National population policy
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Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Transcripts - National population policy
P R A K A S H K U M A R
NATIONAL POPULATION POLICY
WHAT IS POPULATION POLICY?
Measures formulated by a range of social institutions including Government
which may influence the size, distribution or composition of human
A deliberate effort by a national government to influence the demographic
variables like fertility, mortality and migration (Organski & Organski,1961)
A set of Coordinated laws aimed at reaching some demographic goal
WHY THERE IS A NEED FOR POPULATION POLICY IN INDIA?
NEED FOR POPULATION POLICY IN INDIA
On 11th May, 2000, India had 1 billion (100 crores) people, i.e., 16 percent
of the world’s population on 2.4 percent of the globe’s land area.
If current trends continue, India may overtake China by 2045, to become
the most populous country in the world.
Global population : ↑ 3 folds during this century (from 2 to 6 billion)
Population of India : ↑ nearly 5 times (from 238 million to 1 billion), during
the same period.
Stabilizing population is an essential requirement for promoting sustainable
development with more equitable distribution .
TABLE: GROWTH OF POPULATION OF INDIA
FIGURE: GROWTH OF POPULATION OF INDIA
% Growth/10 years, India: Censes-2001
1911 1921 1931 1941 1951 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001
C E N S U S Y E A R S
CAUSES OF HIGH POPULATION GROWTH
A large size of population in the reproductive age group (estimated contribution
Higher fertility due to unmet needs of contraception (estimated contribution 20
High desire for fertility due to high infant mortality rate (estimated contribution
20 percent) .
Approximately 50 percent of the girls marry below the age of 18 years,
resulting in a typical reproductive pattern of “too early, too frequent, too many.”
Preference for male child.
More children are preferred by poor parents as more workforce.
DEMOGRAPHIC ACHIEVEMENTS OF INDIA BEFORE NPP-2000
Reduced Crude Birth Rate from 40.8 (1951) to 26.4 (1998,SRS);
Halved the Infant Mortality Rate from 146 per 1000 live births (1951) to 72 per
1000 live births (1998, SRS);
Quadrupled the Couple Protection Rate from 10.4 percent (1971) to 44 percent
Reduced Crude Death Rate from 25 (1951) to 9.0 (1998, SRS);
Added 25 years to life-expectancy from 37 years to 62 years;
Achieved nearly universal awareness of the need for and methods of family
planning, and ;
Reduced Total Fertility Rate from 6.0 (1951) to 3.3 (1997, SRS)
OBSERVATIONS ON THE NATIONAL POPULATION POLICY OF
4 New Structures
12 Strategic Themes
14 National Socio-demographic Goals (2010)
16 Promotional and Motivational Measures
OBJECTIVES OF THE NATIONAL POPULATION POLICY-2000
IMMEDIATE OBJECTIVE :
to address the unmet needs for contraception,
health care infrastructure and health personnel and
to provide integrated service delivery for basic reproductive and
child health care.
MEDIUM TERM OBJECTIVE:
to bring the TFR to replacement level by 2010 through vigorous
implementation of inter-sectoral operational strategies.
LONG TERM OBJECTIVE:
achieve a stable population by 2045 at a level consistent with
requirement of sustainable economic growth, social development
and environmental protection.
The NPP-2000, is to be largely managed at the Panchayat and Nagar Palika levels,
in coordination with concerned State/ UTs.
For comprehensive and multi-sectoral coordination of planning and implementation
between health and family welfare on the one hand, along with schemes from
various other departments (like education, nutrition, and women and child
development,etc) the following structure has been proposed:
1. NATIONAL COMMISSION ON POPULATION;
2. STATE/ UT COMMISSIONS ON POPULATION;
3. COORDINATION CELL IN THE PLANNING COMMISSION;
4. TECHNOLOGY MISSION IN THE DEPARTMENT OF FAMILY WELFARE
NATIONAL SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC GOALS FOR 2010
1. Address the unmet needs for basic RCH services, supplies and infrastructure.
2. Make school education up to age 14 years free and compulsory, and reduce
drop outs rate from primary and secondary school levels to below 20 percent
for both boys and girls.
3. Reduce IMR to 30/1000 live births
4. Reduce maternal mortality ratio (MMR) to less than 100 per 1000 live births
5. Achieve universal immunization of children against all Vaccine Preventable
6. Promote delayed marriage for girls, at age not less than 18,and preferable
after 20 years.
7. Achieve 80% institutional delivery and 100% by trained personnels
8. Achieve universal access to information/ counseling services for fertility
regulation and contraceptive with wide basket of choices
9. Achieve 100% registration of births, deaths, marriage, and pregnancy.
10. Containment of AIDS, and greater integration between the management of
AIDS and STD.
11. Prevention and control of communicable diseases.
12. Integration of Indian system of medicine in provision of RCH services, and in
reaching out to households.
13. Promote small family norm to achieve replacement level of Total Fertility
14. Bring about convergence in implementation of related social sector
programmes so that family welfare become people centered programme.
MAJOR STRATEGIC THEMES FOR THE NPP-2000
In order to achieve the above goals Population Commission has identified
12 strategic themes. These are given below:
1.Decentralized planning and programme implementation
2. Availability of services delivery at village levels
3. Empowering women for improved health and nutrition
4. Child survival and child health
5. Meeting the unmet needs for Family Welfare Services
6. Diverse health care providers
7. Collaboration with the commitments from private agencies and NGOs
8. Greater emphasis for underserved population group
• Urban Slums
• Tribal communities, Hill Area populations and displaced and migrant
• Increased participation of men in planned parenthood
9. Involvement of Indian system of medicine in delivery of RCH services
10. Contraceptive technology and research in RCH
11. Providing health care and support for the older population
12. Information, Education and Communication .
PROMOTIONALAND MOTIVATIONAL MEASURES
FOR ADOPTION OF THE SMALL FAMILY NORM:
Panchayats and Zila Parishads will be rewarded and honoured for exemplary
performance in universalising small family norm, achieving reduction in IM & BR.
Balilka Samridhi Yojana (Department of Women and Child Development)
provide cash incentive of Rs.500 at the birth of the girl child of BR1 or 2.
Maternity Benefit Scheme (Department of Rural Development) provide cash
incentive of Rs. 500 to mothers who have their first child after 19 years of age, for
BR 1 and 2 child only.
A Family Welfare linked Health Insurance plan – Rs. 5000 (for hospitalisation).
Couples below the poverty line will be rewarded for their active involvement in
Family Planning activities.
A personal accident insurance cover – sterilized spouse.
Creches and child care centers were opened in rural and urban slums.
A wider and affordable choice of contraceptives- at diverse delivery point
• Strengthen the facilities of safe abortion.
• Products and services – affordable through innovative social marketing schemes.
• Soft loans to local entrepreneurship & encouraged to run ambulance services.
• Ensures mobility of the ANMs.
• Increased vocational training schemes for girls, leading to self-employment
will be encouraged.
• Strict enforcement of the Child Marriage Restraint Act, 1976.
• Strict enforcement of the Pre-Natal Diagnostic Act, 1994.
• Reward for BPL couples for:
For marriage after the legal age of marriage
Register the marriage
First child after the mother reaches the age of 21
Accept the small family norm
Adopt a terminal method after the birth of 2nd child.
The 42nd Constitutional amendment: Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha seats are
frozen on the basis of 1971 census were valid up to 2001 that is further extended
79th Amendment Bill of 1992 disqualify a person for being a member of either
house of legislature of a state, if he/she has more than 2 children.
PUBLIC SUPPORT: Strong support of political, community, business,
professional, religious leaders, media, film stars, sports personalities, and opinion
makers has been sought for small family norms.
FUNDING: National Population Policy expressed that the programme, projects and
schemes promised on the goals and objectives of the policy 2000 will be adequately
Village self help groups to organize and provide basic services for RCH care ,
combined with the on going ICDS scheme.
Implement at village levels, a one-stop integrated and coordinated service delivery
package for basic health care, family planning and MCH care.
Where ever these village self help groups have not developed, community
midwives, practitioners of ISM, retired school teachers may be organized to perform
At village level, the Anganwadi centre may become the pivot of basic health care
activities, contraceptive counseling and supply, nutrition education and
supplementation and pre school activities.
Establishment of a maternity hut in every village with equipments, supplies and
medicines for safe delivery.
Trained birth attendants and traditional dais should be made familiar with
emergency and referral procedures.
Provide wider basket of choices in contraception through innovative social
marketing schemes to reach household levels.
Improve district, sub-district and panchayat level health management.
Strengthen Community Health Centres (CHC) and Primary Health Centres to
provide comprehensive essential and emergency obstetric and neo-natal care.
Strengthening skills of health personnels through various training activities.
Focus attention on men to promote the small family norm.
Sensitize train and equip rural and urban health centres and hospitals towards
providing geriatric health care
Ensure 100 percent routine immunisation for all vaccine preventable
diseases, in particular tetanus and measles.
Provide appropriate training and orientation in respect of the RCH
programme for the institutionally qualified ISMH medical practitioners
(already educated in midwifery, obstetrics and gynaecology over 5-1/2
Emphasis on ‘marketing the population stabilization programme’ at the
‘state level’ through contracted ‘professional services’ for ‘information,
education & communication’ or IEC activities.
In the new millenium, nations are judged by the well-being of their peoples; by
levels of health, nutrition and education; by the civil and political liberties enjoyed
by their citizens; by the protection guaranteed to children and by provisions made
for the vulnerable and the disadvantaged.
The vast numbers of the people of India can be its greatest asset if they are
provided with the means to lead healthy and economically productive lives.
Population stabilisation is a multisectoral endeavour requiring constant and
effective dialogue among a diversity of stakeholders, and coordination at all levels
of the government and society.
Spread of literacy and education, increasing availability of affordable reproductive
and child health services, convergence of service delivery at village levels,
participation of women in the paid work force, together with a steady, equitable
improvement in family incomes, will facilitate early achievement of the socio-
Success will be achieved if the Action Plan contained in the NPP 2000 is pursued
as a national movement.