Popular Struggles of Nepal & Bolivia and Development of democracy
1. Popular Struggles of Nepal & its History
2. Water War of Bolivia.
3. Development of Democracy in India Mainly for the Students of Class 10th.
Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Transcripts - Popular Struggles of Nepal & Bolivia and Development of democracy
Popular Struggles and Movements
and Development of Democracy
Presentation by : Rahul Chhatrapati
MOVEMENT FOR DEMOCRACY
• Nepal witnessed an extraordinary popular
movement in April 2006.The movement aimed
at restoring democracy, it was aimed at
regaining popular control over govt. from the
• Nepal a third wave country, had won democracy in 1990.
• King was formally the head of the state but the real power
was excerised by the elected representatives.
• The king Birendra, was the one who accepted this
transition from absolute monarchy to constitutional
monarchy, he and his family was massacred in 2001.
• King Gayendra the new king of Nepal was not prepared
to accept democratic rule, on feburary 2005 he dismissed
the Prime minister and dissolved the popularly elected
The Popular Revolt
• All the political parties in the parliament formed an
alliance--Seven party alliance--SPA and called for
four day strike in Kathmandu, the capital of Nepal.
• The protests turned into indefinite strike in which
Maoist and various organizations joined hands.
• People defied curfews and took to streets.
• More than lakhs of people gathered almost everyday
to demand retoration of democracy, on 21 april they
served an ultimatum to the king and the leaders
rejected the halfhearted concessions given by the king
and struck to their demands.
Main demands were—
restoration of parliament,
power to an all party govt.
new constituent assembly.
• On 24th April , the king was forced to concede to all the
• Girija Prasad Koirala was chosen as the new PM of the
• The SPA & Maoist came to an understanding as to how
new Constituent Assembly was to be elected.
• Parliament passed laws taking most of the powers of the
It was known as second movement of democracy in Nepal.
BOLIVIA'S WATER WAR
• Bolivia is a small and poor country in Latin
America.The WorldBank pressuried the govt. to give up
its control of municiple water supply.
• The govt. sold off these rights to an MNC.The company
immediately increased the prices four times.
• In January 2006 a new alliance of labour, human rights
and community leaders organised a sucessful strike for
four days in the city and the govt. agreed to negotiate
but nothing happened. Police resorted to brutal
repression when the agitation was started again in
• Another strike was there in April and govt.
imposed martial law.
• But the power people forced the officials of
MNC to flee the city and made govt. to
conceed to all demands of the protesters.
• The contract with MNC was cancelled and
water supply was resorted to municipality at
This was known as Bolivia's water war
Development of Democracy in India
• In India. In the mid-nineteenth century, under
the growing influence of British colonialism,
the British government formally took charge of
• This government displaced the British East
India Company, which had steadily expanded
its influence and its ability to govern between
1757 and 1857.
• But in 1857, there was a significant uprising
against British rule.
• British colonial historians have referred to this
as the Great Indian Mutiny, and Indian
Nationalist historians refer to this as the First
War of Independence.
• The underlying structural reason for the
uprising against British rule was the
penetration of India by British mores, customs,
beliefs, and cultural practices, which were all
seen as an assault on Indian cultural life.
• It was a social revolt more than anything else.
• This nineteenth century emergence of Indian
nationalism was very different from that which
ultimately brought India independence in
• The Indian nationalism of the late nineteenth
century, which was given a voice when the
Indian National Congress was formed in 1885.
• The monarchs were allowed to do essentially
what they wanted, except that the British
controlled three critical areas—defense,
foreign affairs and communications.
• In the 1920s and early 1930s, under the
Congress party, the Indian National Congress,
which had been formed in 1885, came under
the tutelage of one of the most remarkable men
of the twentieth century: Mohandas K. Gandhi.
• Gandhi recognized that the only way to oust
the British was to mobilize all of India’s
• Gandhi decided in 1931 to break a simple law,
the so-called “Salt Law.”
• The Salt Law fell disproportionately on the
backs of the poor Indian peasants, and thereby
Gandhi managed to mobilize the peasantry, to
give them an understanding that this was an
unjust law and must be broken.
• There were staunch socialists in Congress at
one end, and diehard free marketers at the
• One of the great advantages of this diverse
Congress was that its members were forced to
negotiate, to debate, to argue and above all to
learn the art of compromise
• It became deeply imbedded in Indian political
culture that you would live to fight another
day, because that’s the nature of democracy.
• You may lose this election; you gird your loins
again, and come back and enter the arena.
• India managed to forge a democratic
constitution by 1950, and it drew heavily from
the American Constitution, the Irish
Constitution, and, of course, from British
• The Constitution created a bicameral
legislature, an independent judiciary, a
federated state with significant powers located
at the National Center.
• Today in the world, there are parliamentary
democracies like ours and there are presidential
democracies, like the one in the Russian Federation or
the United States of America.
• Whatever their type is, there are some conditions that
a democracy has to satisfy in order to be classified as
– the rule of law,
– liberty and
– work in the general interest of the people