Pollution of groundwater in gujarat by sagar
Pollution of groundwater in gujarat
Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Transcripts - Pollution of groundwater in gujarat by sagar
POLLUTION OF GROUNDWATER IN GUJARAT
BY: SAGAR SHAH
• INTRODUCTION OF GROUND WATER.
• GROUND WATER USAGE.
• PHYSCIO-CHEMICAL PARAMETER
• POLLUTION OF GROUND WATER.
• SCENARIO OF GROUNDWATER POLLUTION IN THE GUJARAT.
• PREVENTION OF GROUNDWATER CONTAMINATION
• GROUNDWATER REMEDIATION
Introduction of ground water
“Water that exists beneath the earth’s surface in underground
stream and aquifers is known as groundwater”
• The one nearest the surface is the “zone of aeration”, where gaps are filled with water and air. Below
this layer is the “zone of saturation”. Where gaps filled with water.
• The water table is boundary between these two layers.
• As the amount of ground water is increases or decreases , the water table rises or falls accordingly.
• When the entire area below the ground is saturated , flooding occurs because all subsequent
precipitation is forced to remain on surface.
Ground water Usage
• Groundwater is the most extracted raw material.
• Its withdrawal rates currently in the estimated range of 982 km3/year.
• Its withdrawal is used for agriculture is about 60%.
• Domestic use and industry are having the equal percentage.
• In many nations, more than half of the groundwater withdrawn is for domestic water supplies and
globally it provides 25% to 40% of the world’s drinking water.
The five nations with the largest estimated annual
groundwater abstractions (2010)
G.W. ABSTRACTION FOR
DOMESTIC USE (%)
G.W. ABSTRACTION FOR
89 9 2
111.95 54 20 26
111.7 71 23 6
64.82 94 6 0
63.4 87 11 2
SR NO. PARAMETER METHOD
1 PH PH meter
2 Electrical conductivity Conductivity meter
3 Total hardness EDTA titration
4 Alkalinity Indicator method
5 TDS Filtration method
6 Chloride Silver nitrate method
7 Phosphate Ammonium molybdate blue method
8 Dissolved oxygen Wrinkle's method
9 BOD Wrinkle's method
10 COD Open reflux method
11 Sulphate Turbid metric method
12 Nitrate Phenol disulphonic acid method
13 Heavy metal (Cd,Mn,Ni,Zn,etc.) Flame atomic absorption
CAUSE OF GROUNDWATER POLLUTION
AGRICULTURE FIELD: Pesticides, herbicides, fertilizers .
CITY DUMP: Rain can also leach pollutants from city dumps into
INDUSTRY : Heavy metals such as mercury, lead, chromium,
copper, and cadmium, together with household chemicals and
poisons, can all be concentrated in ground-water supplies beneath
• Liquid and solid wastes from septic tanks, sewage plants, and animal
feedlots and slaughterhouses may contain bacteria, viruses, and parasites
that can contaminate ground water.
• MINING AREA: Acid mine drainage from coal and metal mines can
contaminate both surface and ground water.
• RADIOACTIVE WASTE : It can cause the pollution of ground water due to
the shallow burial of low-level solid and liquid radioactive wastes from the
nuclear power industry.
HOW THE GROUNDWATER POLLUTION
OC• TChe pUercRolatSing: water picks up a large amount of dissolved constituents and reaches the aquifer system and contaminates the
groundwater. pumping wells can cause or aggravate ground-water pollution
Water table steepens near a dump, increasing the velocity water-table slope is reversed by pumping, changing
Of ground-water flow and drawing pollutants into a well direction of the ground-water flow, and polluting the well
Land-use activities & their potential threat to groundwater quality
Land Use Activities potential to groundwater pollution
Residential Un-severed sanitation
Land & stream discharge of sewage
Sewage oxidation ponds
Sewer leakage, solid waste disposal, landfill leachate
Road & urban run-off, aerial fall out
Industrial & Commercial Process water, effluent lagoon etc.
Land & stream discharge of effluents
Tank & pipeline leakage & accidental spills.
Well disposal of effluent
Aerial fall out
Landfill disposal & solid wastes & Hazardous wastes
Spillage & leakages during handling of material
Mining Mine drainage discharge
Process water, sludge lagoons
Solid mine tailings
Oilfield spillage at group gathering stations
Rural Cultivation with agrochemicals
Irrigation with wastewater
Coastal areas Salt water intrusion
SCENARIO OF GROUNDWATER POLLUTION IN THE GUJARAT
• Gujarat having longest coastline in the country, sea water intrusion into aquifers is a common problem all
across Gujarat right from Kutch and Saurashtra to Vadodara and Valsad.
• Aquifers in Gujarat are beset with numerous quality problems, some of which are increasing in intensity over
• Excessive Fluoride is another problem in groundwater of North Gujarat, some parts of Saurashtra and some
pockets of South Gujarat.
• Over the years, excessive amounts of Nitrate are surfacing in groundwater in various parts of the state.
• In addition to all this, Gujarat has various pockets of high industrial activity where large amounts of effluents
are released, sometimes directly into wells.
• High amounts of toxic waste have been detected in aquifers of South and Central Gujarat.
Aquifers of Gujarat
• Data available from the ministry of water resources,
concerning ground water quality scenario, reveals that 18
of Gujarat 's 26 districts have fluoride content above the
• Nearly 70% of the districts in the state have fluoride
contents beyond the permissible limit in ground water.
• Gujarat ranks 5th among the 19 states in high fluoride
content in ground water.
• The nitrate content in ground water is also quite high in
various districts of the state.
• Fluoride Content - Ahmedabad, Amreli, Annand, Banaskantha, Bharuch, Bhavnagar,
Dahod, Junagadh, Kutch, Mehsana, Narmada, Panchmahals, Patan, Rajkot, Sabarkantha,
Surat, Surendranagar And Vadodara.
• NITRATE CONTENT - Ahmedabad, Annand, Banaskantha , Gandhinagar, Jamnagar,
Junagarh, Mehsana , Narmada, Rajkot, Sabarkanta , Surendranagar and Vadodara.
• It should be noted that the permissible limit of fluoride and nitrate in ground water is 1.5 mg
Common Groundwater Contaminants in the Gujarat
CONTAMINANTS SOURCE DISEASE OR TOXIC
NITRATES SEWAGE, FERTILIZERS, AIR
POLLUTION, LANDFILLS &
PATHOGENS SEWAGE, LANDFILLS, SEPTIC
TANKS & LIVESTOCK’S.
DYSENTERY, POLIO, AND
TRACE METALS INDUSTRIAL & MINE DISCHARGES,
FLY ASH FROM THERMAL POWER
PLANTS EITHER DUE TO FALL OUT OR
DISPOSAL IN ASH PONDS.
TOXIC & CARCINOGENIC.
INORGANIC CONSTITUENTS INORGANIC DISSOLVES-SO4,
ORGANIC COMPOUNDS AGRICULTURAL ACTIVITIES, STREET
DRAINAGES, SEWAGE LANDFILLS,
INDUSTRIAL DISCHARGES, SPILLS,
VEHICULAR EMISSIONS FALL OUT
TOXIC & CARCINOGENIC
•The Ankles war industrial area was developed by GIDC in Bharuch district in the year 1980.
• About 1500 units engaged in various manufacturing products like dye and dye intermediates, pharmaceuticals pesticides, pulp
and paper, textile, plastic, packaging, organic and inorganic chemicals and engineering.
•The industrial has several industries operating within it they are: nearly 425 chemical units, 150 textiles besides 600 other
•The ANKLESHWAR industries association has provided a common effluent treatment plant (CETP) of 1.2 MLD capacities.
•The common effluent treatment plant (CETP) was being jointly operated by 220 member industries and caters to the treatment of
effluent wastes generated from the industries (mainly small-scale units).
•The treated wastewater from CETP and industries was being discharged into an earthen drain named as Amalakhadi,
which finally meets the estuarine area of river Narmada.
Sl. No. GW Station Name Approx. Depth (m) Type of Well Present use
1 CETP GIDC
26 m Bore well Gardening and
• Ground Water Quality Survey :
2 Piraman School 30 m Bore well with
3 Bharuch Naka 40m Bore well Washing and
( COBOSERNVATTI.O)N ON STATUS OF GROUNDWATER QUALITY IN ANKLESHWAR:
•PH VALUE - 6.5 TO 8.5
•TDS VALUE - 1148 mg/l and 5270 mg/l
•Alkalinity - 20 mg/l and 980 mg/l.
•Chloride - 330 mg/l and as high as 2428 mg/l .
•Sulphate - 26 mg/l and as high as 965 mg/l
•Nitrate - 45 mg/l
•fluoride - 1.0 mg/l.
PREVENTION OF GROUNDWATER CONTAMINATION
•Once groundwater gets contaminated, it may be
difficult and expansive to clean it up, therefore,
“ The best way to deal with groundwater
contamination is not to contaminate it in the first place”
PREVENTION OF GROUNDWATER
Participation of INDUSTRY.
•minimize use of toxic / hazardous raw material.
•Maintain integrity of storage tanks ,pipeline , surface impoundment.
•Adopt good engineering practice for selecting proper material for Tanks and pipes
•Implement monitoring programs: leak detection and repair program, spill detection, spill
control, emergency response etc.
•Manage properly: waste materials , their transport and disposal.
•Monitoring periodically : groundwater quality.
Participation of COMMUNITY .
•Minimize use of household containing hazardous substances.
•Avoid draining chemical , motor oil , insecticides in community
•Reduce pesticide application.
•Use proper procedures for handling chemicals( plants ,
pesticides , insecticides , polishing material , cleaning chemicals
•Immediately clean spills and report any leakage to concerned
•Groundwater remediation is process that is use to remove the pollution from the
•It is divided in two technologies :
(1) EX-SITU TECHNOLOGY.
(2) IN- SITU TECHNOLOGY.
EX – SITU TECHNOLOGY involves treatment of groundwater by de-watering the polluted aquifer
(pumping out), then treating the water on surface by physical , chemical or biological
technology and finally re- injecting the treated water to the aquifer.
IN – SITU TECHNOLOGY involves treatment of groundwater within the aquifer ( in the sub-surface)
By using thermal , chemical and biological treatment technology.
•Ex-situ technology : extraction of groundwater from aquifer , treat above ground and return the
treated water to the aquifer . Extraction is done by pumping groundwater from well or trench and treat them with
a variety of techniques such as:
Involves treatment by introducing steam which extract the contaminants from the pumped out groundwater . The
extracted steam (along with contamination can be recovered from condensate or treated further by incineration
Involves introduction of oxidizing / reducing agents ( O3,H2O2,Hypoclorite) to chemically convert the toxic
Involves treatment of pumped up groundwater by air ( biodegradation) with careful control of moistures , heat
nutrient , oxygen and PH
Involves passing the contaminated pumped up groundwater through activated carbon column in which
contaminants gets adsorbed.
•In – situ remediation technology : Involves treatment of groundwater (in-place )without
extracting the water from aquifers. There are several treatment used for in-situ
groundwater treatment such as:
•Air Sparging :
Involves the injection of contaminant free air into the subsurface saturated zone , enabling
a phase transfer of hydrocarbon from a dissolved state to a vapor phase .
•Chemical oxidation :
Involves reduction- oxidation reaction that chemically converts hazardous contaminants to
less toxic compound to less toxic compounds . Cyanide oxidation and de – chlorination
are the typical examples of chemical oxidation .
•Thermal treatment :
Involves increase in temperature of source zone to increase the mobility of the pollutant
.The mobility facility removal of pollutant and can also the typical ex. Of contaminant
• The groundwater quality problems are mainly due to i) contamination by geogenic and man-made sources; and ii)
sea water intrusion due to over-abstraction of groundwater along the coasts.
• The geogenic contamination - lowering of water table and disturbing the contaminated geological structures.
• The man-made contamination - large-scale urbanisation, industrialisation and agricultural activities.
• Groundwater quality is being increasing threatened by agricultural, urban & industrial wastes, which leach or are
injected into underlying aquifers.
• In many cases, the abstraction of excessive quantities of groundwater has resulted in the drying up of wells, salt-water
intrusion & drying up of rivers that receives their flows in dry seasons from groundwater.
• With fast urban growth and increasing standard of living the waste generation has steeply increased in India,
especially in large urban centres. Due to paucity of resources the local authorities, who are responsible for waste
management are not able to adequately address the problem.
• The fast industrial growth also results in generation of large quantity of wastes (solid, liquid and gaseous). Many
times these wastes also do not get collected, treated and disposed. They also have the same fate as domestic
wastes in the city.
• A large number of industrial activities are taking place in urban areas, especially in congested, populated areas. The
wastes generated by industrial activities in urban areas get mixed with domestic wastes and pollute the
• The groundwater is only source of drinking in many urban centres of the country. Thus, a large urban population is
at risk of consuming polluted water.
• Realising the importance of the pollution of groundwater in urban areas, CPCB has initiated groundwater quality
survey in urban areas. In the first phase states were taken. Similar study was also carried out in problem areas