Nanotechnology in treatment of cancer
nano particles are used for treatment of cancer
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Transcripts - Nanotechnology in treatment of cancer
Nanotechnology willchange the very foundations of cancer diagnosis,
treatment, and prevention.
If we take an imaginative approach. Of course, this is quite logical,
Since everything around us is made up of atomic and molecular matter
All of our problems are ultimately rooted in atomic and molecular
arrangements. Nanotechnology has at last provided a way for us to
rearrange and restructure matter on an atomic scale, allowing us to reach
down to the very roots of any problem.
Nanotechnology is the engineering of functional systems at the molecular
Nano refers to the 10-9 power, or one billionth. .For comparison, a human
hair is about 100,000 nanometers thick.
The word itself is a combination of nano, from the Greek “nanos” (or Latin
“nanus”), meaning “Dwarf”, and the word "Science”.
Nanomedicine ranges from the medical applications of nanomaterials,
tonanoelectronic, biosensors, and even possible future applications of
Cancer is a class of diseases characterized by out-of-control cell
growth. There are over 100 different types of cancer, and each is
classified by the type of cell that is initially affected.
Cancer harms the body when damaged cells divide uncontrollably to
form lumps or masses of tissue called tumors.
Tumor cells are basically two types.
A tumor cell is part of a tissue that is abnormally growing. It may be
either malignant or benign in nature
Tumors in Liver Tumor in Colon
External factors – chemicals, radiation, viruses, and lifestyle
Internal factors – hormones, immune conditions, and inherited mutations
Let us consider melanoma for example. Melanoma, a form of skin
cancer, is caused primarily by ultraviolet radiation from the Sun .
To prevent we use a suspending a substance that either absorbs
or scatters ultraviolet radiation in a thick emulsion(sun screen)
.But this emulsion is easily rubbed off and we need to apply
An even bigger problem is that we leave openings during the
application of emulsion due to macro-scale and micro-scale
imperfections in our skin. So the UV radiation allows through
dead layer of skin and causes wide damage.
By using nano technology
We manufacture nano particles UV scattering substances like zinc
oxide(Zno) and titanium oxide(Tio2) or UV absrobing substances like octyl
methoxycinnamate and titanium oxide.
We target these nanoparticles to skin cell surface protiens,
we can effectively coat these cells with the sunscreen
A relatively long-standing strategy dating back to the 1950s is to flood the body with
substances that are especially toxic to tumour cell
A drug that is especially toxic to tumour cells is usually also toxic to healthy cells, and
simply flooding the entire body with it causes system-wide damage and serious side
The few treatments are:-
STEM CELL TRANSPLANT (PERIPHERAL BLOOD, BONE MARROW AND CORD BLOOD
Gold nanoparticles (‘nanogold’) occur as clusters of gold atoms up to
100nm in diameter.
Biological electronic microscopy is one of the areas where gold
nanoparticles have been extensively used as contrast agents.
Gold nanoparticles are produced in a liquid ("liquid chemical methods")
by reduction of chloroauric acid (H[AuCl4]), although more advanced and
precise methods do exist. It can also be synthesised by laser ablation.
Once the nanoparticle has safely traveled through the blood stream, it binds
to the tumor cell. Most work is being done with near-infrared light, which is
harmless to humans but can only penetrate human tissue about 1.5 inches
Nanoparticles can be tuned to be excited only by certain ranges of light
Then by using principle of photo thermal ablation it will convert into heat
Cancer cells die at 42° C (108° F), normal cells die at about 46° C (115° F)
The impact can be so violent that for smaller particles then subsequently
Nano scale devices have the potential to radically change cancer therapy
for the better
to dramatically increase the number of highly effective therapeutic agents
Nanotechnology may also be useful for Protect drugs from being
degraded in the body before they reach their target enhance the absorption
of drugs into tumors and into the cancerous cells themselves.
Cancer targeting is highly dependent on surface chemistry. Not just any
nanoparticle will work.
The need for biocompatible and stable nanoparticles
Side-effects and toxicity
Human clinical trials within the next 2-3 years
Highly specific team of communicating multifunctional nanoparticles used
in the discovery, treatment, and prevention of Cancer growth
Safer, more consistent, and highly specific nanoparticle production
Over the past 150 years, many innovative and groundbreaking techniques
have been developed in order to treat cancer .But these approaches has its
own series of undesirable side effects that are both dangerous and
damaging to the overall health of the patient.
There have been significant improvements largely due to breakthroughs,
both, in the bottom-up and in the top-down nanotechnology.we will make
early detection, prevention and treatment with a high degree of accuracy
and ease possiblee that is effective and can be made it safe.