Laboratory that includes advanced diagnostic capabilities, Exercise Testing
Laboratory, ECG Clinic, and Nuclear Cardiology...
process to be discussed below.
Site supervision of trainees is the responsibility of staff members or research
mentors de...
• Evaluate and treat a large number of inpatients, both as primary provider
and consultant.
• Perform emerge...
The Cardiovascular Disease Fellowship Program maintains an active conference
schedule in which activ...
periodically. Clinical topics, problems, and vignettes are also presented. This
conference is an adjunct to the Monthly Re...
cardiac pathology and histopathology including autopsy correlation. AFIP
• Clinical Conference: Thursday 0730...
Goals: To provide the Fellow with extensive experien...
rationale for, and ramifications of the procedures, including obtaining informed
Site: WRAMC and NNMC
Supervision/Evaluation: Supervision provided on a day to day basis by the
assigned Staff Cardiologist. Writ...
discussion as assigned for clinical conferences. Participate in the cardiovascular
MR service at NNMC one morning per week...
Skills: Exposure and/or proficiency in the interpretation of invasive and
noninvasive electrophysiologic (EP) studies, ele...
(a) Acquire skills needed to be an effective con...
Standard: Ability to function independently as consultative cardiologist for
patients with a variety of common and complex...
General Cardiology
Scientific American
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National Capital Consortium Training Program

Published on: Mar 3, 2016

Transcripts - National Capital Consortium Training Program

  • 1. NATIONAL CAPITAL CONSORTIUM TRAINING PROGRAM IN ADULT CARDIOLOGY TRAINING MANUAL AND POLICIES GOALS The integrated cardiology fellowship at Walter Reed Army Medical Center and the National Naval Medical Center is a three year program that provides broad training in cardiovascular medicine. This program provides an experience consistent with the highest standards of the American Board of Internal Medicine and the Residency Review Committee for Internal Medicine. The explicit goal of the program is to produce graduates who are capable of functioning independently as cardiovascular specialists in varied clinical settings as required by the Armed Forces of the United States. This is achieved by a rigorous and intellectually challenging educational experience that includes broad exposure to and progressive responsibility in the management of patients with a wide variety of cardiovascular disorders, as well as extensive exposure to cardiovascular physiology, pathology, and pharmacology. The program emphasizes the acquisition of skill in both the non-invasive and invasive techniques that are vital to modern cardiovascular practice. The educational experience provides a broad curriculum that includes a conference schedule composed of clinical, didactic, and correlative conferences. Participation in cardiovascular research as a fundamental part of the educational process is expected. FACILITIES The primary teaching hospitals for the fellowship are Walter Reed Army Medical Center (WRAMC) in Washington, DC and the National Naval Medical Center (NNMC) in Bethesda, MD. Both hospitals may be characterized as the flagship medical facilities for their respective services. Each is a modern tertiary-care teaching hospital providing a wide array of medical services to a diverse patient population. Each has a distinguished tradition of and dedication to graduate medical education including cardiovascular training. Both hospitals are accredited by the Joint Commission on Accreditation on Health Care Organizations (JCAHO), as well as approved by varied specialty boards and councils for medical education and training. The Cardiovascular Disease Services at WRAMC and NNMC parallel each other in providing clinical and educational facilities. The clinical inpatient facilities include active Coronary Care and telemetry units, Cardiac Catheterization Laboratories that include Electrophysiology facilities, and cardiac rehabilitation. Each hospital has an active Outpatient Cardiology Clinic, Echocardiography
  • 2. Laboratory that includes advanced diagnostic capabilities, Exercise Testing Laboratory, ECG Clinic, and Nuclear Cardiology. Each hospital has a medical library and the National Library of Medicine and NIH are located adjacent to the Bethesda campus. The cardiology service at each hospital has a conference room with state of the art audiovisual facilities and support. Computers and audiovisual resources are readily accessible at both clinic sites for fellow use. The Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (USUHS) utilizes both WRAMC and NNMC as primary teaching hospitals. Both Cardiology services and the fellowship program maintain an intimate relationship with the medical school. Cardiology staff members at both hospitals maintain active academic appointments at the medical school, and fellows are appointed as clinical instructors. Full-time faculty at the school participate actively in fellow training, and the research programs at USUHS serve as a rich resource for fellow participation. FACULTY The primary faculty for the Cardiovascular Fellowship is composed of the Cardiology staff members at WRAMC and NNMC. Significant time commitments for teaching are also assumed by faculty from USUHS. All faculty members are ABIM certified or eligible in Cardiovascular disease and may maintain membership in varied professional organizations such as the American College of Cardiology, American Heart Association, and American College of Physicians. All staff members maintain active appointments at USUHS and participate actively in its educational mission. TRAINEE SUPERVISION AND EVALUATION The Program Director is responsible for fellow evaluation and supervision. The Program Director is advised and assisted by an Education Committee composed of himself, Associate Program Directors, Chiefs of Cardiology at the primary hospital sites, Training Officers, Fellow representatives (one each Service), and others as appointed by the Director on an ad hoc basis. This committee composition reflects the active participation of the Cardiology Services at WRAMC and NNMC in the training process and assures appropriate communication and oversight at the two sites. This structure also assures that staff members are identified at each site to serve as representatives of the Program Director in his absence, maintaining educational continuity and serving as resources immediately available to trainees. Trainees are board certified or eligible in Internal Medicine. They are expected to assume responsibility commensurate with that level of training throughout the fellowship. They are expected as well to assume progressive supervised responsibility in the care of cardiac patients commensurate with their level of fellowship training and skill as assessed by the periodic formal evaluation
  • 3. process to be discussed below. Site supervision of trainees is the responsibility of staff members or research mentors designated on a rotation-specific basis as described in the sections describing specific rotations. These individuals are also responsible for the rotation evaluation process. At all times trainees are expected to conform to the highest standards of conduct required of members of the Armed Forces, the American Board of Internal Medicine, the medical profession, and this fellowship program. Procedural supervision: Central venous catheters and long venous lines inserted in the intensive care unit do not require staff supervision. All invasive arterial procedures (except radial arterial lines for ICU monitoring) require direct, on-site staff supervision. All cath lab procedures are performed with direct, on-site, staff supervision. Clinical supervision: All clinic appointments and new patient consults are discussed with an on-site staff supervisor. All inpatient consultations are seen by supervising staff cardiologist with written documentation in the inpatient record. After-hours supervision: Fellows on the call schedule all have a designated (written schedule) staff cardiologist available 24 hours per day, 7 days per week, for consultation/back- up support. All inpatient consultations from the on-call fellow are seen by a staff cardiologist, in a time-frame (immediate or deferred to next day) based on the clinical circumstance and medical acuity of the patient. Evaluation of trainees will focus on the observation, assessment, and substantiation of comprehensive and specialized medical knowledge and provision of medical care. Skills to be evaluated include medical history taking, physical examination, clinical judgement, management and consultation skills, ability to critically analyze clinical situations, and ability to make and implement medical decisions. Fellows will be evaluated with respect to technical proficiency, communications skills, humanistic qualities, professional attitudes and behaviors, and commitment to scholarship. Maintenance of medical records and logbooks will be assessed. Maintenance of appropriate logbooks for documentation and credentialing purposes will be required. Fellows are required to file an Officer Evaluation Report Support Form (DA form 67-9-1) at the beginning of each academic year, specifying goals and objectives for the coming year. The job description of this position is as follows: • Evaluate and treat a large number of outpatients with complicated cardiovascular disease. • Screen, triage, and manage phone consultations from the WRAMC catchment area.
  • 4. • Evaluate and treat a large number of inpatients, both as primary provider and consultant. • Perform emergency consultations after scheduled duty hours. • Learn invasive techniques under staff supervision, including diagnostic catheterization, temporary transvenous pacing, and transesophageal echocardiography. • Become expert in noninvasive procedures such as transthoracic and stress echocardiography. • Supervise and teach medical students, interns and residents in a variety of hospital settings. • Maintain high standards of professional courtesy. • Participate in a rigorous academic program including research, public speaking and daily conferences towards goal of board certification in cardiology. The support form should include goals and objectives for the academic year, being as quantitative as possible in the following areas: Patient Care: Procedural numbers, procedural skills Academic: Manuscripts, protocols/research, abstracts, lectures Education: Self-education/learning Military: APFT, appearance/bearing Personal: Community service, etc. Formal evaluation procedures include: 1. Monthly written summaries based upon specific rotation performance. This includes performance review with the trainee. 2. Quarterly review of training evaluations by the Program Director. 3. Routine review of all conferences presented by trainees 4. Bi-annual review of trainee progress by the Program Director and faculty with feedback to trainees. 5. Annual written reviews by the Program Director including feedback to the trainee. This includes a summary review upon conclusion of the fellowship. 6. Annual in-service examination, with confidentially-disclosed results to evaluate the effectiveness of the individual trainee’s and the programs educational curriculum. 7. Annual reports filed with ACGME, ABIM, and Army GME (DA form 1970) 8. Annual Officer Evaluation Report (DA form 67-9). This process is designed to document trainee strengths and weaknesses, providing the opportunity to construct programs for remediation as needed. The Program Director and WRAMC Medical Education Office maintain records of the evaluation process. Fellows are encouraged to evaluate the faculty and program yearly, and are encouraged to provide specific comments as required.
  • 5. ACADEMIC CONFERENCES The Cardiovascular Disease Fellowship Program maintains an active conference schedule in which active participation by trainees is required. The Program Director or designee regards conference attendance, participation, and presentation as key parts of the educational process. Fellow performance of these elements is routinely assessed. Teaching conferences are conducted on a bimonthly basis in combined format as well as separately in a hospital-specific format. Both the Combined Conferences as well as hospital-specific conferences are considered part of the fellowship curriculum and are supervised by the Program Director and members of the Education Committee. All conferences are published on schedules distributed on a monthly basis at the teaching hospitals. COMBINED CONFERENCE This conference occurs monthly on Wednesday afternoons at 1500-1700. A second monthly combined conference occurs in the evening of the third Wednesday of the month. The Combined Conference is a joint conference involving all fellows as well as the staff at WRAMC and NNMC and is held alternating in site between the hospitals. The first portion of the Combined conference is 90 minutes, consisting of a 3 topic-based subject reviews (incorporating both basic and clinical science) prepared by designated fellows with staff supervision. The intent is to cover a basic core cardiovascular curriculum in about 24 months. The schedule for the subject reviews is updated yearly and published in June by the Program Director. The second portion of the Combined conference consists of a monthly Research Conference. Research Conference (monthly) is a practical conference that serves as a forum for review and exploration of research projects in which trainees and staff members are participating as investigators. This conference includes a series of talks on medical statistics and principles of study design by the full-time research director. The didactic lectures cover a range of basic topics including hemodynamics, basic electrophysiology, and principles of revascularization--areas in which a staff review or introduction of a topic lays an appropriate foundation for fellow reading or other activities such as activity in the cardiac catheterization laboratory. The USUHS Cardiovascular Conference is a monthly (3rd Wed evening) meeting that includes a one hour presentation of clinical or basic science research topics presented by clinicians and scientists from the local academic community including this fellowship program. Guest speakers are also invited to speak
  • 6. periodically. Clinical topics, problems, and vignettes are also presented. This conference is an adjunct to the Monthly Research Conference. HOSPITAL SPECIFIC CONFERENCES These conferences are scheduled on a routine basis at WRAMC and NNMC and are participated in by the staff of the respective Cardiology Services as well as by the trainees rotating at the specific site. They are regarded as an important educational venue and are supervised by the Program Director and members of the faculty. • Journal Club (monthly to twice monthly) at WRAMC and NNMC consists of a focused review of a topic based on pertinent citations from the medical literature. Topics may be from basic or clinical science and are often chosen to illustrate appropriate assessment of study design and reporting, as well as the evaluation of medical literature and topics in clinical epidemiology. This conference may be viewed as an adjunct to the Research conference in the teaching of study design and interpretation. • Cardiology/Cardiothoracic Surgery Conference. Weekly at WRAMC and NNMC. Friday 1300/0700. Joint conference reviews cases of potential candidates for revascularization with emphasis on indications and educational topics pertinent to the area. • Imaging Conference. Monthly at NNMC (Tues 0700) and weekly at WRAMC (Mondays). Review of topics and technique in echocardiography, stress echocardiography, transesophageal echocardiography, cardiovascular MR, and vascular imaging. Frequently case-based. Fellow directed with staff supervision. • Cath/Interventional Conference. Weekly at WRAMC (Wed 0730) and NNMC (Wed 0700). Discussion of topics in interventional cardiology and cardiac catheterization. Presented by interventional staff and fellows.-Cath Conference/Clinical Conference. Reviews of clinical topics and problems, hemodynamics. May be based on active cath cases or assigned topic. Fellow directed with staff supervision. • ECG/EP Conference. Weekly at WRAMC (Friday 0730) and at NNMC (1st Tues 0700/4th Tues 0700). Staff directed review of topics in electrocardiography, electrophysiology, and cardiac pacing, including emphasis on unknown tracings. Supplements routine daily ECG interpretation sessions at 0700 by first year fellows rotating at WRAMC and fellow reading at NNMC under staff supervision. • Nuclear Cardiology Conference. Monthly at WRAMC (2nd Tues 0730). Clinical correlative sessions presented by Nuclear Medicine staff (scan v.cath). Also basic lecture series in Nuclear Cardiology topics: (a) Assessment for inducible perfusion abnormalities (perfusion scanning), (b) myocardial viability testing (PET scan, nuclear studies), (c) myocardial function (MUGA), (d) pulmonary embolism and lung scans. • AFIP Pathology Correlation. Monthly at WRAMC (0730 3rd Tues.) Topics in
  • 7. cardiac pathology and histopathology including autopsy correlation. AFIP staff. • Clinical Conference: Thursday 0730, WRAMC. Didactic sessions reviewing topics in outpatient, inpatient, and consultative cardiology on a rotating basis. Includes dedicated monthly conference on auscultation skills. • Internal Medicine Grand Rounds. WRAMC and NNMC. Weekly. • QA/PI. Monthly at WRAMC and NNMC. Dates TBA. Staff and fellows participate in QA/RM process. Includes discussion of principles, objectives, and processes of continuous quality assurance and improvement and risk management. Emphasized conference. YEARLY CONFERENCE/TRAINING (a) Orientation Conference for New Fellows. Provides basic orientation to policies and procedures of fellowship program. Introduction of key personnel and sections. Orientation to facilities. Radiation safety lecture by Hospital Radiation Safety Officer. Training manual distributed. (b) Birth Month Review/Command Orientation. Required of all personnel, includes OSHA Brief and Universal Precautions.
  • 8. CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE FELLOWSHIP ROTATIONS CORONARY CARE/INPATIENT Goals: To provide the Fellow with extensive experience in the management of patients with a wide variety and breadth of complexity of cardiovascular disorders in an inpatient setting. Site: WRAMC and NNMC. Coronary Care Unit and Step-down wards. Responsibilities: Evaluation and management of all team patients admitted to the wards under the supervision of the Attending Staff Cardiologist. To function as "junior attending physician". Supervises and participates in education of housestaff and medical students rotating on the service. Direct supervision of all care including participation in cardiac catheterization and other diagnostic studies. Assist in interventional cases. Immediate responsibilities as assigned by the Attending Staff. Orientation SOP prepared by medical director of WRAMC CCU further defines fellow and staff responsibilities related to staff beds. Skills: Cardiovascular history and physical exam; ACLS and life support techniques; Invasive hemodynamic monitoring performance and assessment; temporary pacing, transvenous and transthoracic, pacemaker management in the critical care setting, troubleshooting, management of intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation (IABP), Mechanical ventilator management, management of critically ill patients including acute myocardial infarction, cardiogenic shock, cardiac arrest, complicated arrhythmias, and other serious illnesses. Prerequisites: Rotations in the cardiac catheterization laboratory, outpatient clinic, and noninvasive labs. Supervision/Evaluation: Supervised directly and closely by Attending Staff Cardiologist assigned to the service who is responsible for formal evaluation at the end of the rotation. Standard: Independent care of patients with common and complex cardiac diagnoses in the inpatient setting. CARDIAC CATHETERIZATION LABORATORY ROTATION Goals: Acquire facility and experience leading to qualification to perform independently diagnostic cardiac catheterizations upon completion of the fellowship. This is not a rotation providing training in interventional techniques. The trainee will develop a comprehensive understanding of the indications, contraindications, limitations, complications, techniques, and interpretation of the results of these technical procedures integral to modern cardiology. This will include knowledge of and skill in education patients about the technique,
  • 9. rationale for, and ramifications of the procedures, including obtaining informed consent. Site: WRAMC and NNMC Responsibilities: Precatheterization assessment; planning of diagnostic procedure; performance of procedure and post-procedure care; evaluation of results and participation in therapeutic decisions based on results. A case log will be maintained including patient name, ID, date, procedure, staff, and any complications. Presentation of cases at case management conference and joint medical-surgical conference. Skills: Vascular access; right and left heart catheterization including hemodynamic assessment; temporary pacemaker placement; intracardiac oximetry and shunt assessment; cardiac outpatient calculation including the Fick principle, pulmonary angiography, coronary angiography, fluoroscopy, saphenous graft and internal mammary angiography, aortography, ventriculography, ergonovine provocation, assessment of valvular heart disease, IABP placement; pericardiocentesis, endomyocardial biopsy, utilization of intracoronary lytic agents, management of the complications of cardiac catheterization. Supervision/Evaluation: Fellows in the cardiac catheterization laboratory are directly supervised by the Attending Staff Cardiologist assigned to specific cases and generally by the Director of the Laboratory. Continuous feedback is provided during the rotation and a formal evaluation is completed at the end of the rotation by the responsible Attending Cardiologist(s). The logbook is reviewed by the Program Director on a periodic basis. Standard: Independent performance and interpretation of cardiac catheterization procedures. ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY Goals: Experience needed to perform and interpret standard transthoracic echo studies including Doppler studies in both inpatients and outpatients with a wide variety of cardiovascular disorders. Obtain Level Two certification as described by the American Society of Echocardiography. Obtain exposure to other techniques of interventional echocardiography including transesophageal echo and exercise and pharmacologic stress echo. Responsibilities: Participate in the daily interpretation of echocardiographic studies with the assigned Attending Cardiologist; participate in the performance of studies as duties permit. Note: this rotation is a component of the Clinic Rotation at NNMC and will reflect the other responsibilities of that rotation. Responsible for echo conference
  • 10. presentation. Supervision/Evaluation: Supervision provided on a day to day basis by the assigned Staff Cardiologist. Written evaluation completed at the end of the rotation as well as routine verbal assessments. Standard: Independent interpretation and performance of transthoracic echo. SPECIAL ECHO Goals: Broad exposure and facility in techniques of interventional echocardiography. Transesophageal echo, pharmacologic stress, and exercise stress studies. Learn uses, limitations, and complications of procedures. Experience may be sufficient for credentialing. Site: WRAMC Responsibility: Perform and interpret interventional echo studies under the supervision of the Attending Staff Cardiologist. Perform pre-procedure assessment and counseling. Post-procedure interpretation with Staff. Monitor for complications. Fellows rotating in the stress echo lab at WRAMC participate one morning per week in the vascular diagnostics laboratory in the Vascular Surgery Service. Prerequisites: Prior rotations in standard echocardiography with demonstrated proficiency in same. Supervision/Evaluation: Assigned attending cardiologist provides ongoing verbal assessments and written evaluation at end of rotation. Standard: Understanding of the uses of and indications for special echo study. Basic facility in performance and interpretation of the studies with total caseload to determine credentialing status. NUCLEAR CARDIOLOGY AND CARDIOVASCULAR MR Goals: Gain a working knowledge of the types, indications, and technical performance details of radionuclide studies and cardiovascular MR for assessment of myocardial perfusion and cardiac function. Working knowledge of radiopharmaceuticals. Sites: NNMC and WRAMC Responsibility: Performance of exercise studies for perfusion imaging; administration of pharmacologic stress agents; participation in joint reading sessions (Cardiology and Nuclear Medicine); presentation of cases and
  • 11. discussion as assigned for clinical conferences. Participate in the cardiovascular MR service at NNMC one morning per week. Supervision/Evaluation: Supervision and evaluation by Director of Nuclear Cardiology. Written evaluation at end of rotation and verbal feedback through daily interactions. Standard: Understanding of the uses of and indications for nuclear medicine studies in the context of modern cardiology. Credentialing not implied. Note: This rotation at NNMC is linked to the rotation in Cardiac Rehabilitation. CARDIAC REHABILITATION Goals: Provide the trainee with a firm foundation in the physiology and clinical application of cardiac rehabilitation. Site: NNMC; Cardiac Rehabilitation Clinic Skills/Knowledge: Normal exercise physiology; Exercise as Therapy; Exercise prescription in various subgroups--heart failure, post-MI, cardiac transplantation, post-revascularization, risk factor modification--diet, tobacco, exercise hyperlipidemia (this latter in conjunction with core lectures in hyperlipidemia management); Graduated rehabilitation. Responsibilities: Evaluation and management of all patients referred for rehabilitation working with Medical Director of Rehabilitation and clinical staff, liaison with inpatient cardiology team; develop exercise prescriptions; presentation of cases and discussion as assigned for clinical conferences. Supervision/Evaluation: Supervised by Director of Cardiac Rehabilitation and clinical staff. Standard: Understanding of cardiac rehabilitation and its application to cardiac patients. ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY Goals: Promote an in-depth understanding of the physiology of arrhythmogenesis and apply this understanding to the analysis and treatment of rhythm disturbances; this rotation does not serve as a substitute for the formal training required for subspecialty certification in electrophysiology. Site: NNMC and WRAMC as fulltime rotations; WRAMC as a portion of the echo rotation (one morning each per week in EP lab and in Pacemaker Clinic).
  • 12. Skills: Exposure and/or proficiency in the interpretation of invasive and noninvasive electrophysiologic (EP) studies, electrocardiography, ambulatory electrocardiography, and the performance of those studies; familiarity with the indications, contraindications and complications of invasive EP studies; extensive exposure to the diagnosis and management of dysrhythmias; antiarrhythmic agent pharmacology, indications, contraindications, mechanisms of action, and principles of prescription as well as side effects. Procedural skills: temporary pacemaker placement, right heart catheterization, subclavian and jugular venous access, pace-termination of arrhythmias, placement of standard electrode catheters in the coronary sinus and right ventricle for EP studies. Exposure to transseptal catheterization, permanent pacemaker and defibrillator insertion. Pacemaker Clinic: indications for and management for standard pacemakers; basic electrophysiology of pacemakers; timing cycles; programmer use and troubleshooting; complications and their management. Responsibilities: Participation in evaluation and management of EP patients on inpatient services; assistance in preoperative and postoperative assessment; assist in invasive EP procedures and pacemaker clinic; interpret ambulatory ECG, event monitor, and signal averaged studies; clinical conferences as assigned. Supervision/Evaluation: Attending Staff electrophysiologists and pacemaker clinic staff with formal evaluation at the end of the rotation. Standard: Understanding of arrhythmogenesis and the application of modern techniques of electrophysiology to arrhythmia management. Basic pacemaker management and programming. PEDIATRIC CARDIOLOGY Goal: Obtain increased understanding of the embryology, anatomy, physiology and pathophysiology of congenital heart disease leading to increased expertise in the managementof adult congenital heart disease. Responsibilities: Participate in consultation services and outpatient clinic including active participation in the echocardiography laboratory. Exposure to pediatric cardiac catheterization. Supervision/Evaluation: Attending staff pediatric cardiologists including written evaluation at the rotation end. Standard: Familiarity with common problems in pediatric cardiology and application to patients with adult congenital heart disease.
  • 13. CARDIOLOGY CLINICS AMBULATORY CARDIOLOGY AND CONSULT ROTATION Goals: (a) Acquire skills needed to be an effective consultative cardiologist in the inpatient and outpatient setting. (b) Instill and improve skills needed in the outpatient diagnosis and management of patients with a wide spectrum of cardiac disorders, including principles of long term follow up and knowledge of natural history of disease. (c) Improved skills in teaching. Site: WRAMC and NNMC. Note that this is a combined rotation at NNMC and is constructed as separate rotations at WRAMC (Consult and Ambulatory Cardiology). Goals are the same. Skills: Elucidation of cardiac history; proficiency in physical examination, appropriate selection and evaluation of noninvasive and studies; medical decision making, consideration of disease incidence and the application of screening techniques including application of Bayes’ theorem to cardiovascular risk assessment and screening techniques such as exercise testing, exercise imaging studies and electron beam (rapid) CT; patient education and counseling including consideration of cultural, social, family, behavioral, and economic issues; interaction with referring and primary physicians; disease risk assessment; preoperative risk assessment and perioperative cardiac management; management of cardiac risk factors including lipids and lifestyle modification. Responsibilities: Evaluation and management of patients assigned for care in a designated continuity of care clinic that is sustained throughout the 36 months of fellowship; performance and interpretation of exercise stress tests; inpatient cardiology consultation; Cardiac Arrest Team Membership as consultant (NNMC); echo rotation (NNMC); assist with other non-routine clinical duties as requested by the Clinic Attending (WRAMC) or Staff Duty Cardiologist (NNMC). During the Ambulatory Cardiology rotation at WRAMC fellows rotate through multiple ambulatory clinics including those concentrating on congestive heart failure, pacemaker management, defibrillator management, ambulatory electrocardiography, and the stress laboratory in addition to a biweekly continuity clinic. Supervision/Evaluation: Clinic Attending/Staff Duty Cardiologist/ Inpatient Staff Cardiologist (NNMC)/Director of Clinic. Written evaluation at end of rotation. Direct fellow supervision with an educational interaction between the fellow and responsible staff is provided for every trainee/patient interaction.
  • 14. Standard: Ability to function independently as consultative cardiologist for patients with a variety of common and complex cardiac problems in the inpatient and outpatient venues. RESEARCH ROTATIONS Goals: Gain the skills required for the analysis of contemporary basic and applied research as it applies to cardiac disease. Site: Varied; dedicated research rotations are scheduled interspersed in the second and third years of fellowship and can be tailored to individual needs including a rotation in the first year. Skills: Examination of scientific literature; identification of hypotheses for testing; design of focused research plan; implementation of the plan including data analysis and manuscript preparation; scholarly presentations. Responsibilities: Fellows are expected to identify an area of focused interest during the first year of the fellowship, forming a fellow-mentor relationship to further focus a plan for a research project. It is required that each fellow write an original research proposal and submit it for formal approval to the Department of Clinical Investigation. THE DEADLINE FOR THIS PROTOCOL IS JANUARY OF THE FIRST YEAR OF THE FELLOWSHIP. This may be either basic or clinical research; and may involve collaboration with other fellows in projects that require extended time periods for their evolution. It is recognized that interest, need, and opportunity may vary for individual fellows; however the principle of organized intellectual activity of scholarly merit is not variable. Presentation of plans and periodic updates at the monthly Research Conference is mandatory. Principal Investigators are required to complete the online research course through the WRAMC Department of Clinical Investigation (available through the WRAMC website). Supervision/Evaluation: Responsibility of the research mentor and monitored by the Director of Research. Peer review at Research Conferences as well as progress monitored by the Program Director. ELECTIVE ROTATIONS Elective rotations may be constructed for available months regarding areas of special interest; this may be clinical or research. Approval requires presentation of a focused, well-considered plan by the fellow to the Program Director. Supervision and evaluation provided by the instructor of the rotation. RECOMMENDED READING
  • 15. General Cardiology Braunwald Hurst Scientific American Echocardiography Feigenbaum Mayo Clinic Tapes Electrocardiography Chou Marriott Stress Testing (including exercise physiology) Ellestadt Catheterization and Hemodynamics Grossman King Electrophysiology Zipes Podrid Journals Journal of the American College of Cardiology Circulation American Heart Journal Cardiology Clinics New England Journal of Medicine American Journal of Cardiology Annals of Internal Medicine

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