Published on: **Mar 4, 2016**

- 1. Schaffner EMV AG Nordstrasse 11 4542 Luterbach SwitzerlandT +41 32 681 66 26 F +41 32 681 66 30 www.schaffner.com energy efficiency and reliabilityWhite paperProper selection of passive and active power qualityfilters for the mitigation of mains harmonicsAbstractThe steady increase in non-linear loads on the power supply network such as, for instance, variablespeed motor drives (VSDs), raises questions about power quality and reliability. In this respect, a greatdeal of attention has been focused on harmonics as they overload the network infrastructure, causereliability problems on equipment and system level, and waste energy. Passive and active harmonicfilters are used to keep these harmonic problems in check.The use of both active and passive technology is justified. The difficulty is in how to select and deployharmonic filters correctly, which is key to achieving a satisfactory performance. This paper explainswhich specifications are suitable when it comes to choosing active and passive harmonic filters andwhich mistakes need to be avoided.Andrzej Pietkiewicz, Ph.D., Project Manager Innovation CenterStefan Melly, Business Development ManagerDecember 20081/15
- 2. Schaffner EMV AGWhite paperRating of harmonic filtersDecember, 20082/15Power quality and harmonicsThe load exerted by harmonics on the power network infrastructure has increased dramatically over thepast few years. Harmonic currents are caused by non-linear loads. A non-linear load is a consumer ofelectricity that draws a non-sinusoidal current from the supply network when supplied with a sinusoidalvoltage. These harmonic currents flow in addition to the “active” sinewave, generate additional losses inelectrical installations, and can result in thermal overload.Harmonic currents flow through the system impedance, resulting in non-sinusoidal voltage drops thatcan compromise network voltage quality. Sensitive loads, such as medical devices or IT infrastructure,can have their operation affected if the voltage supply is distorted.Measures for reducing harmonics are implemented nowadays in order to resolve this issue and complywith national and international standards at every level of the network infrastructure. In this article, wewill focus solely on the use of passive and active harmonic filters in low-voltage installations.
- 3. Schaffner EMV AGWhite paperRating of harmonic filtersDecember, 20083/15Typical topologies of non-linear loadsIn our further observations we will be focusing on the six pulse rectifier bridge. The three-phase rectifierhas a key role to play because a significant portion of the electrical energy is drawn from loads with thistype of front-end circuit. One typical application that can be mentioned is the variable speed motor drive,which has been used for years with high growth rates in almost every industrial sector.The most common six-pulse rectifier topologies are shown in Figure 1. Topology A does not include anymagnetic components for smoothing the current. Topology B is operated using an upstream AC inductorLac, usually in the form of a laminated line-reactor. Topology C has a built-in DC choke Ldc, which isoften integrated in higher power motor drives. In all three topologies the grid, including the lineimpedance, is depicted on the left-hand side. On the right the constant power sink “P=const” representsthe active power drawn from the DC/AC inverter and motor that is taken, for example, to be 20 kW.Figure 1: Common non-linear load topologies (six-pulse bridge rectifiers): A – without chokes; B – withAC reactor Lac; C – with DC-link choke Ldc.
- 4. Schaffner EMV AGWhite paperRating of harmonic filtersDecember, 20084/15Figure 2 shows the input current i for topologies A, B and C from a balanced three-phase power line.Zline represents the equivalent impedance of a distribution transformer, distribution line, fuses, etc., whichare assumed to be half inductance and half resistive in our example (L=18uH; R=6mOhm). The followingvalues are used:DC-link capacitor Cdc: 2000uFAC-reactor (topology B) Lac: 500uH (2%)DC-link choke (topology C) Ldc: 1mH A B CFigure 2: Input current i (white) and its active ia (green) and reactive ib (red) components for topologiesA, B and C from Figure 1. All specified values are in ARMS.Note: LabVIEW-based software specially developed by Schaffner was used to decompose thewaveforms in Figures 2 and 6, which was presented for the first time at the IEEE InternationalSPEEDAM 2008 (Virtual Laboratory for Harmonics Filtering Visualization).
- 5. Schaffner EMV AGWhite paperRating of harmonic filtersDecember, 20085/15The non-sinusoidal currents i (white waveforms in Figure 2), drawn from the sinusoidal voltage source,can be decomposed into two orthogonal components, ia (active) and ib (reactive):i ia ibThe active current ia (green), is a sinusoidal fundamental component in phase with the voltage. This isthe only component of the current involved in transferring real power from the source to the load.The reactive current ib (red), is therefore the remaining component of the current, representing thedifference between the white and green curves. It only moves reactive power back and forth between thesource and load, and is not at all involved in transferring real power. The reactive current spectrumconsists of harmonics and reactive components of the fundamental frequency.. However, the reactivecomponents of the fundamental in the waveforms in Figure 2 are negligible. The reactive current ibmainly comprises the 5th, 7th, 11th, 13th, 17th, 19th, 23rd and 25th harmonics, where higher-frequencyharmonics (>25th harmonic) are also negligible.The reactive current generates additional losses in the power lines, and results in non-sinusoidal voltagedrops across the line impedance, which are ultimately responsible for power line voltage distortions andthus for poor power quality. Consequently, it can be said that the reactive current is counterproductiveand should therefore be eliminated as far as possible.The separation of non-sinusoidal currents (drawn from a sinusoidal voltage source) into active andreactive components was first suggested by S. Fryze (1932).
- 6. Schaffner EMV AGWhite paperRating of harmonic filtersDecember, 20086/15Figure 3: Harmonic spectrum of the line current i for topologies A, B, and C in Figure 2. In addition to theharmonics (blue bars), the table represents the limits of standard EN61000-3-12 (white fields) and theactual THD values, as well as the individual harmonics (5th, 7th, 11th, 13th) and PWHD (partiallyweighted harmonic distortion). The values with red background indicate non-compliance with thestandard, and the green background compliance with the standard. On the far right of each graph is aslider that can be used to select the Rsce parameter (Rsce=120 in our example).
- 7. Schaffner EMV AGWhite paperRating of harmonic filtersDecember, 20087/15The RMS values of the currents i, ia, ib denoted as I, Ia , Ib are related according to the following formula:I 2 I a Ib 2 2It can be observed that the reactive current Ib can have a large variety of values, depending on thetopology used. In our example the RMS current values are 45.5 A, 17.4 A and 13.9 A (Figure 2). Thereactive current has a considerable influence on the input current I. In this example the RMS value of theline current changes according to the topology (for the same output power) from 53.4 A to 31.1 A. Onlythe active current Ia remains more or less identical in all three topologies (28.0 A and. 27.8 Arespectively).The conclusion that can be drawn from the above observations is that the RMS value for the activecurrent Ia (which is proportional to the real power absorbed from the voltage source) can, in the case ofnon-linear loads such as six-pulse rectifiers, be significantly lower than the value of the input current I. Inother words, it is not possible to determine the active current Ia if only the value of the input current I isknown.The most straightforward way to get Ia is to calculate it from the real power absorbed from the powerline: PIa 3 U p nP: real power drawn from the three-phase power lineUp-n: RMS value of the phase-neutral voltageThe value for the real power P can be calculated from: PMP PM: real power absorbed by the motorη: efficiency of the motor drive (typically 0.96)
- 8. Schaffner EMV AGWhite paperRating of harmonic filtersDecember, 20088/15The ideal harmonic filterThe ideal harmonic filter can be seen as a device that is capable of completely eliminating reactivecurrent ib by removing harmonics and correcting the phase of the fundamental current. As a result, thiskind of filter converts the non-sinusoidal line current into a sinusoidal current, and thus the non-linearload into a linear load that only draws useful active current ia. If we additionally assume the loss-freeoperation of the filter, the real power drawn from the power line will not be changed by the presence ofthe filter and thus the active current ia will not be increased.Figure 4: ECOsine™ harmonic filters from Schaffner for non-linear loads (six-pulse rectifier loads)ECOsine™ filters were recently introduced for applications with six-pulse rectifier front end. They providea state-of-the-art solution and come very close to offering the features of the ideal harmonic filter.Harmonic currents are reduced to a total harmonic current distortion level (THID) of 3.5 to 5.0%, in otherwords, almost completely eliminated. And with an efficiency of 98.5 to 99.4% (depending on the model),ECOsine™ filters are actually almost loss-free.Figure 5 shows how ECOsine™ harmonic filters can be installed in series between the power line andthe input of the non-linear load, regardless of the rectifier topology being used.
- 9. Schaffner EMV AGWhite paperRating of harmonic filtersDecember, 20089/15Figure 5: six-pulse rectifiers arranged in topologies A, B and C with the ECOsine™ harmonic filterconnected on the line side.Note: Passive harmonic filters must be connected directly at the input of a non-linear load (or group ofnon-linear loads). Due to the voltage distortion at the filter output, which occurs as a result of the non-sinusoidal voltage drop across the series impedance, it is not appropriate to supply power to other loadsat the filter output.
- 10. Schaffner EMV AGWhite paperRating of harmonic filtersDecember, 200810/15Figure 6 illustrates the shape of the waveform for the input current of one phase when ECOsine™harmonic filters are used, in the case of all three rectifier topologies. A B CFigure 6: The line current i (white) and its active ia (green) and reactive ib (red) components fortopologies A, B and C with an ECOsine™ harmonic filter installed at the input.
- 11. Schaffner EMV AGWhite paperRating of harmonic filtersDecember, 200811/15Important observationsIf passive series harmonic filters, like ECOsine™, are used at the input of the six-pulse rectifier, thefollowing important observations can be made:1. There is barely any reactive current ib (red) visible in the waveforms (Figure 6).Topology Reactive current ib without Filter Reactive current ib with FilterA 45.5 Arms 1.1 ArmsB 17.4 Arms 1.2 ArmsC 13.9 Arms 1.2 Arms2. The RMS values of the line current i (white) are reduced; the current’s shape is almost sinusoidal (freeof harmonics).Topology Line current i without filter Line current i with filterA 53.4 Arms 28.3 ArmsB 32.8 Arms 28.3 ArmsC 31.1 Arms 28.3 Arms3. The active current ia (green) has remained practically unchanged.Topology Active current ia without Active current ia with filter filterA 28.0 Arms 28.3 ArmsB 27.8 Arms 28.3 ArmsC 27.8 Arms 28.3 ArmsNote: The increase in current is a result of the fact that a harmonic filter is never ideal, but always slightlylossy. However, due to the minimal losses of ECOsine™ filters, the increase in real power is negligible.
- 12. Schaffner EMV AGWhite paperRating of harmonic filtersDecember, 200812/15Proper selection of passive harmonic filtersThe conclusions obtained above makes it obvious where the problem lies: the proper rating of aharmonic filter must be concluded from the ratings of a non-linear load without a harmonic filter. Thecomparison between the following two tables makes it clear that the line current of the non-linear load isnot suitable for selecting a harmonic filter, such as the Schaffner ECOsine™, as it changes according tothe topology.Rectifier Line current I Active current Ia Reactive current Ib Output real power [Arms] [Arms] [Arms] [kW]A (without magnetics) 53.4 28.0 45.5 20B (with Lac) 32.8 27.8 17.4 20C (with Ldc) 31.1 27.8 13.9 20Table 1: Rating of non-linear load (topologies A, B, C) without harmonic filters. The values in red areusually not available from the non-linear load specifications.Rectifier Line current I Active current Ia Reactive current Ib Output real power [Arms] [Arms] [Arms] [kW]A (without magnetics) 28.3 28.3 1.1 20B (with Lac) 28.3 28.3 1.2 20C (with Ldc) 28.3 28.3 1.2 20Table 2: Rating of the passive harmonic filters for topologies A, B and C. The values in red are usuallynot available from the harmonic filter specifications.In fact, only the active current Ia and real power P are identical for all three topologies, thus making themsuitable for selecting the filter. Unfortunately, the active current Ia (which is actually the harmonic filter’sinput rated current) is generally not known based on the specifications of non-linear loads (e.g. motordrives). The only specified value that is suitable without any restrictions for selecting the passiveharmonic filter is therefore the real power P of the non-linear load.To simplify the filter selection for the user, Schaffner specifies its ECOsine™ harmonic filters based onthe motor drive’s power rating and not, like other manufacturers of comparable products, on the inputcurrent.
- 13. Schaffner EMV AGWhite paperRating of harmonic filtersDecember, 200813/15Proper selection of active harmonic filtersUnlike passive harmonic filters, active filters are installed in parallel to the power line (shunt filters). Notethat only topologies B and C are represented in figure 7. Topology A is not advisable because activeshunt filters require magnetic components on the load for economic reasons. This is obvious fromanother look at the waveforms in Figure 2. If there were no magnetic components (topology A) therequired corrective current of the active filter would be so high that the filter would need to besignificantly oversized. U3 Active harmonic filter U2 P= const B C dc U1 Z line L ac ia ib i U3 Active harmonic filter L dc U2 P= const C C dc U1 Z line ia ib iFigure 7: six-pulse rectifiers for topologies B and C with an active harmonic filter connected in parallel(shunt filter).If, for simplicity’s sake, an ideal shunt filter is considered based on topologies B and C in Figure 7, it isnot difficult to realize that the line current corresponds to the active current ia in Figure 2 (B and C) the filter’s corrective current corresponds to the reactive current ib in Figure 2 (B and C) the rectifier’s input current corresponds to the input current i in Figure 2 (B and C).These statements are true, provided that the line impedance Zline is negligible in relation to theimpedances of Lac (topology B) and Ldc (topology C). In our example this condition is fully met.
- 14. Schaffner EMV AGWhite paperRating of harmonic filtersDecember, 200814/15When selecting active harmonic filters, a similar issue needs to be addressed as when chosing thepassive versions. One must dimension the filter based on the rectifier parameters without a filter.Table 3 lists key parameters for topologies B and C (without a filter). The only value that is really of anyuse is the reactive current Ib, which describes the active filter’s most important parameter: the correctivecurrent required.Rectifier Line current I Active current Ia Reactive current Ib Output real power [Arms] [Arms] [Arms] [kW]B (with Lac) 32.8 27.8 17.4 20C (with Ldc) 31.1 27.8 13.9 20Table 3: Rating the active harmonic filter for topologies B and C. The values in red are usually notavailable from the load specifications.Unlike in the case of passive harmonic filters, there is a difference when it comes to dimensioning activeharmonic filters for topologies B and C. The required corrective current for topology B is 17.4 Arms,whereas it is only 13.9 Arms for topology C. To give the complete picture, it should also be mentioned atthis point that the corrective current required without any magnetic components (topology A) would be45.5 Arms. Unfortunately, the value for the reactive current Ib is usually not available from the specificationof the non-linear load.The simplest way to find this value would be to calculate it from the following formula: 2 P Ib I 2 3 U p n I: rms of the line current of the non-linear load without a harmonic filterP: real power of the loadUp-n: phase-neutral voltage of the power lineAll these values can usually be found in the specification of the non-linear load.In our example this would be: 2 20000 I b (32.8) 2 17.4 (Topology B) 3 240 2 20000 I b (31.1) 2 13.9 (Topology C) 3 240 The calculated results match exactly with the values from Figure 2 which were calculated using FFT(Fourier Transformation).
- 15. Schaffner EMV AGWhite paperRating of harmonic filtersDecember, 200815/15ConclusionProper selection of passive and active harmonic filters may quickly lead to misunderstandings due to anumber of unknown parameters of the non-linear load. But selecting the correct size of filter is key toachieving the optimum cost/benefit ratio, i.e. the desired reduction in current harmonics with minimalfiltering effort. Given that some motor drive peripherals such as EMI filters, line-reactors or output filtersare designed and selected based on the line current I, it is often wrongly assumed that this is alsoappropriate for harmonic filters. The correct procedure however is to select passive harmonic filtersbased on the load’s real power P, and to select active harmonic filters based on the calculated reactivecurrent Ib.Literature 1. Fryze, S. (1932) Wirk-, Blind- und Scheinleistung in elektrischen Stromkreisen mit nichtsinusförmigem Verlauf von Strom und Spannung, Elektrotechnische Zeitschrift, June, 596- 9. 2. A. Pietkiewicz, Virtual Laboratory for Harmonics Filtering Visualization, Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Power Electronics, Electrical Drives, Automation and Motion, (SPEEDAM 2008), Ischia, Italy, p.508-512. 3. IEC 61000-3-12: Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) – Part 3-12: Limits for harmonics current produced by equipment connected to public low-voltage systems with input current >16A and < 75A per phase. IEC, Aug. 2004. 4. Engineering Recommendation G5/4-1 Planning levels for harmonic voltage distortion and the connection of nonlinear equipment to transmission systems and distribution networks in the United Kingdom. Energy Network Association, Oct. 2005. 5. IEEE Recommended Practices and Requirements for Harmonic Control in Electrical Power Systems. IEEE Std 519-1992