Nanobiotechnologies- applications, markets and companies
SummaryNanotechnology is the creation and utilization of materials, devices, and systems through the control of matter on the nanometer-length scale (a nanometer is one billionth of a meter. Nanobiotechnology, an integration of physical sciences, molecular engineering, biology, chemistry and biotechnology holds considerable promise of advances in pharmaceuticals and healthcare. The report starts with an introduction to various techniques and materials that are relevant to nanobiotechnology. It includes some of the physical forms of energy such as nanolasers. Some of the technologies are scaling down such as microfluidics to nanofluidic biochips and others are constructions from bottom up. Application in life sciences research, particularly at the cell level sets the stage for role of nanobiotechnology in healthcare in subsequent chapters.Some of the earliest applications are in molecular diagnostics. Nanoparticles, particularly quantum dots, are playing important roles. In vitro diagnostics, does not have any of the safety concerns associated with the fate of nanoparticles introduced into the human body. Numerous nanodevices and nanosystems for sequencing single molecules of DNA are feasible. Various nanodiagnostics that have been reviewed will improve the sensitivity and extend the present limits of molecular diagnostics.An increasing use of nanobiotechnology by the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries is anticipated. Nanotechnology will be applied at all stages of drug development - from formulations for optimal delivery to diagnostic applications in clinical trials. Many of the assays based on nanobiotechnology will enable high-throughput screening. Some of nanostructures such as fullerenes are themselves drug candidates as they allow precise grafting of active chemical groups in three-dimensional orientations. The most important pharmaceutical applications are in drug delivery. Apart from offering a solution to solubility problems, nanobiotechnology provides and intracellular delivery possibilities. Skin penetration is improved in transdermal drug delivery. A particularly effective application is as nonviral gene therapy vectors. Nanotechnology has the potential to provide controlled release devices with autonomous operation guided by the needs.Nanomedicine is now within the realm of reality starting with nanodiagnostics and drug delivery facilitated by nanobiotechnology. Miniature devices such as nanorobots could carry out integrated diagnosis and therapy by refined and minimally invasive procedures, nanosurgery, as an alternative to crude surgery. Nanotechnology will markedly improve the implants and tissue engineering approaches as well.There is some concern about the safety of nanoparticles introduced in the human body and released into the environment. Research is underway to address these issues. As yet there are no FDA directives to regulate nanobiotechnology but as products are ready to enter market, these are expected to be in place.Future nanobiotechnology markets are calculated on the basis of the background markets in the areas of application and the share of this market by new technologies and state of development at any given year in the future. This is based on a comprehensive and thorough review of the current status of nanobiotechnology, research work in progress and anticipated progress. There is definite indication of large growth of the market but it will be uneven and cannot be plotted as a steady growth curve. Marketing estimates are given according to areas of application, technologies and geographical distribution starting with 2009. The largest expansion is expected between the years 2014 and 2019.Profiles of 245 companies, out of over 500 involved in this area, are included in the last chapter along with their 188 collaborations.The report is supplemented with 41 Tables, 21 figures and 700 references to the literature.
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Transcripts - Nanobiotechnologies- applications, markets and companies
Find Industry reports, Company profilesReportLinker and Market Statistics >> Get this Report Now by email!Nanobiotechnologies- applications, markets and companiesPublished on November 2010 Report SummarySummaryNanotechnology is the creation and utilization of materials, devices, and systems through the control of matter on thenanometer-length scale (a nanometer is one billionth of a meter. Nanobiotechnology, an integration of physical sciences, molecularengineering, biology, chemistry and biotechnology holds considerable promise of advances in pharmaceuticals and healthcare. Thereport starts with an introduction to various techniques and materials that are relevant to nanobiotechnology. It includes some of thephysical forms of energy such as nanolasers. Some of the technologies are scaling down such as microfluidics to nanofluidic biochipsand others are constructions from bottom up. Application in life sciences research, particularly at the cell level sets the stage for roleof nanobiotechnology in healthcare in subsequent chapters.Some of the earliest applications are in molecular diagnostics. Nanoparticles, particularly quantum dots, are playing important roles.In vitro diagnostics, does not have any of the safety concerns associated with the fate of nanoparticles introduced into the humanbody. Numerous nanodevices and nanosystems for sequencing single molecules of DNA are feasible. Various nanodiagnostics thathave been reviewed will improve the sensitivity and extend the present limits of molecular diagnostics.An increasing use of nanobiotechnology by the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries is anticipated. Nanotechnology will beapplied at all stages of drug development - from formulations for optimal delivery to diagnostic applications in clinical trials. Many ofthe assays based on nanobiotechnology will enable high-throughput screening. Some of nanostructures such as fullerenes arethemselves drug candidates as they allow precise grafting of active chemical groups in three-dimensional orientations. The mostimportant pharmaceutical applications are in drug delivery. Apart from offering a solution to solubility problems, nanobiotechnologyprovides and intracellular delivery possibilities. Skin penetration is improved in transdermal drug delivery. A particularly effectiveapplication is as nonviral gene therapy vectors. Nanotechnology has the potential to provide controlled release devices withautonomous operation guided by the needs.Nanomedicine is now within the realm of reality starting with nanodiagnostics and drug delivery facilitated by nanobiotechnology.Miniature devices such as nanorobots could carry out integrated diagnosis and therapy by refined and minimally invasive procedures,nanosurgery, as an alternative to crude surgery. Nanotechnology will markedly improve the implants and tissue engineeringapproaches as well.There is some concern about the safety of nanoparticles introduced in the human body and released into the environment. Researchis underway to address these issues. As yet there are no FDA directives to regulate nanobiotechnology but as products are ready toenter market, these are expected to be in place.Future nanobiotechnology markets are calculated on the basis of the background markets in the areas of application and the share ofthis market by new technologies and state of development at any given year in the future. This is based on a comprehensive andthorough review of the current status of nanobiotechnology, research work in progress and anticipated progress. There is definiteindication of large growth of the market but it will be uneven and cannot be plotted as a steady growth curve. Marketing estimates aregiven according to areas of application, technologies and geographical distribution starting with 2009. The largest expansion isexpected between the years 2014 and 2019.Nanobiotechnologies- applications, markets and companies Page 1/16
Find Industry reports, Company profilesReportLinker and Market StatisticsProfiles of 245 companies, out of over 500 involved in this area, are included in the last chapter along with their 188collaborations.The report is supplemented with 41 Tables, 21 figures and 700 references to the literature. Table of ContentTABLE OF CONTENTS0. Executive Summary 191. Basics of Nanobiotechnology . 21Introduction . 21Classification of nanobiotechnologies .. 22Top-down and bottom-up approaches 23Landmarks in the evolution of nanobiotechnology . 23Relation of nanobiotechnology to healthcare 242. Technologies.. 27Introduction . 27Micro- and nano-electromechanical systems 27BioMEMS 27Microarrays and nanoarrays . 28Dip Pen Nanolithography for nanoarrays .. 28Protein nanoarrays .. 29Microfluidics and nanofluidics .. 30Nanotechnology on a chip . 30Microfluidic chips for nanoliter volumes . 31Nanogens NanoChip .. 32Use of nanotechnology in microfluidics . 33Construction of nanofluidic channels 33Nanoscale flow visualization .. 34Moving (levitation) of nanofluidic drops with physical forces 34Electrochemical nanofluid injection .. 34Nanofluidics on nanopatterned surfaces . 35Nano-interface in a microfluidic chip 35Nanofluidic channels for study of DNA 35Visualization and manipulation on nanoscale .. 364Pi microscope . 36Atomic force microscopy 36Basic AFM operation . 36Advantages of AFM 36Force sensing Integrated Readout and Active Tip 37Cantilever technology . 37CytoViva® Microscope System 39Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer . 39Magnetic resonance force microscopy and nanoscale MRI 39Multiple single-molecule fluorescence microscopy . 40Near-field scanning optical microscopy . 40Nano-sized light source for single cell endoscopy .. 40Nanoparticle characterization by Halo LM10 technology 41Nanobiotechnologies- applications, markets and companies Page 2/16
Find Industry reports, Company profilesReportLinker and Market StatisticsNanoscale scanning electron microscopy .. 42Use of SEM to reconstruct 3D tissue nanostructure . 42Optical Imaging with a Silver Superlens 42Photoactivated localization microscopy . 43Scanning probe microscopy .. 43Partial wave spectroscopy . 44Ultra-nanocrystalline diamond . 44Visualizing atoms with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy .. 45Companies that provide microscopes for nanobiotechnology .. 45Surface plasmon resonance .. 46Nanoparticles. 46Types of nanoparticles 47Fluorescent nanoparticles 47Gold nanoparticles 47Lipoparticles 47Paramagnetic and superparamagnetic nanoparticles .. 48Quantum dots 48Silica nanoparticles .. 50Assembly of nanoparticles into micelles 50Biomedical applications of self-assembly of nanoparticles . 50Production techniques for nanoparticles 51Nanostructures 52Bacterial structures relevant to nanobiotechnology 52Bacterial spores . 52Nanostructures based on bacterial cell surface layers 53 - 4 -Bacterial magnetic particles 53Cubosomes 54Dendrimers 54Properties 55Applications. 55DNA-nanoparticle conjugates .. 56DNA octahedron .. 56Potential applications 57Fullerenes .. 57Nanoshells . 57Nanotubes . 58Carbon nanotubes . 58Carbon nanotubes and DNA 59Applications of nanotubes .. 59NanoBuds .. 60Nanowires .. 60Nanostamping .. 61Nanoneedles . 61Nanopores . 61Nanoporous silica aerogel . 62Nanostructured silicon 63Networks of gold nanoparticles and bacteriophage 63Polymer nanofibers . 63Protein-nanoparticle combination 64Nanomaterials for biolabeling .. 64Nanobiotechnologies- applications, markets and companies Page 3/16
Find Industry reports, Company profilesReportLinker and Market StatisticsDNA Nanotags .. 66Fluorescent lanthanide nanorods . 66Magnetic nanotags .. 66Molecular computational identification .. 67Nanophosphor labels .. 67Organic nanoparticles as biolabels .. 68Quantum dots as labels . 68SERS nanotags . 69Silica nanoparticles for labeling antibodies .. 69Silver nanoparticle labels .. 69Companies providing services and products for nanobiotechnology . 703. Applications in Life Sciences .. 71Introduction . 71Nanotechnology and biology . 71NanoSystems Biology . 71Nanobiology and the cell 72Biosensing of cellular responses 73Control of T cell signaling activity . 73Measuring mass of single cells .. 74Nanostructures involved in endocytosis .. 74Nanotechnology-based live-cell single molecule assays . 74Quantum dots for cell labeling .. 75Quantum dots for study of apoptosis .. 75Single cell injection by nanolasers 75Study of complex biological systems 76Molecular motors . 76Nanomotor made of nucleic acids . 78phi29 DNA packaging nanomotor . 78Light-activated ion channel molecular machines .. 79Application of AFM for biomolecular imaging 79Future insights into biomolecular processes by AFM 804Pi microscopy to study DNA double-strand breaks .. 80Multi-isotope imaging mass spectrometry 81Applications of biomolecular computing in life sciences 81Molecular electronics .. 82Microbial nanomaterials . 82Use of bacteria to construct nanomachines 82Bacteriophage nanoshells 83Natural nanocomposites. 83Nanotechnology in biological research .. 83Nanoparticles for biological research 84Disguising quantum dots as proteins for cell entry . 84Molecular biology and nanotechnology .. 85Structural DNA nanotechnology 85Reversibly binding of gold nanospheres to DNA strands 86 - 5 -RNA nanotechnology 87Genetically engineered proteins for nanobiotechnology . 87Single molecule studies . 88Optical trapping and single-molecule fluorescence .. 883D single-molecular imaging by coherent X-ray diffraction imaging .. 88Nanobiotechnologies- applications, markets and companies Page 4/16
Find Industry reports, Company profilesReportLinker and Market StatisticsStudying the molecular mechanisms of enzymes . 88Nanochemistry . 89Nanoscale pH Meter 89Application of nanolasers in life sciences 89Nanomanipulation . 90Nanomanipulation by combination of AFM and other devices . 90Surgery on living cells using AFM with nanoneedles .. 91Optoelectronic tweezers . 91Optical manipulation of nanoparticles 92Manipulation of DNA sequence by use of nanoparticles as laser light antennas . 92Nanomanipulation of single molecule . 92Fluorescence-force spectroscopy . 93Nanomanipulation for study of mechanism of anticancer drugs . 93Nanotechnology in genomic research .. 93Nanotechnology for separation of DNA fragments . 93Nanostructured devices for controlled gene expression 94Nanotechnology-based DNA sequencing 94Single-molecule detection of DNA hybridization . 94Role of nanobiotechnology in identifying single nucleotide polymorphisms . 95Nanobiotechnology for study of mitochondria . 95Nanomaterials for the study of mitochondria .. 95Study of mitochondria with nanolaser spectroscopy .. 96Role of nanotechnology in proteomics research .. 96Study of proteins by atomic force microscopy . 96Single cell nanoprobe for studying gene expression of individual cells . 97Nanoproteomics 97Dynamic reassembly of peptides .. 97High-field asymmetric waveform ion mobility mass spectrometry .. 98Multi Photon Detection . 98Nanoflow liquid chromatography .. 98Nanoproteomics for study of misfolded proteins .. 99Nanotube electronic biosensor for proteomics .. 99Nanometer photomasks from bacterial protein . 99Protein nanocrystallography 100QD-protein bioconjugate nanoassembly .. 100Proteomics at single molecule level . 101Study of protein synthesis and single-molecule processes . 101Protein expression in individual cells at the single molecule level. 102Single-molecule mass spectrometry using nanotechnology 102Biochips for nanoscale proteomics 103Protein biochips based on fluorescence planar wave guide technology .. 103Nanofilter array chip .. 103Role of nanotechnology in study of membrane proteins 104Nanoparticles for study of membrane proteins .. 104Study of single protein interaction with cell membrane .. 104Quantum dots to label cell surface proteins 104Study of single membrane proteins at subnanometer resolution.. 105Nanoparticle-protein interactions . 105Protein engineering on nanoscale . 105Nanowires for protein engineering . 105Nanobiotechnologies- applications, markets and companies Page 5/16
Find Industry reports, Company profilesReportLinker and Market StatisticsA nanoscale mechanism for protein engineering 106Role of nanoparticles in self-assembly of proteins 106Role of nanotechnology in peptide engineering . 106Manipulating redox systems for nanotechnology. 107Self-assembling peptide scaffold technology for 3-D cell culture . 107Nanobiotechnology and ion channels . 108AFM for characterization of ion channels . 108Aquaporin water channels .. 108Remote control of ion channels through magnetic-field heating of nanoparticles .. 109Role of nanobiotechnology in engineering ion channels . 109Application of nanobiotechnology in molecular electronics . 110Nanotechnology and bioinformatics 1103D nano-map of synapse 111Companies providing nanotechnology for life sciences research . 1114. Nanomolecular Diagnostics . 113 - 6 -Introduction .. 113Nanodiagnostics .. 113Rationale of nanotechnology for molecular diagnostics .. 114Nanoarrays for molecular diagnostics 115NanoPro System 115Nanofluidic/nanoarray devices to detect a single molecule of DNA . 115Self-assembling protein nanoarrays. 116Fullerene photodetectors for chemiluminescence detection on microfluidic chip . 116Nanofountain AFM probe . 116AFM for immobilization of biomolecules in high-density microarrays . 117Protein microarray for detection of molecules with nanoparticles 117Protein nanobiochip .. 117Nanoparticles for molecular diagnostics .. 118Gold nanoparticles 118Quantum dots for molecular diagnostics 118Quantum dots for detection of pathogenic microorganisms 119Bioconjugated QDs for multiplexed profiling of biomarkers 119Imaging of living tissue with QDs .. 120Use of nanocrystals in immunohistochemistry .. 120Magnetic nanoparticles 121Ferrofluids. 121Magnetic nanoparticles for bioscreening .. 121Monitoring of implanted NSCs labeled with nanoparticles .. 121Perfluorocarbon nanoparticles to track therapeutic cells in vivo 121Superparamagnetic nanoparticles for cell tracking 122Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for calcium sensing . 122Magnetic nanoparticles for labeling molecules 122Super conducting quantum interference device . 123Study of living cells by superparamagnetic nanoparticles .. 123Imaging applications of nanoparticles . 123Dendritic nanoprobes for imaging of angiogenesis 124Gadolinium-loaded dendrimer nanoparticles for tumor-specific MRI 124Gadonanotubes for MRI 125Gold nanorods and nanoparticles as imaging agents 125In vivo imaging using nanoparticles.. 125Nanobiotechnologies- applications, markets and companies Page 6/16
Find Industry reports, Company profilesReportLinker and Market StatisticsManganese oxide nanoparticles as contrast agent for brain MRI .. 126Nanoparticles vs microparticles for cellular imaging . 126Nanoparticles as contrast agent for MRI .. 126Optical molecular imaging using targeted magnetic nanoprobes .. 127QDs for biological imaging 127Superparamagnetic iron nanoparticles combined with MRI 128Concluding remarks and future prospects of nanoparticles for imaging . 128Study of chromosomes by atomic force microscopy 128Applications of nanopore technology for molecular diagnostics 129Nanopore technology for detection of single DNA molecules 129Nanocytometry .. 130Simultaneous detection of DNA and proteins 130DNA-protein and -nanoparticle conjugates . 130Resonance Light Scattering technology 131DNA nanomachines for molecular diagnostics .. 132Nanobarcodes technology 132Nanobarcode particle technology for SNP genotyping 132Qdot nanobarcode for multiplexed gene expression profiling .. 133Biobarcode assay for proteins 133Single-molecule barcoding system for DNA analysis .. 135Nanoparticle-based colorimetric DNA detection method .. 135SNP genotyping with gold nanoparticle probes . 136Nanoparticle-based Up-converting Phosphor Technology 136Surface-Enhanced Resonant Raman Spectroscopy .. 136Near-infrared (NIR)-emissive polymersomes 137Nanobiotechnology for detection of proteins . 138Captamers with proximity extension assay for proteins . 138Nanobiosensors 138Cantilevers as biosensors for molecular diagnostics 138Advantages of cantilever technology for molecular recognition . 139Antibody-coated nanocantilevers for detection of microorganisms .. 140Cantilevers for direct detection of active genes . 140Portable nanocantilever system for diagnosis . 141Carbon nanotube biosensors . 141Carbon nanotube sensors coated with ssDNA and electronic readout . 141Carbon nanotubes sensors wrapped with DNA and optical detection .. 142 - 7 -FRET-based DNA nanosensor . 142Ion Channel Switch biosensor technology .. 143Electronic nanobiosensors .. 143Electrochemical nanobiosensor . 144Metallic nanobiosensors .. 144Quartz nanobalance biosensor .. 144Viral nanosensor 145PEBBLE nanosensors 145Detection of cocaine molecules by nanoparticle-labeled aptasensors. 145Nanosensors for glucose monitoring 145Microneedle-mounted biosensor 146Optical biosensors . 146Laser nanosensors . 146Nanoshell biosensors . 147Nanobiotechnologies- applications, markets and companies Page 7/16
Find Industry reports, Company profilesReportLinker and Market StatisticsPlasmonics and SERS nanoprobes . 147Novel optical mRNA biosensor 148Optonanogen biosensor 148Surface plasmon resonance technology 149Surface Enhanced Micro-optical Fluidic Systems 150Nanoparticle-enhanced sensitivity of fluorescence-based biosensors .. 150Nanowire biosensors 150Nanowire biosensors for detection of single viruses . 151Nanowires for detection of genetic disorders.. 151Nanowires biosensor for detecting biowarfare agents .. 152Concluding remarks and future prospects of nanowire biosensors .. 152Nanoscale erasable biodetectors .. 152Future issues in the development of nanobiosensors . 153Applications of nanodiagnostics 154Nanotechnology for detection of biomarkers . 154Nanotechnology for genotyping of single-nucleotide polymorphisms . 155Nanoparticles for detecting SNPs 155Nanopores for detecting SNPs . 155Nanobiotechnologies for single molecule detection . 156Protease-activated quantum dot probes . 157Labeling of MSCs with QDs . 157Nanotechnology for detection of cancer . 157Dendrimers for sensing cancer cell apoptosis . 158Detection of circulating cancer cells .. 158Differentiation between normal and cancer cells by nanosensors . 158Gold nanoparticles for cancer diagnosis .. 158Gold nanorods for detection of metastatic tumor cells . 159Implanted magnetic sensing for cancer 159Nanoatomic tubes for detection of cancer proteins .. 160Nanobiochip sensor technique for analysis of oral cancer biomarkers . 160Nanodots for tracking apoptosis in cancer .. 161Nanolaser spectroscopy for detection of cancer in single cells .. 161Nanoparticles designed for dual-mode imaging of cancer .. 161Nanotechnology-based single molecule assays for cancer .. 162QDs for detection of tumors 162QD-based test for DNA methylation .. 163Nanotechnology for point-of-care diagnostics .. 163Nanotechnology-based biochips for POC diagnosis .. 164Nanoprobes for POC diagnosis 164Carbon nanotube transistors for genetic screening .. 164POC monitoring of vital signs with nanobiosensors .. 165Detection of viruses . 165Cantilever beams for detection of single virus particles .. 165Carbon nanotubes as biosensors for viruses .. 166Electric fields for accelerating detection of viruses 166QD fluorescent probes for detection of respiratory viral infections .. 166Verigene SP Respiratory Virus Assay 167Surface enhanced Raman scattering for detection of viruses . 168Detection of bacteria 168QDs for detection of bacterial infections .. 169Nanobiotechnologies- applications, markets and companies Page 8/16
Find Industry reports, Company profilesReportLinker and Market StatisticsSEnsing of Phage-Triggered Ion Cascade for detection of bacteria .. 169Nanodiagnostics for the battle field and biodefense 169An integrated nanobiosensor .. 170Nanodiagnostics for integrating diagnostics with therapeutics . 170Companies involved in nanomolecular diagnostics . 171Concluding remarks about nanodiagnostics 173Future prospects of nanodiagnostics . 174 - 8 -5. Nanobiotechnology in Drug Discovery & Development .. 177Introduction .. 177Nanobiotechnology for drug discovery . 177Nanofluidic devices for drug discovery 178Gold nanoparticles for drug discovery . 179Tracking drug molecules in cells . 179SPR with colloidal gold particles . 179Use of quantum dots for drug discovery . 179Advantages of the use of QDs for drug discovery . 179Drawbacks of the use of QDs for drug discovery .. 180Quantum dots for imaging drug receptors in the brain 181Lipoparticles for drug discovery 181Biosensor for drug discovery with Lipoparticles . 181Magnetic nanoparticles assays .. 182Micelles for drug discovery . 182Nanolasers for drug discovery .. 182Analysis of small molecule-protein interactions by nanowire biosensors .. 183Cells targeting by nanoparticles with attached small molecules .. 183Role of AFM for study of biomolecular interactions for drug discovery .. 183Nanoscale devices for drug discovery . 184Nanotechnology enables drug design at cellular level . 185Nanobiotechnology-based drug development 185Dendrimers as drugs 185Fullerenes as drug candidates 186Nanobodies . 187Role of nanobiotechnology in the future of drug discovery . 188Companies using nanobiotechnology for drug discovery . 1886. Nanobiotechnology in Drug Delivery 191Introduction .. 191Micronization versus nanonization for drug delivery 191Nanoscale devices delivery of therapeutics 191Nanobiotechnology solutions to the problems of drug delivery 191Nanosuspension formulations 192Nanotechnology for solubilization of water-insoluble drugs .. 193Improved absorption of drugs in nanoparticulate form .. 193Interaction of nanoparticles with human blood . 193Ideal properties of material for drug delivery 193Nanomaterials and nanobiotechnologies used for drug delivery .. 194Viruses as nanomaterials for drug delivery . 195Bacteria-mediated delivery of nanoparticles and drugs into cells 195Nanoparticle-based drug delivery 196Calcium phosphate nanoparticles . 196Cationic nanoparticles.. 197Nanobiotechnologies- applications, markets and companies Page 9/16
Find Industry reports, Company profilesReportLinker and Market StatisticsCeramic nanoparticles . 197Cyclodextrin nanoparticles for drug delivery . 197Dendrimers for drug delivery . 198DNA-assembled dendrimers for drug delivery 198Fulleres for drug delivery 199Amphiphilic fullerene derivatives 199Fullerene conjugate for intracellular delivery of peptides 199Gold nanoparticles as drug carriers . 199Layered double hydroxide nanoparticles 199Nanocomposite membranes for magnetically triggered drug delivery 200Nanocrystals .. 200Nanocrystalline silver 200Elans NanoCrystal technology 201Eurands Biorise system 201Nanodiamonds 202Polymer nanoparticles . 203Biodegradable PEG nanoparticles for penetrating the mucus barrier .. 203PLGA-based nanodelivery technologies 203Polymeric micelles .. 204Chitosan nanoparticles .. 204QDs for drug delivery .. 205Special procedures in nanoparticle-based drug delivery 206Coated nanoparticles for penetrating cell membranes without damage . 206Drug delivery using Particle Replication in Nonwetting Templates 206Encapsulating water-insoluble drugs in nanoparticles .. 206Filomicelles vs spherical nanoparticles for drug delivery . 207Flash NanoPrecipitation . 207 - 9 -Magnetic nanoparticles for drug delivery . 208Nanoparticles bound together in spherical shapes 208Perfluorocarbon nanoparticles for imaging and targeted drug-delivery .. 209Prolonging circulation of nanoparticles by attachment to RBCs . 209Self-assembling nanoparticles for intracellular drug delivery . 210Trojan nanoparticles .. 210Therapeutic protein delivery from nanoparticle-protein complexes . 211Liposomes 211Basics of liposomes .. 211Stabilization of phospholipid liposomes using nanoparticles . 212Lipid nanoparticles 212Polymerized Liposomal Nanoparticle . 213Applications of lipid nanoparticles .. 213Limitations of liposomes for drug delivery .. 213Lipid nanocapsules 213Lipid emulsions with nanoparticles .. 214Nanostructured organogels 215Liposomes incorporating fullerenes .. 215Arsonoliposomes 215Liposome-nanoparticle hybrids . 216Nanogels .. 216Nanogel-liposome combination .