Native american civil rights (1865 – 1992)
Native American Civil Rights and the various influences (1865 - 1992)
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Transcripts - Native american civil rights (1865 – 1992)
1903 Lone Wolf vs. Hitchcock Native American land that
had been granted to the male heads of the families earlier because
of the Dawes Severalty Act (1887) could be taken back and all
treaties could be revoked. This basically meant that all the land the
Native Americans had had could now be taken away from them
and the Native Americans couldn’t do a single thing about it. *
1974 Oneida vs. Oneida and Madison Counties, New York
The Oneida tribe sued for their land to be returned. Their land
was successfully returned. This began the Native Americans
reclaiming what they had lost in previous years. *
1982 The Seminole Tribe vs. Butterworth Native Americans
could build gambling establishments (casinos for example), even
if the state laws prohibited gambling.
1887 The Dawes Severalty Act (General Allotment Act) Land on the
Plains reservations was divided up and given to the father of each family,
not the chief of the tribe like before. Whatever land was not assigned, the
White people could buy it up. Part of the assimilation plot by the Federal
Government. This basically began to destroy the Native Americans ways
of life and assimilate them.
1898 The Curtiss Act Ended the self-governing methods the tribes
had, made the Native Americans follow the American laws. This was bad
for many NA since very few knew their rights and where they stood in
terms of the law. Ass well, this continued to destroy the NA way of life.
1934 Wheeler-Howard Act (Indian Reorganisation Act) Native
Americans had more power over the reservations; they could now
practise their religion freely and could assert their cultural identity.
Unallocated land that was taken from Native Americans was also
returned. Part for the “NA New Deal”.
1946 ICC (Indian Claims Commission) To thanks Native Americans
for their war efforts, the ICC was set up. It aimed to resolve the land
issues Native Americans had. This was a change from the past because
now the government was listening to the Native Americans pleas.
1975 The Indian Self-Determination and Education Acts Basically
ended the policy of assimilation by Federal Government. It also moved
the NA back to a self governing state, gave them contracts to negotiate
over key issues such as healthcare and education. *
Ronald Reagan 1981 – 89 Wanted to end the Native
Americans dependency on the Federal Government. Wanted to
develop the Native Americans business skills by developing
enterprises and letting the Native Americans run them. In other
words, Reagan though the Native Americans were free loading off
the Government and make a profit off of them.
Nixon 1968 – 74 Wanted to try and improve the Native Americans
lives after past injustices. Appointed someone of Native American
heritage, Louis R. Bruce Junior, of the Mohawk-Sioux tribe, as
Commissioner of Indian Affairs. Started to return some of the land that
was lost. 2 tribes that were mainly getting land were the Makah and
Pueblo tribes. Wanted Native Americans to regain their lost credibility.
Wanted Native Americans to get a fair and equal education, so passed the
Indian Education Act (1972). *
Ford 1974 – 77 Followed the ideas that Nixon had before. Passed a
few Acts that benefited the Native Americans. Ford was basically
continuing the work of Nixon, which was basically to help the NA lives.
Society of American Indians (SAI) 1911 – 21 Made of 50
educated Native American men and women from various tribes.
This was one of the first, unsuccessful, attempts at an inter-tribal
movement. They wanted improvements to be made to the Native
Americans education and healthcare. It failed due to a lack of
support and lack of funding from the Native Americans. *
National Congress of American Indians 1944 (Established) Made up of 80
educated Native Americans from all 50 tribes. Many had worked in the Bureau of Indian
Affairs. They wanted to show themselves to be normal to the Native Americans in an
attempt to not alienate them in any way. If they alienated the Native Americans in
anyway support may be lost. Much like the NAACP, they worked their ways through
the courts peacefully. They also campaigned about various things including;
discrimination in the working world, inequalities in the education system and the trail of
broken treaties over the years. This was the first successful inter-tribal movement in
terms of pursuing their rights.
Native Americans Rights Fund (NARF) Established 1970 The main aim of
NARF was to defend tribal cultures. They began as the California Indian Legal
Services. They wanted to restore the tribes who had been terminated as well as
reinstate lost land. Fought for the right to vote in states where it was still restricted.
To help with further legal battles, NARF helped train up Native Americans to be
lawyers and attorneys.
The Massacre of Wounded Knee 1890 This was when a lot of NA were brutally
murdered by the Whites and as a result led to them staring to come together.
1903 Lone Wolf vs. Hitchcock Basically ended the Native Americans having “free
land off the government” leading many to live in poverty and be homeless.
Society of American Indians (SAI) 1911 – 21 This group was one of the first
attempts at an inter-tribal movement and showed the NA coming together to fight for
Nixon 1968 – 74 Nixon’s presidency marked a new era for the NA’s and their
lives improved massively as a result of him. And his policies.
The Siege of Alcatraz 1969 The NA began to gain attention for their civil rights and
as a result they managed to get a lot of media attention and more people feeling
sympathetic towards them over past injustices.
1974 Oneida vs. Oneida and Madison Counties, New York One of the first
Supreme Court cases that resulted in the NA not getting a cash settlement for the land
they had lost, but got the land back.
1975 The Indian Self-Determination and Education Acts Officially ended the
Federal Government plot of assimilation.