Natural hazards and disasters in egypt
urban planning masters presentation about hazards
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Transcripts - Natural hazards and disasters in egypt
NATURAL HAZARDS IN
Yasmine Halawa & Nehal El Hagene
Disasters & Hazards
Disasters in Egypt between 1980-2010
Types of natural hazards in Egypt
Difference between Hazard and
Earthquakes, floods, tsunamis, wildfires,
landslides, droughts and volcanic eruptions are
natural hazards that cause a lot of destruction. But
they are termed as disasters when they occur in
places that are heavily inhabited areas where it
has an effect on lives and resources. When any of
these hazards takes place in an area that is
desolate, it causes no harm to human lives or
property and hence is not called a disaster though
technically it is the same phenomenon that would
have raised an alarm had it taken place in an area
that was thickly populated.
Disasters in Egypt between 1980-2010
Definition and cause:
They are extended periods of months or years when a region notes
a deficiency in its water supply whether surface or underground
Ancient pollen and charcoal preserved in deeply buried sediments in
Egypt's Nile Delta document the region's ancient droughts and fires,
including a huge drought 4,200 years ago associated with the demise of
Egypt's Old Kingdom, the era known as the pyramid-building time.
Mitigation: Researchers have no idea how the Egyptians managed. But now IFRC
respond to drought and food insecurity prioritizes the provision of food, safe water and basic
sanitation, basic health services, along with food-security surveillance and nutritional monitoring.
1. Collect & analyze drought-related info in a timely systematic way
2. Establish criteria for declaring drought emergencies to trigger mitigation and response
3. Define duties of all entities towards drought
4. Identify vulnerable areas, economic sectors, groups and environments
5. Identify actions to reduce vulnerability and drought impacts (dams- cloud seeding-
desalination – rainwater harvesting – recycled water – transvasement)
6. Provide incentives encouraging water demand management
7. Continually evaluate the drought mitigation plan
Definition & Cause: are sudden and extreme volumes of water
that flow rapidly and cause inundation. They’re cause when
precipitation falls too quickly on saturated soil or dry soil that has
poor absorption ability.
1979 over Al-Qusair and Marsa Alam, lead to the destruction of Qena Al-Qusair road and the Red Sea Coastal road.
1991 in Marsa Alam
1993 in Alexandria
1994 in Asiut, caused fires and losses of lives and properties
2010 in Al Arish, 12 people dead and swept away buildings power lines and roads.
Mitigation: The Egyptian RC established national and local emergency cells, and immediately
mobilized its intervention teams and volunteers to support the affected families through the
provision of relief assistance (first aid, psycho-social support, and distribution of relief items the
National Society’s pre-positioned emergency stocks). The DREF allocation was mainly used to
replenish the stocks of the Egyptian RC as well as to ensure appropriate preparedness and
response capacity for the concerned branches in order to secure an efficient service delivery to
the affected communities.
Recommended Mitigation: Engineers abroad developed mechanisms to harvest flash floods
water thus transforming the hazard to an opportunity or resource where it can be used for
recharging shallow underground aquifers or to meet part of the water requirements. In general
response prioritizes rescue and evacuation, temporary shelter materials, safe water and basic
sanitation, food supplies, the short term provision of basic health services and the replacement of
Definition: is the movement of soil/rock controlled
by gravity, ranges between slow and rapid.
It can be superficial or deep, movement has to
be downward and outward.
Cause: heavy rain, soil erosion and earth quakes
and may also happen in areas under heavy
Alert: Landslides are difficult to estimate as an
independent phenomenon. Therefore, we associate
landslides with other hazards such as tropical cyclones,
severe local storms ,river floods and earthquakes. Some general warning may be
assumed in the case of landslides arising from continuous heavy rain. Minor initial
landslips may give warning that heavy landslides are to follow.
14 December 1993 : Almahraqa next to district of Alzabbaleen (70 dead and ~300
Recurred 6 September 2008 : Rockfall in Deweika (98 dead – 697 affected)
Mitigation: No measures have been taken except evacuation of local residents in
adjacent areas that might be prone to vulnerability.
Monitoring systems, where applicable. Land-use and building regulations. Public
Dust and Sand Storms
Definition: occurs in arid or semi-arid
regions if high wind speeds cause
the transportation of small particles
like sand or fine clastic sediment by
saltation and/or suspension. It can result in high concentrations of
particulate matters affecting the visibility and leading to road accidents, and
affecting air traffic.
Alert: Common during spring and late
History: 6/5/1979(15000 affected) , 17/10/1987 (30 dead), 2/5/1997
(losses=1000$), 12/12/2010 (31 dead)
(1) building windbreaks on the peripheries of deserts,
(2) protecting oases
(3) safeguarding the outskirts of cities and towns,
(4) protecting head waters of rivers, and
(5) harnessing desertificated grassland.
Definition: the result of forces deep within the earth's
interior. Sudden break within the upper layers of the
earth, sometimes breaking the surface, resulting in the
vibration of the ground, which where strong enough will
cause the collapse of buildings and destruction of life
History: The most hectic one was on 12/10/1992 ,
with losses= 1200000 $ and 552 deaths and
92649 affected lives. Historical data indicate that about 83 noticeable earthquakes
occurred in and around Egypt causing damage of variable degrees.
Mitigation: Egyptian Red Cross & Red Crescent played a strong role with the
government and related entities in the 1992 earthquake. It provided 24 hours
emergency services, received donations and provided volunteers. It also equipped
temporary shelters for the victims.
Development of possible warning indicators.
1. Land-use regulations.
2. Building regulations.
3. Relocation of communities.
4. Public awareness and education programs.
Definition: is a prolonged period of excessively hot and
sometimes also humid weather relative to normal
climate patterns of a certain region.
History: 12/6/1995 (32 deaths) and 7/7/1996 (22
Notes: Conditions that can induce heat-related illnesses
include stagnant atmospheric conditions and poor air
quality. Consequently, people living in urban areas may
be at greater risk from the effects of a prolonged heat
wave than those living in rural areas. Also, asphalt and
concrete store heat longer and gradually release heat at
night, which can produce higher night time temperatures
known as the "urban heat island effect.”
Climate change ranks amongst the greatest global problems of the 21st century, extremes are on
the rise and that the most vulnerable people, particularly in developing countries, face the brunt of
Along with the rising temperature, known as global warming we experience:
1. An increase in both frequency and intensity of extreme weather events: more
prolonged droughts, floods, landslides, heat waves, and more intense storms;
2. The spreading of insect-borne diseases such as malaria and dengue to new places where people are less
immune to them;
3. A decrease in crop yields in some areas due to extreme droughts or downpours and changes in timing
and reliability of rainy seasons;
4. Global sea level rise of several cm per decade, which will affect coastal flooding, water supplies, tourism,
fisheries etc. Tens of millions of people will be forced to move inland;
5. Melting Glaciers, leading to water supply shortages.
Countries with the least resources have the least capacity to adapt and therefore are the most
vulnerable. Developing countries, more particularly its poorest inhabitants, do not have the
means to fend off floods and other natural disasters; to make matters worse, their economies
tend to be based on climate/weather-sensitive sectors such as agriculture and fishery, which
makes them all the more vulnerable.
As early as the 1990s, the Egyptian authorities realized the vulnerability of the country’s coastal
zone to the potential impacts of climate change. In response, the government has established a
National Center for Land Use and a National Committee for Integrated Coastal Zone
Management, staffed by selected representatives from various ministries and charged with
Local Actors Cont.
Research Institutes and NGOs (for example
National Authority for Remote sensing and Space
Sciences , National water research center, Egyptian
atomic energy authority and Egyptian Red Crescent)
AASTMT (Arab Academy for science, technology
and maritime transport) offering trainings and
participating in DRR conferences in plan to spread
South Sinai Crises and Flood Management
Centre participating in researches made on flood
CEMA (Crisis and emergency management affairs)
established by the Prime minister in 2000, to be
managed under an expert in DRR. It should provide
disaster response command structure.
ICDO (International Civil Defense Organization): Responsible for training courses for
rehabilitating and preparing cadres, organizing conferences and workshops related to CD
and DRR issues.
UNISDR (United nations international strategy for disaster reduction):
coordinating, advocating, campaigning and informing about DRR.
CAMRE (Council of Arab ministers responsible for environment) led the
Arab strategies for DRR.
GFDRR (Global facility for disaster reduction and recovery) : DR
assessment and monitoring, knowledge and capacity enhancement, DR
RCDRR (Regional center for disaster risk reduction)
IFRC (International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies) :
strengthening preparedness and building capacity and protect development
projects from hazard impacts.
The World Bank: involved in disaster recovery and reconstruction
WFP ( World Food Programme Office for Climate Change and Disaster
Risk Reduction): develop countries’ disaster preparedness and response
capabilities through workshops, close consultation and regular feedback.
1. International Perspectives on Natural Disasters: Occurrence, Mitigation, and
JOSEPH P. STOLTMAN, JOHN LIDSTONE, and LISA M. DECHANO
2. Drought Management Planning: Conditions for success – D.A.Wilhite & C.L.Knutson (Options
Mediterraneennes, Series A, no.80)
3. Coastal Zones and Climate Change – David Michel & Amit Pandya
4. http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/drought/livedrought.shtml <Living with Drought –
the Australian Government >
5. http://www.preventionweb.net/english/countries/statistics/?cid=54 <Egypt Disaster
<Drought in Ancient Egypt>
7. http://www.ifrc.org/ <International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent
8. http://www.emdat.be/ <The international disaster database>
9. http://www.redcross.org/prepare/ <American Red Cross>
11. National Report and Information on Disaster reduction