Political Economy Of Information Industry
Political Economy of Information Industry - Suresh Kodoor The transition from a manufacturing and product based economy, which primarily produces tangible goods, to an economy which is extensively 'knowledge-oriented' and dominated by information goods has been dramatic. The key drivers for the transition have been the globalization and the emergence of 'self-acting' transnational finance capital. Under the current system of economic organization, Information has seen increasingly being monopolized, sold and manipulated through restrictive legal regime with a single motive of furthering the profit for transnational corporations. The monopoly rights on the information acts as the key reason behind the ability of the Information technology companies to amass huge wealth and unreasonable profit. These companies are being evaluated in the 'speculative' market rather than based on the real assets helps them to project a highly inflated valuation in the stock market compared to traditional brick and mortar companies. Such speculative evolution and transactions with a disconnect from the real asset and economy leads to the formation of a parallel virtual economy which is vulnerable to the high instabilities and bubble formations.
Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Transcripts - Political Economy Of Information Industry
Political Economy of Information Industry Suresh Kodoor The present era is often described by buzzwords like Information Society, Knowledge Society,Information Age, Global Village etc, indicating the increased role and influence of Information in our social,economical, political and cultural lives. These descriptions primarily reflect the structural changes on how oureconomic activities are organized today. Information, knowledge and culture are vital to the human freedomand development. Information/knowledge has always played an important role in all the societies hitherto inthe history, shaping our world view and influencing how we understand and react to our surroundings. The keydifference now compared to the earlier times however is that Information has evolved and transformed overtime from being simple ‘knowledge to being a commodity and further a technology in itself, encompassing allwalks and activities of our lives. Space-time compression due to the revolution in the Telecommunicationtechnologies has fundamentally changed the way Information is produced, distributed, accessed and used.Advancement in the information technology has revolutionized the way we live our lives in the present societyand has created new opportunities, possibilities and of course new challenges as well. The transition from a manufacturing economy, which primarily produces tangible goods, to aneconomy which is extensively knowledge-oriented and dominated by information goods has been dramatic.The key drivers for the transition have been the globalization and the emergence of self-acting transnationalfinance capital. Under the current system of economic organization, Information has seen increasingly beingmonopolized, sold and manipulated through restrictive legal regime with a single motive of furthering theprofit for transnational corporations. The monopoly rights on the information acts as the key reason behind theability of the Information technology companies to amass huge wealth and unreasonable profit. Thesecompanies are being evaluated in the speculative market rather than based on the real assets helps themproject a highly inflated valuation in the stock market compared to traditional brick and mortar companies.Such speculative evaluations, disconnected from the real asset and economy, leads to the formation of aparallel virtual economy which is vulnerable to the high instabilities and bubble formations.Information Information is a non-material, non-energy entity, which is digitally stored as ‘bits’ in storage medium(like computer hard disk, CD or other storage devices) and/or transmitted as energy (radio/sound waves, lightetc). Software, databases, video, music, books, designs etc are examples of Information. One of the importantand unique attributes of Information is that it can be termed as a non-rival good (Ref: The Wealth of Networks – YochaiBenkler), which means that once an Information good is created, it does not require any further resources tocreate a second copy of the same. ie. The marginal cost of creating copies of already created Information ispractically zero. Any number of copies of the already produced Information good can be created without losingany original quality, at zero cost. A software product, once created, takes practically zero cost to producefurther copies of the same product. Same is the case with video, music recordings, book, reports etc as well. The other key attribute of Information is that it acts as both input as well as the output at the sametime in the information production process. To create new Information, one needs Information which has beencreated prior. For example, to write a report, one needs to know existing related information. To create amovie, one needs to know about the current as well as many other previous cultural forms. This dependency
effect of Information is termed as ‘on the shoulders of giants’. The combination of the non-rival and on theshoulders of giants characteristics makes Information an ideal candidate for being a public good, mostsuitable for non-market mode of production.Information Economy An economy in which the information sector is more dominant than agriculture or industrial sectors iswhat is termed as Information Economy. The Information sector is one that deals with creation, manipulation,processing, transmission, distribution and consumption of Information. Information goods, which may needconsiderable resources to create first time and takes no cost to reproduce subsequent copies, lead to aneconomy that is uniquely different from the economy of physical goods. The idea of a post-industrial society and economy started emerging in the 1950s as the expansion ofnon-agriculture, non-industrial sections of the economy was becoming evident in the advanced industrialeconomies. Organization of Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) suggested that computer can beconsidered as the key to the second industrial revolution just as the steam engine was the center of the firstindustrial revolution. According to M.U.Porat, who has pioneered the research to understand the basis ofstructural shift happening in the economy, an economy becomes Information Economy when informationrelated work begins to exceed the work related to the other sectors. According to his estimation (1977), USbecame an Information Economy in 1967 when 53% of the US workforce was engaged in Information Work.Drivers of Information Economy In the first half of the nineteenth century, Industrial revolution fundamentally changed the productionprocess and significantly impacted and changed the way people lived then. Industrial society has beenidentified with mass production, mass distribution, mass media, mass creation, mass entertainment, masssettlement etc and gave rise to new production environment like huge factories and ‘fordist’ assembly lineindustry production processes. The capitalist mode of organizing production forces and the associated wealthaccumulation process gave birth to big corporations and business houses. Over time, many of thesecorporations had grown so huge and had spread across continents (transnational) that many of them couldboast of assets and revenues more than the GDP of many countries around the world. With the rapid growth ofoperation and size, reliance on Information for business strategy, management, operation and administrationbecame increasingly critical for the corporate. Growth of service sector (financial services, business services, administration, transport, advertisingetc) and the effort to seek global market for the service industry necessitated new means of faster creation,processing and exchange of huge amount of information. Services offered to the far away markets necessitatedmeans of processing and exchanging information fast, not only for providing the services themselves but alsofor enabling effective control, monitoring and management from/of remote locations. Larger share of workforce became engaged in the service sector compared to agriculture and industrialsectors. Increase of workforce in the service sector was necessitated because of the growth of industrialcorporate, which necessitated organizational restructuring in the functional lines and gave rise to a newcategory of ‘white color’ workers. Today, 76.7% of the GDP of USA is contributed by the Service sector. 22.2%of the GDP is from the industry sector while the contribution of agriculture is a mere 1.2%. More than 80% ofthe workforce in the USA is in the service sector with 44.21% of wage labor in the knowledge jobs and 42.3%in the non-knowledge service sector. Service sector acts as the biggest producers, distributers and consumersof information.
Country Economy Size Service Sector Industry Sector Agriculture Sector USA $14.6 trillion 76.6% 22.2% 1.2% Europe $16.3 trillion 73.2% 25% 1.8% India $1.53 trillion 55.3% 28.6% 16.1% Table (1): Dominance of Service Sector in the economy Emergence and rapid growth of global finance capital is the other factor that significantly contributedand acted as a catalyst to the evolution of Information economy. Growth of finance capital necessitated thetechnologies to enable faster processing and distribution of information across geographical boundaries.Today, 96% of the entire global transactions are financial transactions where no goods or services exchangehands. “From 1978 to 2007, the amount of debt held by the financial sector soared from $3 trillion to $36trillion, more than doubling as a share of gross domestic product. The very nature of many Wall Street firmschanged—from relatively staid private partnerships to publicly traded corporations taking greater and morediverse kinds of risks. By 2005, the 10 largest U.S. commercial banks held 55% of the industry’s assets, morethan double the level heldin1990” (source: Report of the Financial Crisis Enquiry Commission, USA, January 2011). From being a sector that finance industries and provide capital for the industrial production, financesector has grown as an industry in itself. Finance Capital has grown by such huge proportion that it has startedacting on its own, operating mainly through stock markets and other speculative means, investing globally andaccumulating wealth. A world economy of $70 trillion generates transactions of close to $700 trillion daily.Information technology acts as an enabler supporting such huge and faster movements of critical information.In essence, Globalization, which may be understood as the continuing efforts by transnational corporations tospread the markets world over, selling goods, services and the finance capital while also utilizing/deploying thecultural and entertainment products to prepare the target markets for these offered goods and services, actas one of the key drivers for the development and advancement of global information network and associatedenabler technologies in the current economic environment. Through the relentless operation and execution of capitalist wealth accumulation process till date,huge wealth is now concentrated in a few hands world over. In the USA, the top just 1% holds 43% of the entirefinancial wealth. Top 5% holds 72% of the financial wealth, while the bottom 80% holds just 7% of the totalwealth. The Rich park their wealth with the corporate and the corporate becomes the custodians of thewealth for the rich and always is on the lookout for further accumulation. Top 10% has 80-90% of the wealth inthe form of business equities, financial securities, stocks etc, which is a key motivation for business houses togo transnational in the quest of more profit. Investment Asset Top 1% class Top 9% class Business equity 62.4% 30.9% Financial securities 60.6% 37.9% Trusts 38.9% 40.5% Stocks and mutual funds 38.3% 42.9% Non-home real estate 28.3% 48.6% Table (ii) – Rich class park their wealth with corporate
Fig (1) Top 5% holds 72% of the wealth (Source: Wealth, Income and Power – G. William Domhoff)Global Information Network Privatization of Telecommunication networks in the USA lead to the emergence of huge telecomcompanies, which went on to become transnational entities over time. These telecom giants in the west leadthe expansion of communication capabilities, network reach and technologies globally and thus a globalcommunication network emerged. With Information playing increased role in industrial production process,last 4-5 decades saw Information transforming from being pure knowledge to a marketable commodity. Rapidgrowth of Information to the center stage gave rise to an industry itself, producing information goods whichincluded software products, software applications to enable other services, cultural products in digital form(music recordings, videos etc) etc, giving birth to an Industrial Information Economy (since 1960s). Arrival of the Internet was another critical milestone in the journey of communication revolution.Internet is essentially a result of the marriage between the communication and computers and itrevolutionized the entire domain of information production, delivery, access and usage. Since its emergence asthe global information network, Internet has increasingly started playing the central role in the businesses,creating new business opportunities, transforming existing businesses and becoming integral part of everytransaction in the business and financial world, causing the transition of economy to a Networked InformationEconomy. Dissolution of physical boundaries for exchanging goods, services and finance, enabled by the globalinformation network, provides newer markets and newer opportunities, including low cost labor and largehigh-concentration consumer segments. Internet has tremendously empowered individuals, providing them the computing power and a globalmedium to express, together with a means to create and distribute Information at a fraction of the costcompared to earlier times. Internet has provided a global medium with huge potential to democratize thecreation and exchange of Information which is critical to the freedom and development of the humankind andthe society as a whole. Internet has brought convenience to the day-to-day lives of many, helping themperform transactions easy, fast and at the comfort of their homes or work and has emerged as a platform thatcan bring in transparency in the public transactions and government functioning. With the emergence of social
networking and online communities, Internet also has emerged as a potential platform that could helporganize and galvanize social and democratic movements across the world. Internet however has also been increasingly commercialized. The Net is getting more and morecrowded with advertisement and marketing and is becoming an electronic shopping mall. The frenzy within thetelecommunication, media and entertainment companies is to determine which firms will control the biggestshare of the bits of information that will make their way into homes, classrooms, and work places all over theworld. Quoting Bill Gates, “Information highway will allow those produce goods to see a lot more efficientlythan before what buyers want and will allow potential customers to buy those goods more efficiently”. Internet is a great example and a model for the innovation and achievement possible by public funding,research and collaboration. Internet was initially funded by the NSF, NASA and other Government agencies.Later it was turned over to private players. Today Internet is fully funded by private enterprises such as MCI,AT&T, BBN, turning Internet into a fully private commercial operation. These private enterprises own regionalnetwork access points and sell Internet access to local service providers, private companies, institutions,government agencies etc (now even government is another commercial customer and has to buy theconnectivity). With the telecommunication infrastructure controlled by private enterprises globally and thetechnology to be guided and pursued based on its profit making potential, the risk will be high for much of thepromises of the global information network going unrealized.Information Production In the Networked Information Economy, Information is produced by both market and non-marketsources. IT companies, media, entertainment and communication firms, financial services firms, business andother professional services etc are all examples of market sources. Their information production is marketdriven or for the market. Peer and collaborative production, individuals and non-profit organizations,government research labs etc are the main non-market producers of Information. They produce informationfor the public rather than to be sold in the market for profit. Market production of Information relies heavily on exclusive rights (IPRs) to establish monopoly on theInformation produced and to reap huge profits. Emergence of global information network has resulted insignificant rise of Information production in the non-market mode and has increased the participation ofindividuals in the creation of Information. Enforcement of excessive exclusive rights on Information throughIPRs (Intellectual Property Rights like Copyright, Patents etc) and thus increasing the cost of Information andimposing restrictions on the access will hamper new innovations and will decrease the creation of newInformation as well as the Information consumption. One of the most important contributions of the global information network is that it inspired aconsiderable section of non-market sources to become part of the Information production, who otherwisecould never have participated in the process. Free Software Movement is an important and glorious example ofhow volunteers from different parts of the world with different skill sets and interests can create valuableInformation goods outside the market forces. Tens of thousands of people world over create information andmake it available for free on the global information network. With the means of production becomingaffordable and available to many, the mass participation in the Information production has increased manyfolds. Wikipedia is one of the great examples of what can be achieved through collaborative work by group ofpeople coming together for other than pure economic motives.
Monopoly Pricing IT companies include a wide range of enterprises like software products companies, software servicescompanies, dot-com service companies, IT enabled services companies (BPO) etc. Software products may bestand-alone products that are directly used (word, tally, games etc), or applications that facilitate transactionsin other industries (eg. online banking). Software products companies accumulate huge profit due to themonopoly pricing. While exclusive rights allow software companies to price software products arbitrarily high,the zero marginal cost of reproduction of software products allow them to sell the products at many timeshigher price than the actual production cost (which is practically zero) . Microsoft, Oracle etc are the examplesof software products companies (with product companies also offering various services, the distinctionbetween products companies and service companies are becoming more blurred). Microsoft and similarsoftware products companies make billions of dollars in profit due to the monopoly pricing. Software productservices companies offer development services to other software products companies and build whole or partof the products for the parent companies (eg. Infosys, HCL, Wipro etc). These companies are still part of thedistributed production process for manufacturing the software products. The unreasonable profits realizedtaking advantage of monopoly pricing and the hype created around the Information Technology companieshelp to create higher valuation for these companies in the speculative stock market. Since the stock valuebecomes the barometer than the real asset in company valuations in the new economy, the new economycompanies that earn much higher profit margin due to the monopoly pricing enjoys huge capitalization in thestock market. Company Revenue Profit Asset Market Capitalization GE $150 B $11.6 B $751 B $216.2 B Microsoft $66 B $20.6 B $92 B $215.8 B Table (iii) Virtual Valuation of new economy companies in the stock market (Source: Forbes list of Top 100 companies – April 2011)Growing Monopoly Information producers in the market are relentless in their drive to create, retain and expand theirmonopoly over the Information they produce. Software companies protect their software products throughcopyright and efforts are on to bring software into patent regime which will provide stronger exclusive rightsand protection. 1990s witnessed the emergence of a global commercial media market taking advantage of thetechnology advances. Music industry has been turned into a concentrated commercial industry since theemergence of phonograph. Media and entertainment companies have grown to become transnational entities,dominating the world market with their cultural and entertainment products (likes of Disney, Bertelsmann,Times Warner etc) and thriving on the monopoly rights. Hollywood has been in the forefront for strengtheningmonopoly laws. Attempts were made to pursue hardware vendors to incorporate designs into the computingdevice hardware itself which will enforce digital rights of the content played on the device. Law suits againstcompanies like MP3.com, Napster etc, which allowed users to download and share music, was part of theirfight to enforce strict IPR regime. Hollywood was the major force lobbying for the draconian IPR laws likeDMCA (Digital Millennial Copyright Acts) (which calls to ban not only copying but even technologies that mayhelp copying as well). Hollywood and Music recording companies spare no effort in ensuring software tools andstandards are evolved in such a way that the digitally stored cultural products can be sold as goods thusenabling them to continue to enjoy huge profits. Latest legislative initiatives like PIPA and SOPA rules in theUSA have invited strong and widespread protest all over the world. Such initiatives need to be viewed as partof the continuing effort to curb and restrict access to Information and to strengthen various forms of Internetcensorship. US government’s attempts to cripple wiki-leaks by influencing service providers and banks werewidely reported. Such attempts to strengthen the monopoly may only increase in the coming days with access
restrictions, censorships and IPR laws becoming more stringent for ensuring monopoly pricing for theInformation companies.Distributed Production A fundamental change in the production process in the new economy companies is the transition fromthe old fordist under one roof production to distributed production, fragmenting work into smaller individualtasks and executing the tasks at different physical locations. Global Information Network enabled companies to‘outsource’ the fragmented tasks to remote locations across countries in search of low-cost labor and still ableto monitor and manage the production process effectively. Fragmentation of work enabled thecommoditization of work and made possible to digitally monitor the effort in terms of units of work (#ofhours, #of defects fixed, #of calls made, #of clicks made etc), in many instances, taking away the overall contextand ownership of the work from individual workers. Engagement model for labor is changing to flexible labormodel. Bigger share of the workforce is being deployed as flexible workers, contingent and contract laborers,temporary workers etc. More than 40% of the knowledge workers in the USA today are contract workers.Virtual Mobility of labor, made possible by the Information network, where the labor moves from place toplace without involving the movement of the body, has made flexible workforce model more attractive forthe corporate.Knowledge Workers Human ability to capture existing information from the surroundings and convert it into new formsassumes highly critical role in Information production. Thus, the nature of labor input needed for Informationproduction is radically different compared to agriculture or industry production. The very nature of theInformation production process instills a sense of Individualism among the workers instead of a communitysense. Strict hierarchical relationship of the traditional production environment is giving way to competitiveindividualism in the Information production environments. Most of the work being fragmented in nature(enhancements, feature additions, bug fixings, maintenance, support etc), the individual worker is removedfrom the big-picture, purpose or ownership of the complete work and is provided with units of work instead,leading to a sense of alienation. With companies increasingly moving to flexible workforce model, knowledgeworkers face job insecurity and associated mental and work related stress. Even permanent employment is nolonger considered as permanent in the new economy companies. Knowledge workers, typically being highly educated, qualified and comparatively highly paid (primarilybecause of the monopoly pricing of the Information products), are unsure of their worker status and showreluctance to position themselves as workers in the production chain (though they are essentially workerswho are part of a distributed production process participating in the production of one or more part of alarger product). Time span of association of an employee with a single company is usually shorter and thusworkplace groups tend to be short-lived. Dependency on peers to perform tasks being insignificant, themotivation for the knowledge workers to form closer ties with the co-workers is nonexistent or weak.Collective bargaining and workers associations have not yet become part of the knowledge workforce.Absence of such workers groups coupled with the absence of appropriate labor laws in this sector createdifficulties for the knowledge workers and they remain handicapped being not able to question unfriendlypractices at their work places. Knowledge industry still is of artisan nature. The quality and the nature of the software product stilldepend heavily on the individuals. Software tools automate the process of software production to some extentand try to reduce this artisan factor in the production process. Also, in the new economy, growth is notaccompanied by proportionate employment opportunities. The current development model is leading to moreof a jobless growth, which will only add more pressure and insecurity on the workforce.
Conclusion Emergence of a global information network has radically changed the way we live, interact and do ourbusiness. Information is a core input to the human freedom and development and thus it is important to askhow it is produced, who owns it and who has access to it. Unrestrained access to both, the Information as wellas means of producing Information for every section of the society is critical to the progress of the society andto enhance the quality of life for everyone. Emergence of a global information network has provided a hugeopportunity, previously unseen and unthinkable, to democratize the Information production and to addressthe issues of freedom and justice. Information Economy is at present driven by the corporate monopoly, takingadvantage of the great advancements in technology backed by a stringent legal framework to support themonopoly on Information production, distribution and access. The Global Information Network has increasinglybeen commercialized and is utilized for commercial means as a market place. It is important that theseadvancements be utilized more for the public good and the control is vested with the larger public than withthe corporate profit interests. There exists a need for encouraging alternate Information production modelswhere the motive is the societal well-being rather than the monopoly profit. ---------------------------