Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Transcripts - Population 3
Managing change in the human environment Population Change How can population change be managed?
Why do we need to manage population change? Countries with too many people for their resources and a poor quality of life may want to reduce the birth rate Countries were few children are being born may not have enough people in the future to look after an ageing population Migration to find work, natural hazards or war can affect population and create refugees and asylum seekers Non Government Organisations (NGOs) NGOs such as population concern and UNICEF work to support people in improving the quality of their lives e.g. contraception or aid. This does have an effect of the number of children that are born.
How can some of the causes of population change be managed? LEDCs Birth Control - countries can actively encourage people to have less children and use contraception. China has enforced a one-child policy onto its population, but it may be possible to change the social environment as in Kerala, leading to people wanting fewer children. Education - educating women can contribute to a reduction in the birth rate (e.g. Kerala) Agricultural reform - changes in farming such as using appropriate technology may improve yields and lessen stress on the land. Healthcare - improved healthcare may help very poor people to see that they do not have to have six children to ensure that three will live long enough to help them in their work and look after them in their old age. (e.g. Bangladesh) Employment - many people choose to have fewer children if they have work, money and their standard of living rises.
How can some of the causes of population change be managed? MEDCs Standard of living - if this falls in an MEDC and people become poorer, they may choose not to have children. If people think life will get better, they may have more children. Choice - some people just do not want children. The average family size is shrinking and in the UK is now 1.7 children per family, down from 2.4 in the mid 1990s. Governments may encourage their populations to have more children.
The effect of Government Policies: China <ul><li>The Chinese government was concerned that if population continue to grow at the same rate in China there will be famine and starvation. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1979 the Chinese government enforced a ‘one child policy’ </li></ul><ul><li>Each family could have only one child </li></ul><ul><li>The policy was enforced and the current population of 1300 million is set to fall in 2020 </li></ul>Most families want a male heir, and some girl babies are abandoned and brought up in orphanages. There are now more men than women in China, 116 men to 100 females (2001 census) One child policy LEDC
The effect of Government Policies: India (Kerala) LEDC India Population: 1100 million Children per family: 3.2 India may become the most populated country in 2020, however the growth rate if falling. The greatest fall in fertility is in the southern state of Kerala. <ul><li>In Kerala women have always been valued and educated (85% of women in Kerala are literate, 57% is the average in India). </li></ul><ul><li>Healthcare is good and infant mortality has dropped to 14 per 1000 (70 per 1000 in Indian on average) </li></ul><ul><li>Work is available and the social environment has changed </li></ul><ul><li>Families choose not to have to many children, so the average is 1.8 </li></ul>99% 57% 85% Female literacy 1.7 3.2 1.8 Average number of children per family 6 70 14 Infant mortality (per 1000) 80 61 75 Life expectancy (women) UK India Kerala
How can some of the effects of population change be managed? LEDCs Food supplies, access to clean water, healthcare and education can all be developed with the help of NGOs, governments and foreign aid. Migration of workers to other countries means that money is sent back to the family left behind. Agricultural change and reform may enable people to feed large families The education of women often leads to a smaller family size MEDCs Healthcare is used more by older people than younger. Housing demands are changing, with as greater need for sheltered accommodation, retirement villages and more housing Employment needs will change with the increase of the elderly, including their care Lifestyle changes for older people may see a later retirement age, more leisure and travel