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# Kinetic theory

Published on: Mar 3, 2016

#### Transcripts - Kinetic theory

• 1. Kinetic TheorySolids, liquids and gases
• 2. States of matter Remember, all substances are made up of tiny particles that are moving. The arrangement of these particles and the way that they are moving determine the properties of the material. The states of matter are: ◦ Solid ◦ Liquid ◦ Gas
• 3. Solids Fixed shape. Fixed volume. High density. Will not flow. Particles in a solid vibrate about a fixed position. The more energy, (heat) in the solid, the faster these particles vibrate.
• 4. Liquids No fixed shape. Fixed volume. Less dense than solids. Will flow. Particles in a liquid can move more freely around each other. As the liquids is heated, the movement becomes more energetic.
• 5. Gases No fixed shape. No fixed volume. Very low density, (allows them to be compressed). Will flow. Particles of gas are moving around randomly all the time. Collisions between the particles and their container causes pressure.
• 6. Changes of state Melting Evaporation Sublimation Solid Liquid Gas Freezing Condensation
• 7. Changes of state As we heat solids the particles start to vibrate more – they gain kinetic energy. We notice the increase in kinetic energy of the particles as an increase in temperature. If the particles are moving rapidly enough, then the solid will melt.
• 8. Changes of state As we heat liquids the movement of the particles becomes even more energetic. If the particles move fast enough then they can break the attractive forces between the particles and move independently. The liquid evaporates to form a gas.
• 9. Brownian motion Named after the botanist Robert Brown (1773-1858). Observed pollen grains moving randomly in water. Thought it might be due to a “life force” in the pollen. However, also observed the movement in non-living particles. Similar effect can be seen in gases.
• 10. Brownian motion Brownian motion was not explained until Particle Theory was developed. Particles in liquids and gases are constantly moving and bump into other particles, such as pollen grains. This causes the random movements of the grain that was observed. A good example is the movement of smoke particles in air.
• 11. Brownian motion
• 12. Absolute zero Absolute zero is the temperature at which it is impossible to cool a gas any further. It is approximately -273oC. The Kelvin temperature scale starts from absolute zero: T = + 273 and = T – 273(T = temperature in Kelvin, = temperature in Celsius) YOU NEED TO KNOW THIS!
• 13. Kinetic TheoryWhat can you remember?
• 14. States of matter substances Remember, all substances are made particles up of tiny particles that are moving. The arrangement of these particles arrangement moving and the way that they are moving determine the properties of the material. The states of matter are: Solid ◦ Solid Liquid ◦ Liquid Gas ◦ Gas
• 15. Solids Fixedshape. shape. Fixedvolume. High density. density. Will not flow. vibrate Particles in a solid vibrate about a position. heat fixed position. The more energy, (heat) faster in the solid, the faster these particles vibrate.
• 16. Liquids No fixed shape. shape. Fixedvolume. volume. solids. Lessdense than solids. dense Will flow. freely Particles in a liquid can move more freely around each other. As the heated, heated, the movement liquids is energetic.more energetic. becomes
• 17. Gases No fixed shape. shape. No fixed volume. volume. Very low density, (allows them to be density, compressed compressed). Will flow. Particles of gas are moving around Collisions randomly all the time. Collisions between the particles and their pressure. container causes pressure.
• 18. Changes of state Melting Evaporation Sublimation Solid Liquid Gas Freezing Condensation
• 19. Changes of state As we heat solids the particles start to heat vibrate more – they gain kinetic kinetic energy. energy We notice the increase in kinetic temperature. energy of the particles as an increase in temperature. particles melt. If the particles are moving rapidly enough, then the solid will melt.
• 20. Changes of state As we heat liquids the movement of heat movement the particles becomes evenenergetic. more energetic. particles attractive If the particles move fast enough then they can break the attractive forces independently. between the particles and move independently. evaporates gas. The liquid evaporates to form a gas.
• 21. Brownian motion Named after the botanist Robert Brown (1773-1858). Observedpollen grains moving pollen randomly randomly in water. a “life Thought it might be due to “life force” force” in the pollen. However, also observed the non-living in non-living particles. movement Similar effect can be seengases. in gases.
• 22. Brownian motion Brownian motion was not explained Particle Theory until Particle Theory was developed. Particles in liquids and gases are constantlymoving and bump into moving particles, other particles, such as pollen grains. random This causes the random movements of the grain that was observed. A good example is the movement of smoke particles in air.
• 23. Brownian motion
• 24. Absolute zero Absolute zero is the temperature at which it is impossible to cool a gas any further. -273oC. It is approximately -273oC. The Kelvin temperature scale starts Kelvin from absolute zero: T = + 273 and = T – 273 (T = temperature in Kelvin, = temperature in Celsius) YOU NEED TO KNOW THIS!