as yesterday. Their beauty whip-
saws your sense of time. One moment you are
anchored in the present, observing coolly. The
next you are seeing the paintings as if all other
art—all civilization—has yet to exist.
How did such human accomplishment come
to be, so long ago, seemingly out of nowhere?
Until recently it was thought that the drawings
found on the walls of well-known Upper Paleo-
lithic caves in southern Europe like Altamira,
Lascaux, and Chauvet were the expression of a
superior kind of human—us—who had arrived
on the continent, driving out the brutish, artless
Neanderthals who had been living and evolving
there for hundreds of thousands of years.
It turns out that the story is a good deal more
complicated, and more interesting. It begins, as
stories often do, in Africa.
By Chip Walter
Photographs by Stephen Alvarez
enough to touch my shoulders. Then the flanks
of the limestone open up, and we enter the belly
of an expansive chamber.
This is where the cave lions are.
And the woolly rhinos, mammoths, and bison,
a menagerie of ancient creatures, stampeding,
battling, stalking in total silence. Outside the
cave, where the real world is, they are all gone
now. But this is not the real world. Here they
remain alive on the shadowed and creviced walls.
Around 36,000 years ago, someone living in
a time incomprehensibly different from ours
walked from the original mouth of this cave to
the chamber where we stand and, by flickering
firelight, began to draw on its bare walls: profiles
of cave lions, herds of rhinos and mammoths,
a magnificent bison off to the right, and a chi-
meric creature—part bison, part woman—con-
jured from an enormous cone of overhanging
rock. Other chambers harbor horses, ibex, and
aurochs; an owl shaped out of mud by a single
finger on a rock wall; an immense bison formed
from ocher-soaked handprints; and cave bears
walking casually, as if in search of a spot for a
long winter’s nap. The works are often drawn
with nothing more than a single and perfect
In all, the artists depicted 442 animals over
perhaps thousands of years, using nearly 400,000
square feet of cave surface as their canvas. Some
animals are solitary, even hidden, but most
congregate in great mosaics like the one I am
blacknessbelow.Theceilingcloses in, and in
some places the heavy cave wallscrowdclose
Christopher Henshilwood unwinds his six-
foot-five frame, dusts his hands, and gazes out
over the Indian Ocean. He stands at the very tip
of Africa, and except for the immense, sea-bat-
tered rocks 80 feet below, nothing lies between
his boots and Antarctica but 1,500 miles of roll-
ing, white-capped sea.
“Not a bad day,” he says, in a baritone you
might call godlike, if God had a South African
True, it has not been a bad day. Henshilwood,
of the University of the Witwatersrand, South Af-
rica, and the University of Bergen, Norway, and
his colleagues have been excavating all morning
here at a site known as Klipdrift Shelter, add-
ing some stone tools and other new finds to the
mounting evidence that modern human beings
have inhabited these hills and shallow caves off
and on for more than 165,000 years. Yet Hen-
shilwood has had better days. Some of his most
memorable discoveries have come from Blom-
bos Cave, 28 miles east of Klipdrift, near an area
where he used to play as a kid. One day in 2000
his team dug out a small block of engraved red
ocher a bit smaller than a flip phone. Ocher is
common in this part of Africa and has been used
for millennia for everything from body paint to
a food preservative. This piece, though, was dif-
ferent: Roughly 75,000 years in the past, some
clever person had carefully etched on it a pattern
of overlapping, parallel, triangular markings.
No one knows the meaning of those marks,
which have since been found on 13 other pieces
of ocher. A signature? Calculations? A primeval
grocery list? Whatever their elusive purpose, they
were 35,000 years older than any other undis-
puted evidence of symbolic behavior known at
Controversy dogged the discovery at first.
Some scientists attacked the little rock as a
one-off, nothing but random scratchings or
idiosyncratic doodling. “They said it was
National Geographic grantee Christopher Henshilwood and his team dig for clues to the
origins of modern human behavior at Klipdrift Shelter, which, like Blombos Cave, has yielded
early art. Modern humans roamed the region as far back as 165,000 years ago.
Chip Walter’s most recent book is Last Ape Standing.
Stephen Alvarez photographed Paris’s underground
in the February 2011 issue of National Geographic.
national geographic • january
meaningless,” says Henshilwood. “They said
everything negative you could possibly think.”
In time, however, others regarded it as a
Soon more examples of symbol and orna-
ment were uncovered. Henshilwood’s team
discovered the shells of little sea snails called
Nassarius that were some 75,000 years old and
perforated, with evidence they had been strung
together. Other finds were even older. Nassarius
beads have been dated to 82,000 years ago at a
site called Grotte des Pigeons (Pigeon Cave) in
Taforalt, Morocco. At the opposite end of the
Mediterranean, similar beads from two Israeli
caves, Qafzeh and Skhul, were dated to 92,000
and at least 100,000 years ago. Back in South
Africa, a 2010 team led by the University of
Bordeaux’s Pierre-Jean Texier reported finding
60,000-year-old engraved ostrich eggshells in
Diepkloof Rock Shelter north of Cape Town.
Meanwhile, Blombos itself kept yielding trea-
sures: finely carved and decorated bone tools,
and evidence that as long as 100,000 years ago
the cave’s inhabitants had methodically ground
ocher into fine powder and mixed it with other
ingredients to make a paste. Stored in abalone
shells—the earliest known containers—it could
have been used as a decorative paint for bodies,
faces, tools, or clothing. In 2009 Henshilwood
reported finding more ocher and rocks marked
with deliberate cross-hatchings, also dating as
far back as 100,000 years.
Compared with the jaw-dropping beauty of the
art created in Chauvet Cave 65,000 years later, ar-
tifacts like these seem rudimentary. But creating
a simple shape that stands for something else—a
symbol, made by one mind, that can be shared
with others—is obvious only after the fact. Even
more than the cave art, these first concrete expres-
sions of consciousness represent a leap from our
animal past toward what we are today—a species
awash in symbols, from the signs that guide your
Society Grant The research on early art in South
Africa and cave art in Spain was funded in part by
your National Geographic Society membership.
progress down the highway to the wedding ring
on your finger and the icons on your iPhone.
There’s something else telling about these
early African and Middle Eastern eruptions of
symbolism: They come, and then they go. The
beads, the paint, the etchings on ocher and os-
trich egg—in each case, the artifacts show up
in the archaeological record, persist in a limited
area for a few thousand years, and then vanish.
The same applies to technological innovations.
Bone harpoon points, found nowhere else be-
fore 45,000 years ago, have been uncovered in
the Democratic Republic of the Congo in sedi-
ments nearly twice that old. In South Africa two
relatively complex stone and bone tool traditions
appear—the Still Bay 75,000 years ago and the
Howieson’s Poort 65,000 years ago. But the lat-
ter lasted just 6,000 years, the former 4,000. No-
where has a tradition been found to spread across
space and through time, gathering richness and
diversity, until just before 40,000 years ago, when
art began to appear more commonly across Af-
rica, Eurasia, and Australasia. As far east as the
Indonesian island of Sulawesi (Celebes), sten-
ciled handprints—once thought of as an inven-
tion of the European Upper Paleolithic—were
recently shown to be almost 40,000 years old.
It seems unlikely, therefore, that some genetic
“switch” flipped in our African ancestors to pro-
duce the capacity for a new, higher-order level
of cognition that, once it evolved, produced a
lasting change in human behavior.
So how do we explain these apparently spo-
radic flare-ups of creativity? One hypothesis is
that the cause was not a new kind of person but
a greater density of people, with spikes in popu-
lation sparking contact between groups, which
accelerated the spread of innovative ideas from
one mind to another, creating a kind of collective
brain. Symbols would have helped cement this
collective brain together. When populations again
fell below critical mass, groups became isolated,
leaving new ideas nowhere to go. What innova-
tions had been established withered and died.
Such theories are difficult to prove—the past
holds its secrets close. But genetic analyses
A block of red ocher (above) found in Blombos Cave in 2000 bears a pattern
of cross-hatchings and parallel lines etched by a human hand 75,000 years
ago. At left, Henshilwood holds a red ocher crayon found in nearby Klipdrift
Shelter in 2013. “This is where it all began,” says Henshilwood.
REP. OF THE
Diepkloof Blombos and
A young Himba woman applies ocher to another’s
hair on a riverbank in northwestern Namibia. Prized
for its warm red hue, ocher is widely used as body
ornamentation today, as it was by ancient humans.
national geographic • january
of modern populations do point to a surge in
population in Africa 100,000 years ago. A 2009
study conducted by Adam Powell, Stephen
Shennan, and Mark G. Thomas of University
College London also provides some statisti-
cal support for the power of larger populations
to generate innovation. And research by Jo-
seph Henrich, now at the University of British
Columbia, suggests that as populations shrink,
they have an increasingly difficult time holding
on to the innovations they invented in the first
place. The inhabitants of the island of Tasma-
nia had been making bone tools, cold-weather
clothing, and fishing equipment for 15,000 years
before these advances disappear from the archae-
ological record some 3,000 years ago. Henrich
argues that when sea levels rose 12,000 to 10,000
years ago and isolated Tasmania from the rest of
the world, the indigenous population of perhaps
4,000 individuals was simply not large enough to
keep the cultural traditions alive.
Why Africa’s archaeological record grows dim
for 150 centuries is by no means clear. Perhaps
pestilence, natural catastrophe, or a sharp swing
in climate caused populations to collapse. Yet
Francesco d’Errico, an archaeologist at the Uni-
versity of Bordeaux, points out that although
harsh conditions might spell doom for some
cultures, others might be spurred on by them.
There is no set formula.
“Each region of the globe produced cultures
with a number of different trajectories,” says
d’Errico. “You could have situations where some
short-term chaotic disaster might wipe out a cul-
ture in one area, but in another, people were able
to take advantage of the challenge.” He likens it
to a recipe. “Even if the ingredients are the same,
you don’t necessarily get the same outcome.”
“Let me show you something.” Nicholas Co-
nard glances over his shoulder, then carefully
spins the dial on an enormous safe in his office,
housed in a 16th-century German castle at Tübin-
gen University. From the safe he extracts four
small pine boxes and sets them gingerly on the
table in front of me. Within each sits a tiny carv-
ing: a horse, a mammoth, a bison, and a lion. All
are from a German cave called Vogelherd. They
display a grace and beauty and playfulness that
would make any artist today proud. Yet they are
40,000 years old—predating the painted master-
pieces of Chauvet by 5,000 years.
“Jaw-dropping,” says Conard, the university’s
scientific director of prehistory. “Every piece is
different. But when you look at them, it’s obvious
they form a coherent whole.”
The humans who made these objects were
part of a population that left the African home-
land some 60,000 years ago, taking a route
through the Middle East and what is now
HOW DID SUCH HUMAN
COME TO BE, SO LONG AGO,
Turkey, along the western fringe of the Black
Sea, and up the Danube River Valley. As far as
we know, nowhere along that journey did they
leave signs of an artistic inclination, not even a
piece of marked ocher. But once settled some
43,000 years ago in the Lone and Ach River Val-
leys of southern Germany, they suddenly began
to create—not crude etchings but fully realistic
animal figurines carved out of mammoth tusk.
The sources of most of these objects are four
caves: Hohle Fels and Geissenklösterle in the Ach
Valley, and Hohlenstein-Stadel and Vogelherd in
the Lone. Not much more than indentations in
the rock face, the caves could easily be missed
today by someone driving the backcountry
roads that wind through Germany’s southwest-
ern mountains. Lush and green today, the Ach
and Lone Valleys 40,000 years ago, at the be-
ginning of a period known as the Aurignacian,
were frigid steppe landscapes, dotted with herds
of horses, reindeer, and mammoths. In spite of
the harsh conditions, the richness of the archae-
ological sites indicates that population sizes in the
Aurignacian were growing. The increases could
help explain an apparent flare-up of creativity,
not unlike those seen earlier in Africa. Maybe
the difficulties these European settlers faced, says
Conard, led them to share customs that spread
from one group, and generation, to the next. In
hard times prized carvings and tools could have
smoothed the way toward intertribal marriages,
trade, and alliances and helped spread new
techniques for hunting, building shelters, and
In Hohle Fels, Conard’s team recently uncov-
ered some objects whose messages are so sexual-
ly explicit they might require a parental warning.
One is a carving of a woman with exaggerated
breasts and genitalia, found in 2008 (page 34). At
least 35,000 years old, the Venus of Hohle Fels
is the most ancient figure yet discovered that is
indisputably human. (Two much earlier figurines
from Morocco and what is now Israel may be
natural rocks that vaguely resemble the human
form.) Earlier the team had found a polished rod
of siltstone, about eight inches long and an inch
in diameter, with a ring etched at one end—likely
a phallic symbol. A few feet away from the Venus
figurine, Conard’s team uncovered a flute carved
from a hollow griffon vulture bone, and in Geis-
senklösterle Cave found three other flutes, one
made of ivory and two fashioned from a swan’s
wing bone. They are the oldest known musical
instruments in the world. We don’t know wheth-
er these people had drugs. But they clearly had
the sex and rock and roll.
Of all the findings to emerge from this period
in Germany, none is more fascinating than the
Löwenmensch (Lionman) of Hohlenstein-Stadel
Cave, a fantastical sculpture nearly 40,000 years
old. The original Löwenmensch fragments—
some 200 of them—were discovered in 1939,
on the eve of World War II, by Robert Wetzel,
a professor of anatomy at Tübingen University,
and a geologist named Otto Völzing. Wetzel had
hoped to work on the pieces of mammoth tusk
when the war ended, but they sat untouched
in a box for 30 years. Then, in 1969, archae-
ologist Joachim Hahn
0 mi 400
0 km 400
E U R O P E
A F R I C A
A S I A
and Hohle Fels
While Europe is home to famous examples of Paleolithic art such as the paintings at Chauvet,
Lascaux, and Altamira, evidence of modern behavior is far older in Africa and the Middle East.
(Continued on page 56)
36,000 Discovered in 1994, the Horse Panel and the other stunning
creations in the Cave of Chauvet-Pont-d’Arc provide “an
extraordinary testimony to man’s ﬁrst steps in the adventure
of art,” says France’s Minister of Culture Fleur Pellerin.
40,000 Part human, part lion, the foot-tall ﬁgurine from Germany’s
Hohlenstein-Stadel Cave was pieced together from some
200 fragments found in 1939. Recent excavations have
added new pieces to the chimeric creation.
YVONNE MÜHLEIS, STATE OFFICE FOR CULTURAL HERITAGE IN RP STUTTGART
36,000 Later Paleolithic artists mostly depicted herbivores, but
the Chauvet painters often featured ﬁerce predators, like
these in the famous Great Panel. In June 2014 UNESCO
voted to designate Chauvet Cave as a World Heritage site.
PANORAMA COMPOSED OF EIGHT IMAGES
MIDDLE PALEOLITHIC/MIDDLE STONE AGE
When did art begin? Some scientists regard strikingly sy
axes produced at least a half million years ago as expre
function. But objects created purely for their symbolic o
much younger, appearing ﬁrst in Africa and the Middle E
ENGRAVEVED OSTRICH E
LEANG TIMPUSENG C
HANDPRINT (AT LEFT): STEPHEN ALVAREZ; DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION, CULTURE, AND SPORT
MEIDAD SUCHOWOLSKI, ISRAEL MUSEUM. HILDE JENSEN, TÜBINGEN UNIVERSITY, GERMANY. M
WITWATERSRAND, SOUTH AFRICA, AND UNIVERSITY OF BERGEN, NORWAY; GRETHE MOELL PE
STEPHEN ALVAREZ, AT IZIKO MUSEUMS OF SOUTH AFRICA. STEPHEN ALVAREZ. MARIAN VANHA
ABALONE SHELL CONTAINER
BLOMBOS CAVE, SOUTH AFRICA
Pigments turn up at archaeological
sites as old as 300,000 years, but
their use is unknown. Processing
kits discovered in South Africa in
2008, including pigments, shell
containers, and tools, were likely
used to produce colorful paints for
body decoration or skin protection.
Sea snail shell beads, with carefully
drilled holes, may have been strung
on clothes or necklaces. A delicate,
engraved eggshell (right) required
practiced artistry. Found from Israel
to South Africa, such ornaments
constitute the ﬁrst clear evidence
BLOMBOS CAVE, SOUTH AFRICA
VENUS OF BEREKHAT RAM
265,000 YEARS AGO
Objects like the volcanic rock
from Israel (left) and a similar
one from Morocco dated to
between 500,000 and 300,000
years ago, may be the earliest
depictions of the human form—
or merely natural objects with
The ﬁrst anatomically modern people evolved in Africa
some 200,000 years ago, but undisputed evidence of modern
human behavior—body ornaments, symbols scratched on
ocher, more complex tools—does not begin to
appear for another 100,000 years. Stenciled handprints, such
as the one above from El Castillo Cave in Spain, at least
37,000 years old, send a timeless message: Like you,
I am human. I am alive. I was here.
LION HEAD (IVORY)LION HEAD (IVORY)
35,000 BISON (IVORY)
UPPER PALEOLITHIC/LATE STONE AGE
Beginning some 43,000 years ago, abstract and realistic art becomes more
widespread in Africa and Eurasia, appearing as far east as Indonesia by 40,000
years ago. Early Spanish cave art could be the work of Neanderthals. But by th
time of the great paintings of Chauvet Cave, only modern humans remained.
Early writing, as
on this cuneiform
does not appear
until well after the
ON CLAY TABLET, IRAQ
ANIMAL ON PAINTED TABLET
APOLLO 11 CAVE, NAMIBIA
RED COW AND HORSE
LASCAUX CAVE, FRANCE
LIONS FROM GREAT PANEL
CAVE OF CHAUVET-PONT-D’ARC, FRANCE
BEADS (IVORY) DOLNÍ
VĔSTONICE, CZECH REPUBLIC
UP TO 0.7 IN
GRIFFON VULTURE BONE FLUTE
HOHLE FELS CAVE, GERMANY
8.6 IN (BELOW)
FLYING BIRD PENDANT (IVORY)
TOP ROW (FROM LEFT): H. ZWIETASCH, WÜRTTEMBERG STATE MUSEUM, STUTTGART, GERMANY. MORAVIAN MUSEUM/ANTHROPOS INSTITUTE, CZECH REPUBLIC (2). H. AMIRKHANOV,
S. LEV, ZARAYSK KREMLIN MUSEUM, RUSSIA. MIDDLE ROW: STEPHEN ALVAREZ. R. F. RIFKIN, UNIVERSITY OF BERGEN, NORWAY. SISSE BRIMBERG, NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC CREATIVE.
BOTTOM ROW: HILDE JENSEN, TÜBINGEN UNIVERSITY, GERMANY (FLUTE). MORAVIAN MUSEUM/ANTHROPOS INSTITUTE (BEADS). KIRIL SHAPOVALOV © STATE HERMITAGE MUSEUM,
ST. PETERSBURG (PENDANT). METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART/ART RESOURCE, NY (TABLET)
ymmetrical stone hand
essions of style as well as
or ornamental value are
FOX TOOTH ORNAMENT
GROTTE DU RENNE,
too. A foxstyle to
erhaps to hangper
rom a necklace, isfro
one of manyo
deposits in a cave
that also yielded
are a common
feature of Upper
Paleolithic art in
caves in Europe.
known example is
from a cave on
island of Sulawesi
T OF THE GOVERNMENT OF CANTABRIA, SPAIN. TOP ROW (FROM LEFT):
MIDDLE ROW: CHRISTOPHER HENSHILWOOD, UNIVERSITY OF THE
EDERSEN. MAXIME AUBERT, GRIFFITH UNIVERSITY, AUSTRALIA. BOTTOM ROW:
VOGELHERD CAVE, GERMANY
national geographic • january
pulled them out and began to piece them
together like a three-dimensional puzzle.
As he did, an extraordinary work of art
emerged. At nearly a foot high, the Löwen-
mensch dwarfs all other carvings so far discov-
ered in the German valleys. But what makes
it particularly interesting, says Claus-Joachim
Kind, an archaeologist at the State Office for
Cultural Heritage in Baden-Württemberg, is that
it depicts for the first time a creature that was
completely imaginary, part man and part lion.
Its creation required not only an unusually in-
ventive mind, but also impressive technical skills
and an enormous amount of time—an estimated
400 hours. “This is not something you do in the
evening after work,” says Kind.
You can feel the power of the figure when you
look at it, the seamless melding of a stately hu-
man and a ferocious animal. Does the sculpture
reflect a wish to bestow a lion’s power on a hu-
man? Or could it represent a shaman’s special
ability to straddle the spiritual worlds of human
and animal? Hohlenstein-Stadel is the only cave
in the region where archaeologists have found
no everyday tools, bones, or rubbish. It is deep-
er than the other caves too. It’s not difficult to
imagine that within its chambers early hunters
venerated the Lionman and that Hohlenstein-
Stadel Cave was an early locus of prehistoric
religion. This was “a holy place,” says Kind.
Conard thinks these people possessed
minds as fully modern as ours and, like us,
sought in ritual and myth answers to life’s
mysteries, especially in the face of an uncertain
world. Who governs the migration of the herds,
grows the trees, shapes the moon, turns on the
stars? Why must we die, and where do we go af-
terward? “They wanted answers,” he says, “but
they didn’t have any science-based explanations
for the world around them.”
Soon after modern humans arrived in Europe,
the continent’s long-term residents began to die
out. The Neanderthals had emerged in Eurasia
some 200,000 years earlier. Very little evidence
remains that they engaged in symbolic behav-
ior. But the traditional view of Neanderthals as
brutish beings incapable of such behavior has
been slowly chipped away. Having never reached
the population densities that may have triggered
the appearance of symbolism in Africa, Nean-
derthals may never have had much need for it,
or revealed it in ways we don’t yet understand.
For decades the debate over the Neanderthals’
ability to rise to the standards of their successors
centered on a site in France called Grotte du
Renne, where artifacts normally associated with
Upper Paleolithic modern humans—bone tools,
IT IS ALMOST AS IF
SOME ANIMALS WERE
ALREADY IN THE ROCK,
WAITING TO BE
REVEALED BY THE
distinctive stone blades, and pierced and grooved
animal teeth probably worn as pendants—were
found along with Neanderthal remains. Some
researchers reasoned that although the Nean-
derthals may have been responsible for this tool
tradition (known as the Châtelperronian), they
were still a species capable only of emulating the
fancy craftsmanship of their new modern human
neighbors, not inventing it on their own.
The more we learn about Neanderthals, includ-
ing their ability to interbreed with our direct an-
cestors, the more the “copycat” explanation for
the Châtelperronian sounds like special pleading.
The record for Neanderthal symbolic behavior
elsewhere may be faint, but it is discernible. Some
scholars argue that Neanderthal skeletons found
in France and Iraq were deliberately buried. Cut
marks recently found on bird-wing bones hint
that Neanderthals used feathers for ornaments
up to 50,000 years ago, and a crisscross pattern
engraved at least 39,000 years ago in the rock of a
Neanderthal cave in Gibraltar suggests they could
think abstractly. And a single red disk painted