In todays booming php environemnt understanding namespace and implement it in our project is a vital task.I have created a presentation for my company & i am uploading it, guys read it, it's done with simplicity.
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Transcripts - Namespace inPHP
AA ccaassee ssttuuddyy
By Tamaghna Banerjee
What is Namespace?
● A class of elements (e.g. addresses, file
locations, etc.) in which each element has a
name unique to that class, although it may be
shared with elements in other classes.
● In otherways, you could say a namespace
uniquely identifies a set of names so that there
is no ambiguity when objects having different
origins but the same class names are mixed
Real Scenario – An use case
● For example, suppose the same XML document included the
element type of OWNER for owners of motorcycles as well as
for owners of automobiles.
● It might be necessary or desirable to know that an owner name
was one of those who owned a motorcyle rather than an
automobile. Having different motorcycle and automobile
namespaces would make this possible.
● Effectively, it would make it possible to label motorcycle
owners differently than automobile owners without having to
create a different element type for each.
What about Namespace in PHP ?
● In PHP version 5.x namespacing, a new feature known
was added to the language.
● Many modern languages like C#, Ruby on Rails already
had this feature for some time, but PHP was a little late to
● None the less, every new feature has a purpose, let’s find
out why PHP namespaces can benefit our application.
● PHP namespaces allow us to circumvent this issue, in fact
we can have as many User classes as we like. Not only
that, but we can use namespaces to contain our similar
code into neat little packages, or even to show ownership.
Issues with same named Class
● In PHP you can’t have two classes that share
the same name. They have to be unique. The
issue with this restriction is that if you are using
a third party library which has a class named
UUsseerr, then you can’t create your own class also
called UUsseerr. This is a real shame, because that’s
a pretty convenient class name right?
Let's take a look ahead!!
● Global Namespace
Here’s a rreeaallllyy ssiimmppllee ccllaassss..
What sounds like guys?
● Yeah!!basically, we can think of this class as
being in the ‘global’ namespace. I don’t know
if that’s the right term for it, but it sounds
quite fitting to me. It essentially means that
the class exists without a namespace. It’s
just a normal class.
Okk lets play with simple namespace !!
Let’s create another class alongside the original, global Eddard.
Here we have another Eddard class, w ith one
minor change. The addition of the namespace
The line namespace Stark; informs PHP that
everything we do is relative to the Stark
It also means that any classes created within
this file w ill live inside the ‘Stark’ namespace.
NNooww lleett''ss ddoo aaggaaiinn wwiitthh ''ssttaarrkk''
●Now, when we try to use the ‘Stark’ class once again.
$eddard = new Eddard();
●Once again, we get an instance of the first class we created in the last
section. Not the one within the ‘Stark’ namespace. Let’s try to create
an instance of the ‘Eddard’ within the ‘Stark’ namespace. Finally it will
look like this..
$eddard = new Eddard();
$eddard = new StarkEddard();
Note it quickly!!
● I think you are getting me, yes! we can
instantiate a class within a namespace,
by prefixing it with the name of the
namespace, and separating the two with
a backward () slash. Now we have an
instance of the ‘Eddard’ class within the
‘Stark’ namespace. Aren’t we magical?!
What happened to multi-level
You should know that namespaces can have as many
levels of hierarchy as they need to.
The Theory of Relativity
By adding the namespace directive to the instantiation example, we have moved
the execution of the PHP script into the ‘Stark’ namespace. Now because we are
inside the same namespace as the one we put ‘Eddard’ into, this time we receive
the namespaced ‘Eddard’ class. See how it’s all relative?
A little problem scenario
Now that we have changed namespace, we have created a little problem. Can
you guess what it is? How do we instantiate the original ‘Eddard’ class? The one
not in the namespace.
Fortunately, PHP has a trick for referring to classes that are located within the
global namespace, we simply prefix them with a backward () slash.
Take a note: With the leading backward () slash, PHP
knows that we are referring to the ‘Eddard’ in the global
namespace, and instantiates that one.
Imagine a little bit more!!
● Use your imagine a little. Imagine that we have
another namespaced class called TullyEdmure.
Now I want to use this class from within the ‘Stark’
framework. How do we do that?
Again please take a note..we need the prefixing backward slash to
bring us back to the global namespace, before instantiating a class
from the ‘Tully’ namespace.
Woww, 'use' saves us!!
● It could get tiring, referring to classes within other namespaces
by their full hierarchy each time. Luckily, there’s a nice little
shortcut we can use. Let’s see it in action.
Using the 'use' statement, we can bring one class from another namespace, into the current
namespace. Allowing us to instantiate it by name only. Now don’t ask me why it doesn’t need
the backward slash prefix, because I just don’t know. This is the only exception that I know
of. Sorry about that! You can prefix it with a slash if you want to though, you just don’t need
A new trick, it's kidding me!!
To make up for that horrible inconsistency, let me show you another neat trick. We
can give our imported classes little nicknames, like we used to in the PHP playground.
Let me show you.
By using the ‘as` keyword, we have given our ‘Tully/Brynden’ class the ‘Blackfish’
nickname, allowing us to use the new nickname to identify it within the current
namespace. Neat trick right?
It's time to play within a namespace
By giving the ‘Daenerys’ within the
‘Dothraki’ namespace a nickname of
we are able to use two ‘Daenerys’
classes by name only. Handy right?
The game is all about avoiding conflicts,
and grouping things by purpose or
You can use as many classes as you
Structure - Namespace
● Namespaces aren’t just about avoiding conflicts, we can also
use them for organisation, and for ownership. Let me explain
with another example.
● Let’s say I want to create an open source library. I’d love for
others to use my code, it would be great!
● The trouble is, I don’t want to cause any problematic class name
conflicts for the person using my code. That would be terribly
● Here’s how I can avoid causing hassle for the wonderful, open
source embracing, individual.
Here I have used my name, to show that I created the
original code, and to separate my code from that of the
person using my library. Inside the base namespace, I
have created a number of sub-namespaces to organise
my application by its internal structure.
Namespace - Limitations
● In truth, I feel a little guilty for calling this sub-heading ‘Limitations’. What I’m
about to talk about isn’t really a bug.
● You see, in other languages, namespaces are implemented in a similar way,
and those other languages provide an additional feature when interacting
● In Java for example, you are able to import a number of classes into the
current namespace by using the import statement with a wildcard. In Java,
‘import’ is equivelent to ‘use’, and it uses dots to separate the nested
namespaces (or packages). Here’s an example.
My Content Reference
Namespace - Reference
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Enjoy new learning