Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Transcripts - Naming hydrocarbons
NAMINGHYDROCARBONS By Christopher Jones
WORDS TO KNOW• Alkane- A hydrocarbon without a double bond, triple bond or ring structure.• Alkene- A hydrocarbon with one or more double bonds and no triple bond.• Alkyne- A hydrocarbon with one or more triple bonds.• Double bond- Covalent bond resulting from the sharing of four electrons (two pairs) between two atoms.• Triple bond- A chemical linkage consisting of three covalent bonds between two atoms of a molecule• Substituents- A carbon group hanging off of a parent chain in an hydrocarbon.
HYDROGENS• There must be 4 hydrogens bonded on each carbon atom.• Every single bond counts as one the rest are but next to the carbon• Example Ch3-Ch2-Ch3• Double bonds count as two hydrogens• Example Ch2=Ch2-Ch3• Triple bond, which I will use + to represent, counts as 3 hydrogens• Example Ch+C-Ch3
STEP ONE• The first step in naming an alkane is to find the longest concurrent chain in the formula.• This will be you parent chain.
STEP TWO• Name the substituents of the alkane
NAMING SUBSTITUENTS• A one carbon substituent is called methyl• A two carbon substituent is called ethyl• A three carbon substituent is called propyl• There are more but these are the most common found.
STEP THREE• Number your parent chain making sure that the numbers the substituents land on add up to the smallest sum.
FOURTH STEP• Naming the alkane, list the numbers where substituents lie, what the substituent is and the name of the parent chain• PARENT CHAIN NAMES• Single carbon = methane• Two carbon = ethane• Three carbon = propane• Four carbon = butane• Five carbon = pentane• Six carbon = hexane• Seven carbon = Heptane• Eight carbon = octane
SOURCES• Text: Timberlake, Chemistry and introduction to General, Organic, & Biological Chemistry 8 th edition• Web: chemistry dictionary
This has been my presentation on naming hydrocarbons.