we consider polymer as a insulating material like plastic..to use a polymer as conducting polymer is a interested and informative process.
Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Transcripts - Polymer electronics
PRESENTED BY: PRESENTED TO:
SHIVANGI SHARMA PRAVEEN JAIN SIR
WHAT IS POLYMER ELECTRONICS?
Polymers are long-chain molecules consisting of many repeat units
to make a solid material.
Polymers are normally electrical insulators, but to enable their use in
electronics, conductive filler such as silver have been added to
chemical formulation to increase their electrical conductivity.
The merits in this research area, the Nobel Prize 2000 for Chemistry
was awarded to Alan J. Heeger, Alan G. MacDiarmid und Hideki
WHAT MAKES POLYMER SO SUITABLE
FOR ELECTRONICS APPLICATION?
Good insulator of heat
Can form any shape.
They have low density
They require low finishing cost.
Their toughness and ductility is good
Enhanced flexibility allowed for many application.
Solubility in organic solvents, variable processibility.
ELECTRIC CONDUCTOR POLYMER TYPES
Depending on the type of charge transport by the carriers responsible for it
Ionically conductive polymer:
It is used as a solid-state electrolyte in batteries.
Eg: poly ethylene oxide which contain lithium perchlorate(LiClO4).
1. Filled conductive polymers
2. Intrinsically conductive polymers
INTRINSICALLY CONDUCTIVE POLYMER
They do not incorporate any conductive additives.
They gain their electrical Conductivity through a property known
Conjugated polymers are doped with atoms that donate negative
or positive charges enabling current to travel down the polymer
TWO CONDITIONS TO BECOME CONDUCTIVE
1. The first condition is the polymer consists of alternating single and double
bonds, called conjugated double bonds.
In conjugation, the bonds between the carbon atoms are alternately single
and double. Every bond contains a localised “sigma” (σ) bond which forms
a strong chemical bond. In addition, every double bond also contains a less
strongly localised “pi” (π) bond which is weaker.
2. The second condition is the plastic has to be disturbed - either by
removing electrons from (oxidation), or inserting them into
(reduction), the material. The process is known as Doping.
There are two types of doping:
Oxidation with halogen (or p-doping).
Reduction with alkali metal (called n-doping).
PROPERTIES OF ICP
Ability to store an electric charge
Ability to exchange ions
ICP AS A MATRIX POLYMER
It provide design flexibility, good filler incorporation-ability, specific
interactions with fillers and microwave non-transparency.
ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF ICP BASED
Variation of electrical conductivity (ln σdc) of hydrochloric acid (HCl) doped Emeraldine
base (EB) samples as a function of dopant (HCl) concentration (a) 0.0 M (b) 0.001 M, (c) 0.01 M, (d) 0.1
M, (e) 0.3 M, (f) 0.5 M, (g) 0.7 M, (h) 0.9 M and (i) 1.0 M
Fabrication of organic thin film transistors
Non-volatile memory devices based on organic transistors
Development of novel conjugated polymers for photovoltaic
Fabrication of organic photovoltaic cells
Fabrication of organic light-emitting devices (OLED)
Ferroelectric polymers for thin film devices
Conducting Polymer Actuators and Micropumps.
Responsive Membranes/Hybrid Plastics.
focused upon polymer membranes that incorporated
electronically conducting polymers and piezoelectric polymers
It is a set of printing methods used to
create electrical devices on various
Printed electronics, specifies the process
and subject to the specific requirements
of the printing process selected can
utilize any solution-based material.
This includes organic semiconductors,
inorganic semiconductors, metallic
conductors, nanoparticles, nanotubes,
PRINTED ELECTRONICS METHODS
Flexo printing: a high pressure method that is especially well
applicable to print on plastic substrates
Offset printing: a flat printing technique that makes a high resolution
Gravure printing: a low pressure printing method that makes high
volumes and the use of organic dissolvent possible
Rotary screen printing: a method that allows to print in thick layers
ORGANIC THIN FILM TRANSISTOR
They use organic molecules rather than silicon for their active
material. This active material may be composed of avoide varity
• Compatibility with plastic substance.
• Lower cost deposition process such as spin coating, printing,
• Lower temperature manufacturing(60-120c)
• Lower mobility and switching speed compared to silicon wafers.
STRUCTURE OF OTFT
•Discrete Energy Levels
–Organic Active Layer
• Very Similar to MOSFETs
• 3-Terminal Device
• Voltage Controlled Switch
APPLICATION OF ORGANIC TFT
Organic Thin Film
Plastic TFT LCD
ADVANTAGES V/S DISADVANTAGES OF
• Manufacture is relative simple and
inexpensive equipment at low cost.
• Light weighted and flexible, very
durable under stress and flex can
be easily applied over a large
• Freedom of choice of their
• Adaptable in various ways
because of printing methods that
can be adjusted to current
requirements quickly (printed
• Due to their intrinsic physical properties
(i.e. limited mobility of charge carriers),
the performance of polymer electronic
products lacks the speed of its silicon
• Research is still on going to increase
performance for more complex
• To be able to improve performance one
should be able to distinguish between
problems introduced during preparation,
intrinsic material properties, and device
ICPs are Electrically-conductive polymers in which the Conductivity
arises from the presence of conjugated car-bon-carbon bonds. These
conjugated polymers possess interesting and useful properties due to their
delocalised electron systems.
Polymer electronics are light, flexible, and less expensive to produce on a
mass quantity scale than conventional electronics
Polymer electronics are not a competing product but are considered to
be more complementary to its silicon counterpart.