Previous question papers of Database Management System (DBMS) By SHABEEB
Question papers of DBMS
Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Transcripts - Previous question papers of Database Management System (DBMS) By SHABEEB
Previous Question Papers
Mohammed Shabeeb KV
Data model tells how the logical structure of a database
is modeled. Data Models are fundamental entities to
introduce abstraction in DBMS. Data models define how
data is connected to each other and how it will be
processed and stored inside the system.
Explain about various data models used to
describe the design of a database?
The hierarchical data model organizes data in a tree
One to many relationship.
The structure is based on the rule that one parent can
have many children but children are allowed only one
Some data were more naturally modeled with more
than one parent per child. So, the network model
permitted the modelling of many-to-many
relationships in data.
It defines a database as a collection of tables
(relations) which contains all data. Each table has
multiple columns, and each column has a unique
Properties of Relational Tables:
Values are atomic.
Each row is unique.
Column values are of the same kind.
The sequence of columns is insignificant.
The sequence of rows is insignificant.
Each column has a unique name.
Explain about the constraints in SQL?
SQL constraints are used to specify rules for the data in
These constraints ensure database integrity and hence
they are often called database integrity constraints.
The following are the constraints:
Column must always have a value.
It can never be null.
No two rows can have the same value for the UNIQUE
KEY column or columns.
No two rows in the table can have the same value.
Primary key cannot contain a NULL value this constraint
must be defined only on the column defined as NOT
Using this constraint, a default value can be set for a
column, when the user does not enter a value for the
This constraint limits value that can be inserted into a
column of a table.
What is the difference between database
schema and a database instance?
The overall design of a data base is called a schema.
The collection of information stored in the database at a
particular moment is called instance of a database or database
A database schema is corresponds to the variable declaration in
Each variable has a particular value at a given instant. The value
of variable in a program at a point in time correspond to an
instance of a database schema.
Explain about view and its advantages?
Any relation that is not part of the logical model, but is
made visible to a user as a virtual relation is called view.
A view is a relation that is derived from other relation . These
other relation could be a base relation or previously
View mechanism is that it provide the support for the
logical data independence.
View are also valuable in the context of security.
Shielding from change.
Distinguish between primary key, composite
key and candidate key?
It is a candidate key that is used by the data base
designers for unique identification of each row in a
It can be consist of one or more attribute.
Eg:- ID key is primary key.
It is defined as minimal super key.
It is a combination of attribute that identifies the record
uniquely. But no one of it is proper subsets can identify
the records uniquely.
If we use multiple attribute to create a primary key then
that primary key is called composite key.
Also called compound key or concatenated key.
Eg:-If we have used second name , address as a
primary key then it will be our composite key.
What is meant by normalization?
Normalization is the process of decomposing
unsatisfactory bad relations by breaking up their
attributes to small relations.
Condition using key & functional dependencies of a
relation to certify whether a relation schema is in a
particular normal form.
Explain the GROUP BY and HAVING clause
GROUP BY is an optional clause in a query. It follows
WHERE clause or the FROM clause if the WHERE clause
GROUP BY has the following general format:
GROUP BY column-1 [column-2]
Each group we consist of tuples that have the same
value of attribute called grouping attribute.
The HAVING clause is associated with grouping queries
and aggregate queries.
It is optional in both case.
In grouping queries it follows the GROUP BY clause .
In aggregate queries HAVING clause follows the WHERE
clause or the FROM clause if the WHERE clause missing.
The HAVING clause has the following general format:
What are the purpose of database system?
Database management systems were developed to
handle the following difficulties of typical file-processing
systems supported by conventional operating systems:
Data redundancy and inconsistency
Difficulty in accessing data
Data isolation – multiple files and formats
Atomicity of updates
Concurrent access by multiple users