How the President of the united states elects
Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Transcripts - How the President of the united states elects
How the President of theUnited States is ElectedRajat Dixit
Start with the Constitution• The basic process of selecting the President ofthe United States is spelled out in the U.S.Constitution in Article 2 and it has beenmodified by the 12th, 22nd, and 23rdamendments. Many additional steps have beenadded over the years, by custom and by statelaw -- the process has changed quite a bit overtime.
Who Can Run?• The President and Vice-President are electedevery four years. They must be at least 35years of age, they must be native-born citizensof the United States, and they must have beenresidents of the U.S. for at least 14 years.(Also, a person cannot be elected to a thirdterm as President.)
How Do the Political PartiesChoose Their Candidates?• Thats up to the political parties. Most political partieshold conventions, which are large meetings attendedby "delegates." Some delegates are selected by state"primary" elections, some are selected by statecaucuses (very much like primaries, except withpublic voting instead of secret ballots), and some arechosen for their prominence in the party. A majorityof delegate votes is needed to win the partysnomination. In most cases, the delegates let theirchosen presidential candidate select a vice-presidential candidate.
Candidates for President andVice-President Run Together• In the general election, each candidate forPresident runs together with a candidate forVice-President on a "ticket." Voters select oneticket to vote for; they cant choose apresidential candidate from one ticket and avice-presidential candidate from another ticket.
The Electoral College• The national presidential election actually consists ofa separate election in each of the 50 states and theDistrict of Columbia; in these 51 elections, the votersare really voting for "electors" pledged to one of thetickets. These electors make up the "ElectoralCollege." (In most cases, the names of the electorsarent written on the ballot; instead the ballot letsvoters choose among "Electors for" each of thetickets, naming the presidential and vice-presidentialcandidates each slate of electors is pledged to.)
• Each state has the same number of electors asit has senators and representatives (there aretwo senators from each state, but the numberof representatives depends on the statepopulation in the most recent census). TheDistrict of Columbia, although it isnt astate, also participates in presidential elections-- it currently has three electors.
The People in Each State Votefor Electors in the ElectoralCollege• In most of the states, and also in the District ofColumbia, the election is winner-take-all;whichever ticket receives the most votes inthat state (or in D.C.) gets all the electors. (Theonly exceptions are Maine and Nebraska. Inthese states, just two of the electors are chosenin a winner-take-all fashion from the entirestate. The remaining electors are determinedby the winner in each congressionaldistrict, with each district voting for one
The Electoral College Votesfor the President• The Electoral College then votes for Presidentand for Vice-President, with each elector castingone vote; these votes are called electoral votes.Each elector is pledged to vote for particularcandidates for President and Vice-President. Inmost elections, all the electors vote inaccordance with the pledge they made; it is notclear what would happen in the unlikely eventthat a large number of electors violated theirpledge and voted differently.
• Normally, one of the candidates for Presidentreceives a majority (more than half) of theelectoral votes; that person is electedPresident. That candidates vice-presidentialrunning mate will then also receive a majorityof electoral votes (for Vice-President), and thatperson is elected Vice-President.
If Theres No Electoral CollegeWinner, the House of RepresentativesChooses the President• In the rare event that no presidential candidatereceives a majority of the electoral votes, thenthe President is chosen instead by the House ofRepresentatives, from the top three presidentialvote-getters in the Electoral College; each statedelegation in Congress casts one vote. (TheVice-President would be chosen from the toptwo vice-presidential vote-getters by theSenate.)
Bibliography• http://www.enchantedlearning.com/vote/presidential_elections.shtml• JAMES E. CAMPBELL & MICHAEL S. LEWIS-BECK, USpresidential election forecasting: Anintroduction, http://www.acsu.buffalo.edu/~jcampbel/documents/IJF1Intro.pdf• ANDREW GELM AN & GARY KING, Why Are AmericanPresidential Election Campaign Polls So Variable WhenVotes Are So Predictable?http://gking.harvard.edu/files/gking/files/bj215.pdf• http://www.pjstarnie.com/pages/electing_president.pdf