consists of the ever wealthy natural resources
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Transcripts - Natural resources.ppt
AUSTRALIA CANADA FRANCE BRAZIL INDIA
Plateaus are large elevated tableland
separated from its surroundings areas by
steep slopes. They have a fairly level
land on the top. Plateaus are quite
widespread and are found all over
the earth. Plateaus have been subjected to
erosion over the years by agents of
gradation. plateaus are rich in mineral
deposits so mining activities are carried
out in these regions. The Deccan plateau in
India, The plateau
Soil is the uppermost layer of the earth.
It originates from parent rock and
contains both organic and inorganic
substances. Fertility of a soil depends
* Soil profile refers to a vertical cross
section of the soil from the surface
to the parent rock.
*The O-Horizon is the upper most
layer of the soil. It is dark in color
due to humus present in the soil.
*The second layer is the A-Horizon
or top soil. It experiences leaching
and also contains humus which
provides plants with nutrients.
* The next layer is the B-Horizon. It
contains minerals. It has lesser
amount of humus
* C-Horizon consists mostly of
weathered parent rocks.
*The last layer is the R-Horizon or
the parent rock.
These are the from which the soil is formed due to
weathering. These are of two types:
This is formed by the river alluvium glacial deposits,
wind blown deposits etc and has no relationships with the region of
deposition is called transported soil. This
Is also called ex-situ. Eg: Alluvial soil.
This has a strong correlation with the parent rock and is
not transported by the agents of gradation is called as sedentary
soil.It is also known as in-situ e.g.: black
Altitude and the slope of the land determine
the rate of accumulation of soil.
soil formation mainly depends on the
climate of a region especially, its temperature and
rainfall. Few centimeters of soil takes nearly a
thousand years to form
Alluvial soil is formed by the alluvial
deposits of various rivers. It consists of sand, silt and
clay. This soil is light to dark in colour and is porous
and rich in humus. There are two kinds of alluvial soil
bhangar soils-older alluvial soil and khadar soils-
newer alluvial soil. This soil is most fertile & suitable
for the growth of rice and jute. Eg: Punjab, Uttar
Pradesh, river ganga-brahmaputra.
This soil is formed due to weathering of
basaltic lava rocks. It is black to grey in colour due to
presence of iron oxide. Black soil is rich in clay content
and can retain moisture. It is found Maharashtra, Andhra
Pradesh etc. The soil suitable for cultivation of cotton. This
black soil is known as black cotton soil and as regur soil.
This soil is red in colour due to the presence of
iron oxides. It is mostly available in low rainfall region. The
red soil is sandy in nature. Red soil is rich in iron content and
has very less humus. This soil is located in the periphery of the
black soil region in the states of Tamilnadu, Madhya Pradesh,
Maharashtra and West Bengal. Red soil is suitable for the
growth of millets, potatoes, wheat, etc.
This soil is mostly available in high
temperature and heavy rainfall regions. Laterite soil
is infertile in nature as the soil nutrient due to soil
are washed away or percolate downwards due to
heavy rainfall. This process is also called leaching.
The Laterite soil is good for the growth of
tea,coffee,cashew rubber and coconut.
This is found in the states of Assam, Tamilnadu etc.
This soil is red to brown in colour. It forms mostly in
the dry regions, such as deserts. It has sandy texture
and is saline in nature and also lacks in humus and
moisture. Its fertility can be improved by use of
irrigation. It is mostly found in Rajasthan, Punjab
Haryana and Northern Gujarat.
Mountains are rich source of minerals natural
forests and rivers.It is found on the hill slopes and high
altitude regions. It is generally thin in the mountanious
region and is rich in humus content. The type of soil varies
according to the altitude.Tea,coffee,spices and fruits are
grown in these regions. These areas are found in the
northern and northeast areas in india.these are
predominant in the states Assam Sikkim etc.,
SALINE AND ALKALINE SOIL
These soils are unfit for cultivation as they contain
various salts like sodium, calcium magnesium etc., in
higher concentrations. They are sandy to loamy in texture.
They are found in Gujarat, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh.
PEATY AND MARSHY SOILS
These soils are found in humid regions they are formed by
accumulation of organic matter and are generally black in colour.
Peaty and marshy soils are acidic in nature. These are mostly found in
coastal areas of kerala,odissa,sunderbans regions of the west
It is the removal of topmost layer of the soil. It occurs
due to natural factors and human activities. Various human
activities deforestation river erosion etc.,It causes loss of
fertility and decrease cultivity.Rivers cut through the soil and
form deep channels called gullies sometimes layers of soil
over a large area are moved by running water. This is known
as sheet erosion. Land which becomes unfit for cultivation is
known as bad lands. Soil eroded by the rivers causes heavy
silting and may even divert or change the course of a river.
This affects the water table, plants, animals and human
It is done to decelerate the flow
It is done by cutting steps on
the slopes of hilly areas making terraces
It involves growing of strips of grass
*Tress are planted to check the wind velocity also
called as shelter belts.
Earth is a watery planet. It is the most important natural
resources. Water is a renewable resource. Nearly 71% of
the earth is covered with water and about 96.5% of the
total volume of water. Water is used for various purposes.
The availability of water varies with space and time. Water
availability is mainly during the monsoon seasons. When
the rainfall fails in monsoon season there will be scarcity of
water. Many dams were built to use water storage of
water. The water is also stored in reservoirs for various
purpose.These dams are called multipurpose dams. Eg:
damodar valley project on river damodar.
SCARCITY OF WATER
*Large growing population.
*Growing demand of water.
*Drying up of water sources.
*Continuous lowering of water table.
*Variation in seasonal and annual precipitation.
*Due to social inequality.
*Overuse of industrial effluent, chemical fertilizer,
*Low awareness about water pollution.
CONSERVATION OF WATER
Rain is the main form of water for us.
Rainwater harvesting system methods is most important
natural methods. In the process rainwater is collected
from the rooftops of houses and reservoirs where it is
stored. It recharges the groundwater for drinking as well
as for irrigation. Rooftop rainwater harvesting is widely
practiced in Rajasthan.
OTHER WAYS TO CONSERVE WATER
*Sprinkle and drip irrigation reduce wastage of water and helps
in conservation mainly in the dry areas.
*Afforestation is an important method to conserve water. It
increases percolation and recharge the underground water table.
*mulching is a protective covering usually of organic matter such
placed around the plant to prevent evaporation of moisture. This
is another way to conserve water.
*Water pollution can be controlled by treating industrial effluents.