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# Learning by Analogy

Доклад на Диалоге-2015
Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Published in: Data & Analytics

#### Transcripts - Learning by Analogy

• 1. LEARNING BY ANALOGY IN A HYBRID ONTOLOGICAL NETWORK Ponomarev S. V. ponomarev@corp.sputnik.ru «Sputnik»
• 2. The Hybrid Ontological Network We call an ontology hybrid if: 1. It is composed of several independent sources; 2. It contains triplets (links), accumulated in statistical text corpora processing; 3. Each triplet characterized by type and weight. The main properties of this ontology are redundancy and high relatedness. Redundancy arises from the duplication of most ontological links in various used sources, and high relatedness arises in inclusion of links obtained by statistical text processing. Nodes: 1.4 mil. Links: 639 mil. Link Types: 64
• 3. Network sample 1 link 3 links 1 * 3 = 3 paths from tomato to color trough red Tomato Link types: 23 Red Link types : 22 Color Link types : 30
• 4. The link structure between the vertices: "TOMATO", "RED", "COLOR"
• 5. Building a path between the vertices: "TOMATO", "RED", "COLOR"
• 6. Applying constructed path in the network To build a path in the hybrid network, you should specify a set of pairs "link type – link weight”: START >> (-22, 1) >> RESULT; FINISH >> (8, 1/3) >> RESULT; FINISH >> (-22, 1/3) >> RESULT; FINISH >> (-25, 1/3) >> RESULT.
• 7. The link structure through one intermediate vertice
• 8. QA System. Step 1 The rule base is empty, so random response generated. A pair of "question - answer" memorized. Question: Какой глубины лужа? (What depth is the puddle?) Correct Answer: Лужа - мелкая. (The puddle is small) Generated Answer: Глубина. (Depth) New Rule Added.
• 9. QA System. Step 2 In the rule base there’s the only rule obtained in step 1, and the system tries to apply this rule to the question. Attempt fails and the rule is corrected. Question: Какой глубины море? (What depth is the sea?) Correct Answer: Море - глубокое. (The sea is deep) Generated Answer: Море - мелкое. (The sea is small) Adding 1 New Path.
• 10. QA System. Step 3 In the rule base there’s still the only rule, but it’s taught at two examples. The system makes a successful attempt to apply this rule to the question. Thus, in this case two training examples are enough to obtain practically valuable rule. Question: Какой глубины океан? (What depth is the ocean?) Correct Answer: Океан - глубокий. (The ocean is deep) Generated Answer: Океан - глубокий. (The ocean is deep)Correct Answer Found.
• 11. QA System. Step 4 The syntactic structure of pair "question - answer" is changed, so the use of the existing rule does not give the correct result. Another rule is generated. Question: Какой глубины лужа? (What depth is the puddle?) Correct Answer: Лужа маленькой глубины. (The puddle is small depth) Generated Answer: Лужа - мелкая. (The puddle is small) Generated Answer: Глубина. (Depth) New Rule Added.
• 12. QA System. Step 5 Attempt to apply rule № 2, obtained in step 4, gives the correct result within meaning, but not coinciding exactly with the correct answer. Rule № 2 is corrected. Question: Какой глубины море? (What depth is the sea?) Correct Answer: Море большой глубины. (The sea is deep depth) Generated Answer: Море огромной глубины. (The sea is vast depth) Adding 1 New Path.
• 13. QA System. Step 6 The syntactic structure of pair "question - answer" corresponds more with the rule № 2, than with the rule №1. The attempt to apply rule №2 to determine the color instead of the size gives the expected result. Question: Какого цвета огурец? (What color is the cucumber?) Correct Answer: Огурец зеленого цвета. (The cucumber is green color) Generated Answer: Огурец зеленого цвета. (The cucumber is green color) Correct Answer Found.
• 14. The structure of rule №2
• 15. Thank you Ponomarev S. V. ponomarev@corp.sputnik.ru «Sputnik»