National water policy__2012_
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Transcripts - National water policy__2012_
NATIONAL WATER POLICY (2012)
A scarce natural resource, water is fundamental to
life, livelihood, food security and sustainable
India has more than 18 % of the world’s population,
but has only 4% of world’s renewable water resources
and 2.4% of world’s land area.
There are further limits on utilizable quantities of
water owing to uneven distribution over time and
In addition, there are challenges of frequent floods
With a growing population and rising needs of a fast
developing nation as well as the given indications of the
impact of climate change, availability of utilizable water will
be under further strain in future with the possibility of
deepening water conflicts among different user groups.
Low consciousness about the scarcity of water and its life
sustaining and economic value results in its mismanagement,
wastage, and inefficient use, as also pollution and reduction
of flows below minimum ecological needs.
In addition, there are inequities in distribution and lack of a
unified perspective in planning, management and use of
The objective of the National Water Policy is to take
cognizance of the existing situation, to propose a framework
for creation of a system of laws and institutions and for a
plan of action with a unified national perspective.
1.1 The present scenario of water resources and their
management in India has given rise to several concerns,
important amongst them are;
(i) Large parts of India have already become water stressed.
Rapid growth in demand for water due to population
growth, urbanization and changing lifestyle pose serious
challenges to water security.
(ii) Issues related to water governance have not been
addressed adequately. Mismanagement of water resources
has led to a critical situation in many parts of the country.
(iii) There is wide temporal and spatial variation in availability
of water, which may increase substantially due to a
combination of climate change, causing deepening of water
crisis and incidences of water related disasters, i.e., floods,
increased erosion and increased frequency of droughts,
(iv) Climate change may also increase the sea levels. This may lead to
salinity intrusion in ground water aquifers / surface waters and
increased coastal inundation in coastal regions, adversely
impacting habitations, agriculture and industry in such regions.
(v) Access to safe water for drinking and other domestic needs still
continues to be a problem in many areas. Skewed availability of
water between different regions and different people in the same
region and also the intermittent and unreliable water supply
system has the potential of causing social unrest.
(vi) Groundwater, though part of hydrological cycle and a community
resource, is still perceived as an individual property and is
exploited inequitably and without any consideration to its
sustainability leading to its over-exploitation in several areas.
(vii) Water resources projects, though multi-disciplinary with multiple
stakeholders, are being planned and implemented in a fragmented
manner without giving due consideration to optimum utilization,
environment sustainability and holistic benefit to the people.
(viii) Inter-regional, inter-State, intra-State, as also inter-sectoral
disputes in sharing of water, strain relationships and hamper the
optimal utilization of water through scientific planning on
(ix) Grossly inadequate maintenance of existing irrigation
infrastructure has resulted in wastage and under-utilization of
available resources. There is a widening gap between irrigation
potential created and utilized.
(x) Natural water bodies and drainage channels are being
encroached upon, and diverted for other purposes.
Groundwater recharge zones are often blocked.
(xi) Growing pollution of water sources, especially through
industrial effluents, is affecting the availability of safe water
besides causing environmental and health hazards. In many
parts of the country, large stretches of rivers are both heavily
polluted and devoid of flows to support aquatic ecology,
cultural needs and aesthetics.
(xii) Access to water for sanitation and hygiene is an even more
serious problem. Inadequate sanitation and lack of sewage
treatment are polluting the water sources.
(xiii) Low consciousness about the overall scarcity and economic
value of water results in its wastage and inefficient use.
(xiv) The lack of adequate trained personnel for scientific
planning, utilizing modern techniques and analytical
capabilities incorporating information technology constrains
good water management.
(xv) A holistic and inter-disciplinary approach at water related
problems is missing.
(xvi) The public agencies in charge of taking water related
decisions tend to take these on their own without
consultation with stakeholders, often resulting in poor and
unreliable service characterized by inequities of various
(xvii) Characteristics of catchment areas of streams, rivers and
recharge zones of aquifers are changing as a consequence of
land use and land cover changes, affecting water resource
availability and quality.
1.3 Public policies on water resources need to be governed by
certain basic principles, so that there is some commonality
in approaches in dealing with planning, development and
management of water resources. These basic principles are:
(i) Planning, development and management of water resources
need to be governed by common integrated perspective
considering local, regional, State and national context, having
an environmentally sound basis, keeping in view the human,
social and economic needs.
(ii) Principle of equity and social justice must inform use and
allocation of water.
(iii) Good governance through transparent informed decision
making is crucial to the objectives of equity, social justice and
sustainability. Meaningful intensive participation,
transparency and accountability should guide decision
making and regulation of water resources.
(iv) Water needs to be managed as a common pool
community resource held, by the state, under public
trust doctrine to achieve food security, support
livelihood, and ensure equitable and sustainable
development for all.
(v) Water is essential for sustenance of eco-system, and
therefore, minimum ecological needs should be given
(vi) Safe Water for drinking and sanitation should be
considered as pre-emptive needs, followed by high
priority allocation for other basic domestic needs
(including needs of animals), achieving food security,
supporting sustenance agriculture and minimum eco-
system needs. Available water, after meeting the above
needs, should be allocated in a manner to promote its
conservation and efficient use.
(vii) All the elements of the water cycle, i.e., evapo-transpiration,
precipitation, runoff, river, lakes, soil moisture, and ground water,
sea, etc., are interdependent and the basic hydrological unit is the
river basin, which should be considered as the basic hydrological unit
(viii) Given the limits on enhancing the availability of utilizable water
resources and increased variability in supplies due to climate change,
meeting the future needs will depend more on demand
management, and hence, this needs to be given priority, especially
through (a) evolving an agricultural system which economizes on
water use and maximizes value from water, and (b) bringing in
maximum efficiency in use of water and avoiding wastages.
(ix) Water quality and quantity are interlinked and need to be managed
in an integrated manner, consistent with broader environmental
management approaches inter-alia including the use of economic
incentives and penalties to reduce pollution and wastage.
(x) The impact of climate change on water resources availability must be
factored into water management related decisions. Water using
activities need to be regulated keeping in mind the local geo climatic
and hydrological situation.
2. WATER FRAMEWORK LAW
2.1 There is a need to evolve a National Framework Law
as an umbrella statement of general principles
governing the exercise of legislative and/or executive
(or devolved) powers by the Centre, the States and the
local governing bodies. This should lead the way for
essential legislation on water governance in every State
of the Union and devolution of necessary authority to
the lower tiers of government to deal with the local
2.2 Such a framework law must recognize water not only
as a scarce resource but also as a sustainer of life and
ecology. Therefore, water, particularly, groundwater,
needs to be managed as a community resource held,
by the state, under public trust doctrine to achieve
food security, livelihood, and equitable and sustainable
development for all. Existing Acts may have to be
2.3 There is a need for comprehensive legislation for
optimum development of inter- State rivers and
river valleys to facilitate inter-State coordination
ensuring scientific planning of land and water
resources taking basin/sub-basin as unit with
unified perspectives of water in all its forms
(including precipitation, soil moisture, ground and
surface water) and ensuring holistic and balanced
development of both the catchment and the
command areas. Such legislation needs, inter alia,
to deal with and enable establishment of basin
authorities, comprising party States, with
appropriate powers to plan, manage and regulate
utilization of water resource in the basins.
3. USES OF WATER
3.1 Water is required for domestic, agricultural, hydro-power,
thermal power, navigation, recreation, etc. Utilisation in all
these diverse uses of water should be optimized and an
awareness of water as a scarce resource should be fostered.
3.2 The Centre, the States and the local bodies (governance
institutions) must ensure access to a minimum quantity of
potable water for essential health and hygiene to all its
citizens, available within easy reach of the household.
3.3 Ecological needs of the river should be determined, through
scientific study, recognizing that the natural river flows are
characterized by low or no flows, small floods (freshets),
large floods, etc., and should accommodate developmental
needs. A portion of river flows should be kept aside to meet
ecological needs ensuring that the low and high flow releases
are proportional to the natural flow regime, including base
flow contribution in the low flow season through regulated
ground water use.
3.4 Rivers and other water bodies should be considered
for development for navigation as far as possible and
all multipurpose projects over water bodies should
keep navigation in mind right from the planning stage.
3.5 In the water rich eastern and north eastern regions of
India, the water use infrastructure is weak and needs
to be strengthened in the interest of food security.
3.6 Community should be sensitized and encouraged to
adapt first to utilization of water as per local availability
of waters, before providing water through long
distance transfer. Community based water
management should be institutionalized and
4. ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
4.1 Climate change is likely to increase the variability of water
resources affecting human health and livelihoods. Therefore,
special impetus should be given towards mitigation at micro level
by enhancing the capabilities of community to adopt climate
resilient technological options.
4.2 The anticipated increase in variability in availability of water
because of climate change should be dealt with by increasing
water storage in its various forms, namely, soil moisture, ponds,
ground water, small and large reservoirs and their combination.
States should be incentivized to increase water storage capacity,
which inter-alia should include revival of traditional water
harvesting structures and water bodies.
4.3 The adaptation strategies could also include better demand
management, particularly, through adoption of compatible
agricultural strategies and cropping patterns and improved water
application methods, such as land leveling and/or drip / sprinkler
irrigation as they enhance the water use efficiency, as also, the
capability for dealing with increased variability because of climate
change. Similarly, industrial processes should be made more water
4.4 Stakeholder participation in land-soil-water
management with scientific inputs from local research
and academic institutions for evolving different
agricultural strategies, reducing soil erosion and
improving soil fertility should be promoted. The
specific problems of hilly areas like sudden run off,
weak water holding capacity of soil, erosion and
sediment transport and recharging of hill slope aquifers
should be adequately addressed.
4.5 Planning and management of water resources
structures, such as, dams, flood embankments, tidal
embankments, etc., should incorporate coping
strategies for possible climate changes. The
acceptability criteria in regard to new water resources
projects need to be re-worked in view of the likely
5. ENHANCING WATER AVAILABLE FOR USE
5.1 The availability of water resources and its use by various sectors in
various basin and States in the country need to be assessed
scientifically and reviewed at periodic intervals, say, every five
years. The trends in water availability due to various factors
including climate change must be assessed and accounted for
during water resources planning.
5.2 The availability of water is limited but the demand of water is
increasing rapidly due to growing population, rapid urbanization,
rapid industrialization and economic development. Therefore,
availability of water for utilization needs to be augmented to meet
increasing demands of water. Direct use of rainfall, desalination
and avoidance of inadvertent evapo-transpiration are the new
additional strategies for augmenting utilizable water resources.
5.3 There is a need to map the aquifers to know the quantum and
quality of ground water resources (replenishable as well as non-
replenishable) in the country. This process should be fully
participatory involving local communities. This may be periodically
5.4 Declining ground water levels in over-exploited areas need to be
arrested by introducing improved technologies of water use,
incentivizing efficient water use and encouraging community
based management of aquifers. In addition, where necessary,
artificial recharging projects should be undertaken so that
extraction is less than the recharge. This would allow the aquifers
to provide base flows to the surface system, and maintain ecology.
5.5 Inter-basin transfers are not merely for increasing production but
also for meeting basic human need and achieving equity and social
justice. Inter-basin transfers of water should be considered on the
basis of merits of each case after evaluating the environmental,
economic and social impacts of such transfers.
5.6 Integrated Watershed development activities with groundwater
perspectives need to be taken in a comprehensive manner to
increase soil moisture, reduce sediment yield and increase overall
land and water productivity. To the extent possible, existing
programs like MGNREGA may be used by farmers to harvest rain
water using farm ponds and other soil and water conservation
6. DEMAND MANAGEMENT AND WATER USE EFFICIENCY
6.1 A system to evolve benchmarks for water uses for different
purposes, i.e., water footprints, and water auditing should be
developed to promote and incentivize efficient use of water. The
‘project’ and the ‘basin’ water use efficiencies need to be improved
through continuous water balance and water accounting studies. An
institutional arrangement for promotion, regulation and evolving
mechanisms for efficient use of water at basin/sub-basin level will be
established for this purpose at the national level.
6.2 The project appraisal and environment impact assessment for water
uses, particularly for industrial projects, should, inter-alia, include the
analysis of the water footprints for the use.
6.3 Recycle and reuse of water, including return flows, should be the
6.4 Project financing should be structured to incentivize efficient &
economic use of water and facilitate early completion of ongoing
6.5 Water saving in irrigation use is of paramount importance.
Methods like aligning cropping pattern with natural resource
endowments, micro irrigation (drip, sprinkler, etc.),
automated irrigation operation, evaporation-transpiration
reduction, etc., should be encouraged and incentivized.
Recycling of canal seepage water through conjunctive ground
water use may also be considered.
6.6 Use of very small local level irrigation through small bunds,
field ponds, agricultural and engineering methods and
practices for watershed development, etc, need to be
encouraged. However, their externalities, both positive and
negative, like reduction of sediments and reduction of water
availability, downstream, may be kept in view.
6.7 There should be concurrent mechanism involving users for
monitoring if the water use pattern is causing problems like
unacceptable depletion or building up of ground waters,
salinity, alkalinity or similar quality problems, etc., with a
view to planning appropriate interventions.
7. WATER PRICING
7.1 Pricing of water should ensure its efficient use and
reward conservation. Equitable access to water for all
and its fair pricing, for drinking and other uses such as
sanitation, agricultural and industrial, should be arrived
at through independent statutory Water Regulatory
Authority, set up by each State, after wide ranging
consultation with all stakeholders.
7.2 In order to meet equity, efficiency and economic
principles, the water charges should preferably / as a
rule be determined on volumetric basis. Such charges
should be reviewed periodically.
7.3 Recycle and reuse of water, after treatment to
specified standards, should also be incentivized
through a properly planned tariff system.
7.4 The principle of differential pricing may be retained for the
pre-emptive uses of water for drinking and sanitation; and
high priority allocation for ensuring food security and
supporting livelihood for the poor. Available water, after
meeting the above needs, should increasingly be subjected to
allocation and pricing on economic principles so that water is
not wasted in unnecessary uses and could be utilized more
7.5 Water Users Associations (WUAs) should be given statutory
powers to collect and retain a portion of water charges,
manage the volumetric quantum of water allotted to them
and maintain the distribution system in their jurisdiction.
WUAs should be given the freedom to fix rates subject to
floor rates determined by WRAs.
7.6 The over-drawal of groundwater should be minimized by
regulating the use of electricity for its extraction. Separate
electric feeders for pumping ground water for agricultural
use should be considered.
CONSERVATION OF RIVER CORRIDORS, WATER BODIES AND
8.1 Conservation of rivers, river corridors, water
bodies and infrastructure should be undertaken in a
scientifically planned manner through community
participation. The storage capacities of water
bodies and water courses and/or associated
wetlands, the flood plains, ecological buffer and
areas required for specific aesthetic recreational
and/or social needs may be managed to the extent
possible in an integrated manner to balance the
flooding, environment and social issues as per
prevalent laws through planned development of
urban areas, in particular.
8.2 Encroachments and diversion of water bodies (like
rivers, lakes, tanks, ponds,etc.) and drainage
channels (irrigated area as well as urban area
drainage) must not be allowed, and wherever it has
taken place, it should be restored to the extent
feasible and maintained properly.
8.3 Urban settlements, encroachments and any
developmental activities in the protected upstream
areas of reservoirs/water bodies, key aquifer
recharge areas that pose a potential threat of
contamination, pollution, reduced recharge and
those endanger wild and human life should be
8.4 Environmental needs of Himalayan regions, aquatic
eco-system, wet lands and embanked flood plains
need to be recognized and taken into consideration
8.5 Sources of water and water bodies should not be
allowed to get polluted. System of third party
periodic inspection should be evolved and stringent
punitive actions be taken against the persons
responsible for pollution.
8.6 Quality conservation and improvements are even
more important for ground waters, since cleaning up
is very difficult. It needs to be ensured that industrial
effluents, local cess pools, residues of fertilizers and
chemicals, etc., do not reach
8.7 The water resources infrastructure should be
maintained properly to continue to get the intended
benefits. A suitable percentage of the costs of
infrastructure development may be set aside along
with collected water charges, for repair and
maintenance. Contract for construction of projects
should have inbuilt provision for longer periods of
proper maintenance and handing over back the
infrastructure in good condition.
8.8 Legally empowered dam safety services need to be
ensured in the States as well as at the Centre.
Appropriate safety measures, including downstream
flood management, for each dam should be
undertaken on top priority.
PROJECT PLANNING AND IMPLEMENTATION
9.1 Considering the existing water stress conditions in India
and the likelihood of further worsening situation due to
climate change and other factors, water resources projects
should be planned as per the efficiency benchmarks to be
prescribed for various situations.
9.2 Being inter-disciplinary in nature, water resources
projects should be planned considering social and
environmental aspects also in addition to techno-economic
considerations in consultation with project affected and
beneficiary families. The integrated water resources
management with emphasis on finding reasonable
andgenerally acceptable solutions for most of the
stakeholders should be followed for planning and
9.3 Considering the heavy economic loss due to delay
in implementation of projects, all clearances,
including environmental and investment
clearances, be made time bound.
9.4 Concurrent monitoring at project, State and the
Central level should be undertaken for timely
interventions to avoid time and cost over-runs.
9.5 All components of water resources projects
should be planned and executed in a pari-passu
manner so that intended benefits start accruing
immediately and there is no gap between potential
created and potential utilized.
9.6 Local governing bodies like Panchayats,
Municipalities, Corporations, etc., and Water Users
Associations, wherever applicable, should be
involved in planning of the projects. The unique
needs and aspirations of the Scheduled caste and
Scheduled Tribes, women and other weaker
sections of the society should be given due
9.7 All water resources projects, including hydro
power projects, should be planned to the extent
feasible as multi-purpose projects with provision of
storage to derive maximum benefit from available
topology and water resources.
MANAGEMENT OF FLOOD & DROUGHT
10.1 While every effort should be made to avert water
related disasters like floods and droughts, through
structural and non-structural measures, emphasis should
be on preparedness for flood / drought with coping
mechanisms as an option. Greater emphasis should be
placed on rehabilitation of natural drainage system.
10.2 Land, soil, energy and water management with scientific
inputs from local, research and scientific institutions should
be used to evolve different agricultural strategies and
improve soil and water productivity to manage droughts.
Integrated farming systems and non-agricultural
developments may also be considered for livelihood
support and poverty alleviation.
10.3 In order to prevent loss of land eroded by the river,
which causes permanent loss, revetments, spurs,
embankments, etc., should be planned, executed,
monitored and maintained on the basis of morphological
studies. This will become increasingly more important,
since climate change is likely to increase the rainfall
intensity, and hence, soil erosion.
10.4 Flood forecasting is very important for flood
preparedness and should be expanded extensively across
the country and modernized using real time data
acquisition system and linked to forecasting models.
Efforts should be towards developing physical models for
various basin sections, which should be linked to each
other and to medium range weather forecasts to
enhance lead time.
10.5 Operating procedures for reservoirs should be
evolved and implemented in such a manner to have
flood cushion and to reduce trapping of sediment
during flood season. These procedures should be
based on sound decision support system.
10.6 Protecting all areas prone to floods and droughts
may not be practicable; hence, methods for coping
with floods and droughts have to be encouraged.
Frequency based flood inundation maps should be
prepared to evolve coping strategies, including
preparedness to supply safe water during and
immediately after flood events. Communities need to
be involved in preparing an action plan for dealing
with the flood/ drought situations.
10.7 To increase preparedness for sudden and
unexpected flood related disasters,
dam/embankment break studies, as also
preparation and periodic updating of emergency
action plans / disaster management plans should be
evolved after involving affected communities. In
hilly reaches, glacial lake outburst flood and
landslide dam break floods studies with periodic
monitoring along with instrumentation, etc., should
be carried out.
WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION
11.1 There is a need to remove the large disparity
between stipulations for water supply in urban
areas and in rural areas. Efforts should be made to
provide improved water supply in rural areas with
proper sewerage facilities. Least water intensive
sanitation and sewerage systems with decentralized
sewage treatment plants should be incentivized.
11.2 Urban and rural domestic water supply should
preferably be from surface water in conjunction with
groundwater and rainwater. Where alternate supplies
are available, a source with better reliability and quality
needs to be assigned to domestic water supply.
Exchange of sources between uses, giving preference
to domestic water supply should be possible. Also,
reuse of urban water effluents from kitchens and
bathrooms, after primary treatment, in flush toilets
should be encouraged, ensuring no human contact.
11.3 Urban domestic water systems need to collect and
publish water accounts and water audit reports
indicating leakages and pilferages, which should be
reduced taking into due consideration social issues.
11.4 In urban and industrial areas, rainwater
harvesting and de-salinization, wherever techno-
economically feasible, should be encouraged to
increase availability of utilizable water.
Implementation of rainwater harvesting should
include scientific monitoring of parameters like
hydrogeology, groundwater contamination,
pollution and spring discharges.
11.5 Urban water supply and sewage treatment
schemes should be integrated and executed
simultaneously. Water supply bills should include
11.6 Industries in water short regions may be allowed
to either withdraw only the make up water or
should have an obligation to return treated effluent
to a specified standard back to the hydrologic
system. Tendencies to unnecessarily use more
water within the plant to avoid treatment or to
pollute ground water need to be prevented.
11.7 Subsidies and incentives should be implemented
to encourage recovery of industrial pollutants and
recycling / reuse, which are otherwise capital
12.1 There should be a forum at the national level to
deliberate upon issues relating to water and evolve
consensus, co-operation and reconciliation amongst
party States. A similar mechanism should be
established within each State to amicably resolve
differences in competing demands for water
amongst different users of water, as also between
different parts of the State.
12.2 A permanent Water Disputes Tribunal at the Centre
should be established to resolve the disputes expeditiously
in an equitable manner. Apart from using the „good
offices of the Union or the State Governments, as the case‟
may be, the paths of arbitration and mediation may also to
be tried in dispute resolution.
12.3 Water resources projects and services should be
managed with community participation. For improved
service delivery on sustainable basis, the State
Governments / urban local bodies may associate private
sector in public private partnership mode with penalties for
failure, under regulatory control on prices charged and
service standards with full accountability to democratically
elected local bodies.
12.4 Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) taking
river basin / sub-basin as a unit should be the main principle
for planning, development and management of water
resources. The departments / organizations at Centre / State
Governments levels should be restructured and made multi-
12.5 Appropriate institutional arrangements for each river basin
should be developed to collect and collate all data on regular
basis with regard to rainfall, river flows, area irrigated by
crops and by source, utilizations for various uses by both
surface and ground water and to publish water accounts on
ten daily basis every year for each river basin with
appropriate water budgets and water accounts based on the
hydrologic balances. In addition, water budgeting and water
accounting should be carried out for each aquifers.
12.6 Appropriate institutional arrangements for each
river basin should also be developed for monitoring
water quality in both surface and ground waters.
12.7 States should be encouraged and incentivized to
undertake reforms and progressive measures for
innovations, conservation and efficient utilization of
13.1 Even while accepting the principle of basin as a unit of
development, on the basis of practicability and easy
implementability, efforts should be made to enter
intointernational agreements with neighbouring countries
on bilateral basis for exchange of hydrological data of
international rivers on near real time basis.
13.2 Negotiations about sharing and management of water of
international rivers should be done on bilateral basis in
consultative association with riparian States keeping
paramount the national interest. Adequate institutional
arrangements at the Center should be set up to implement
DATABASE & INFORMATION SYSTEM
14.1 All hydrological data, other than those classified
on national security consideration, should be in
public domain. However, a periodic review for
further declassification of data may be carried out.
A National Water Informatics Center should be
established to collect, collate and process
hydrologic data regularly from all over the country,
conduct the preliminary processing, and maintain in
open and transparent manner on a GIS platform.
14.2 In view of the likely climate change, much more data
about snow and glaciers, evaporation, tidal hydrology
and hydraulics, river geometry changes, erosion,
sedimentation, etc. needs to be collected. A
programme of such data collection needs to be
developed and implemented.
14.3 All water related data, like rainfall, snowfall, geo-
morphological, climatic, geological, surface water,
ground water, water quality, ecological, water
extraction and use, irrigated area, glaciers, etc., should
be integrated with well defined procedures and
formats to ensure online updation and transfer of data
to facilitate development of database for informed
decision making in the management of water.
RESEARCH & TRAINING NEEDS
15.1 Continuing research and advancement in
technology shall be promoted to address issues in
the water sector in a scientific manner. Innovations
in water resources sector should be encouraged,
recognized and awarded.
15.2 It is necessary to give adequate grants to the
States to update technology, design practices,
planning and management practices, preparation of
annual water balances and accounts for the site and
basin, preparation of hydrologic balances for water
systems, benchmarking and performance
15.3 It needs to be recognized that the field practices
in the water sector in advanced countries have
been revolutionized by advances in information
technology and analytical capabilities. A re-training
and quality improvement programme for water
planners and managers at all levels in India, both in
private and public sectors, needs to be undertaken.
15.4 An autonomous center for research in water
policy should also be established to evaluate
impacts of policy decisions and to evolve policy
directives for changing scenario of water resources.
15.5 To meet the need of the skilled manpower in the
water sector, regular training and academic courses
in water management should be promoted. These
training and academic institutions should be
regularly updated by developing infrastructure and
promoting applied research, which would help to
improve the current procedures of analysis and
informed decision making in the line departments
and by the community. A national campaign for
water literacy needs to be started for capacity
building of different stakeholders in the water
IMPLEMENTATION OF NATIONAL WATER POLICY
16.1 National Water Board should prepare a plan of
action based on the National Water Policy, as
approved by the National Water Resources Council,
and to regularly monitor its implementation.
16.2 The State Water Policies may need to be
drafted/revised in accordance with this policy
keeping in mind the basic concerns and principles
as also a unified national perspective.