Nipah virus mystery: Insight from Bioinformatics resources and advance knowledge of it’s ...
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Popular Science Poster

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Published on: Mar 4, 2016

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  • 1. Nipah virus mystery: Insight from Bioinformatics resources and advance knowledge of it’s transmission Jahed Ahmed ⃰ ¹, Prabesh Khatiwada¹,Auditi Purkaystha¹, Md. Mohosin Rana¹,Tanjia Afrin Chowdhury¹ 1 Department of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Shahjalal University of Science and Technology, Sylhet-3114, BangladeshAbstractNipah virus (NiV) is a zoonotic virus belonging to the family Paramyxoviridae and the Nipah virus Phylogeny Mode of Transmission to Humansgenus Henipavirus that caused severe respiratory disease in pigs and fatal acuteencephalitis in humans.The phylogenetic studies indicate that this virus is most closely 1. Swine to Human The phylogenetic analysis of the NiV isolates from Malaysia with the NiV isolates from 2. Indirect bat to human transmissionrelated to the recently discovered Hendra virus. These two viruses are representative of a Bangladesh and Cambodia further supports the possibility that the 1998 Malaysia NiVnew genus within the family Paramyxoviridae; both are thought to be transmitted from a 3. Human to human outbreak is unlikely to be due to a single transmission of NiV from bats to pigs. It also 4. Direct bat to human contactnatural reservoir in fruit bats. Recurrent appearance of NiV in different parts of the implies the possibility of other yet-to-be-isolated NiV strains that could exhibit more inter-world is due to frequent mutations which may lead to either antigenic drift or shift. Thestructure of NiV viral genome composed of non-segmented negative-sense single strand strain sequence heterogeneity. Nipah virus susceptibility to environmental variablesRNA. Surface glycoproteins of NiV, fusion (F) and attachment (G) glycoproteins arethe main components of viral genome to undergo reassortment and may cause to Nipah virus survived for more than 4 days at 22ºC in pH neutral fruit batdevelop a new subtype.Recent developments in diagnostics may expedite disease urine but were sensitive to higher temperatures and pH changes. .diagnosis and outbreak containment, while progress in understanding the molecular On mango flesh, survival time varied depending on temperature and fruit pH,biology of Nipah virus could lead to novel therapeutics and vaccines for this deadly ranging from 2 h to more than 2 days.pathogen. Desiccation of viruses substantially reduced survival time to less than 2 h.Keywords:NiV, Hendra virus, Mutation, Surface glycoproteins and Vaccine Nipah virus replicationIntroduction NiV replicated very well in the pig cells and human lung fibroblasts Prevention and Control NiV could have been carried by bats and not caused infection in human until it Keep fruit bats away from pigsNipah virus (NiV) is a zoonotic infectious virus responsible for an outbreak of severe and fatal accidentally infected an efficient amplifying host- pigs, from which human contracted the Do not drink unpasteurized fruit juicesencephalitis among pig farmers in Malaysia in 1998.The outbreak was first reported in late September infection. Wash, peel, and/or cook all fruit thoroughly before eating1998 in Tambun, near the town of Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia. The disease spread southward within four tosix months to several pig-farming communities around Seremban, a town in Negeri Sembilan. By April Maintain biodiversity1999, at least 85 human deaths have been reported in Seremban and 15 were recorded in Tambun. The Nipah Virus in Bangladesh  Increase and improve surveillancedisease manifested in pigs as acute respiratory distress syndrome. Infected humans, on the other hand,  Repeated outbreak  Use new large data flow technologiespresented with fever, headache and drowsiness that could develop to fatal central nervous system  Distributed in all occupation  Create networksinfection in about 40% of the patients. Humans contracted the infection most likely through contact Exchange information  Almost equally infected male and femalewith the excretions or secretions of NiV-infected pigs. Since the outbreak in Malaysia, NiV outbreaks  Children & adult may infected Develop vaccineshave been reported in India and Bangladesh. To date, similar sporadic outbreaks have been reportedalmost annually in Bangladesh. The outbreaks, however, are not associated with infection of an Patient presented with encephalitis syndrome, respiratory symptoms and ARDS  Restrict and control wild animal exchangesintermediate host as only human showed evidence of NiV infection. Fruit bats or flying foxes, Pteropus Multiple way of transmission, Nipah virus transmitted through person to persongiganteus are thought to be the source of NiV infection in Bangladesh. Several studies conducted in transmission ConclusionMalaysia, Cambodia, Thailand, India, Madagascar Case fatality rate 69% (43-100%) Bioinformatics is a tool which can excavate any information,Phylogenetic analysis of Nipah and Hendra viruses one wants to obtain. we found its implication in handling an Cycle of Nipah virus transmission emerging and highly pathogenic strain of Nipah virus. It is trouble-free as well as time saving to understand the insight of microbial genome to answer several hidden mysteries and therefore, the origin of viral strains during an outbreak, by exploring these tools can easily be identified. The viral genome databases, available on different sources, NCBI and IVDB could be used to retrieve the sequences for analysis. Contact: Jahed Ahmed Shahajalal University of Science and Technology, Sylhet Halpin k. and Mungall BA. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 2007 Phone:+8801726251159

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