Prevalence of chronic pain in Spain, characteristics and associated factors.
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Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Transcripts - Prevalence of chronic pain in Spain, characteristics and associated factors.
PREVALENCE OF CHRONIC PAIN IN SPAIN, CHARACTERISTICS AND ASSOCIATED FACTORS
Alejandro Salazar1,2, María Dueñas1,2, Begoña Ojeda1,2, Fernando Fernández3, Luis Miguel Torres2,4, Juan Antonio Micó2,5 and Inmaculada Failde1,2
1Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Cádiz, Spain; 2External Chair of Pain Grünenthal Foundation-University of Cádiz;
3Department of Statistics and Operations Research, University of Cádiz, Spain; 4Universitary Hospital “Puerta del Mar”, Cádiz, Spain;
5Department of Neuroscience, Pharmacology and Psychiatry, School of Medicine, University of Cádiz. CIBER of Mental Health, CIBERSAM, Cádiz, Spain.
Chronic pain (CP) is a major health problem with
important consequences on people suffering from it,
and with a social and economic big impact. However,
few studies have been carried out in general Spanish
population analyzing this concern.
The aim of this study was to know the prevalence of
CP in the general Spanish population, establish
groups of pain patients based on the
characteristics of the painful experience and identify
factors associated with these groups.
This study shows a high prevalence of CP and identifies 2 different groups of patients in pain in the
Spanish population. Likewise, it is relevant the increased perception of pain experience observed
in women and in subject worried about his/her family.
- Breivik H, Collett B, Ventafridda V, Cohen R, Gallacher D. Survey of chronic pain in Europe: prevalence, impact on
daily life, and treatment. Eur J Pain. 2006 May;10(4):287-333.
- Català E, Reig E, Artés M, Aliaga L, López JS, Segú JL. Prevalence of pain in the Spanish population: telephone
survey in 5000 homes. Eur J Pain. 2002 4;6(2):133-40.
- Langley PC, Ruiz-Iban MA, Molina JT, De Andres J, Castellon JR. The prevalence, correlates and treatment of pain in
Spain. J Med Econ. 2011;14(3):367-80.
• Design: Cross-sectional study.
• Sample: Multistage cluster sampling for a
representative sample of the Spanish population
over 18 years.
• Procedure: Computer Assisted Telephonic
Interviews (CATI), between February and June 2011.
• Variables: Presence of CP present in 4 or 5 days a
week, for at least three months. Characteristics and
effect of pain.
• Analyses: Descriptive analysis. Cluster analysis to
classify individuals in pain according to duration of
pain, number and location of pain sites, and intensity
of pain. Binary logistic regression model to determine
the factors associated with pain in each group
Global Male Female 18-44 45-64 >=65
Percentage Sex Age
Prevalence of chronic pain. N=1957
Factors associated with the presence of CP with the worst characteristics
Variable OR 95% CI p-value
Sex. Female vs. Male* 2.071 (1.165;3.681) 0.013
Considering that their pain affects their family. Yes vs. No* 2.342 (1.459;3.759) <0.001
Weight load limitation. Yes vs. No* 3.987 (2.042;7.783) <0.001
Binary Logistic Regresion Model. N=324. Depend variable: Type of pain (Type I vs. Type II*)
Type I pain: a widespread pain with more than one pain sites and long duration. (158 months on average). (N=138)
Type II pain: pain localized to a single site in most cases, mainly in the back and of shorter duration (97.15 months on average). (N=187)
*Reference category; Hosmer-Lemeshow: 3.733; p-value: 0.443
0,0 20,0 40,0 60,0 80,0
Standing up or sitting down (N=323)
Washing up, bathing, combing (N=324)
Getting dress (N=323)
Household chores (N=322)
Walking outdoors, at normal speed, 15 or more minutes(N=323)
Going upstairs or downstairs (1 floor) (N=323)
Crouching, kneeling or squatting (N=324)
Weight load (load with the purshase, moving furnitures) (N=324)
Performing physical activities (gymnastics, sports) (N=321)
Moving using public transport (N=310)
Working outside home (N=307)
Having sexual relations(N=216)
Very Quite Regular Little None
Limitation in daily life activities due to their pain.Asking for an abscense from
work due to pain (N=308)
Leaving or losing their jobs in
the last year due to pain (N=308)
Characteristics of pain
Limbs and/or joints
No. of locations
More than one
Acknowledgments: External Chair of Pain Grünenthal Foundation-University of Cádiz, for funding the grant which has allowed us to carry out this research.
None Little Regular Quite Very
Feeling sad due to their pain
Feeling anxious or distressed due to their pain