Natural resources environmental studies chapter 2
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Transcripts - Natural resources environmental studies chapter 2
By Vaghela Nayan
Asst. Prof. SDJ International College
Surat, Gujarat, India
What is Natural Resource?
The environment is everything which surrounds on
organism and influences its life in many ways. It includes
physical and biological components. The physical
components of the environment are soil, water, air, light
and temperature (Abiotic components). The plants and
animals are collectively referred to as Biotic components.
All these components work together, interact and modify
the effect of one another. The basic need of life are fulfilled
by minerals present in the nature. These are referred to as
Importance of Natural Resources
Least wastage and maximum economic advantage.
Availability of natural resources at minimum
Selection of industrial zone.
Integral use of Natural Resources to obtain long term
Economic advantages. (eg., proper plan to utilize timber
from forest for long period of time)
To achieve multipurpose advantages. (eg., dam
construction on a river serves for protection against the
flood, proper irrigation project, development of fishing
industry, electricity generation.
Classification of Natural Resources
1. Based on Origin:
a. BIOTIC: (living organisms)
b. ABIOTIC: (non living organisms)
2. Based on Availability:
a. Inexhaustible: (replenishes naturally)
b. Exhaustible: (replenishing process is extremely slow)
3. Based on Distribution:
a. Omni present: (found everywhere)
b. Location based: (found at some specific locations only)
4. Based on Source:
a. Water Resources
b. Forest Resources
c. Mineral Resources
d. Marine Resources
5. Based on Chemical Composition:
a. organic: (vegetables, animals, bacteria, mineral oil)
b. Inorganic: (Air, water, minerals)
c. mixed: (land)
The earth’s land area where the vegetations are grown
naturally in groups is known as a forest. Vegetations
means trees, shrubs, creepers or any woody
vegetations having a closed canopy.
Classification of Indian Forests
1. Evergreen forests
2. Deciduous forests
3. Dry forests
4. Mountain or Hill forests
5. Tidal forests
Reasons for Deforestation
1. For obtaining raw materials for industry.
2. For obtaining timber for furniture and construction work.
3. For obtaining fire wood.
4. For developing the mineral industry.
5. For constructing projects on rivers.
6. For expanding Agricultural land.
7. For the purpose of constructing the roads.
8. For establishing industries.
9. For the construction of railway tracks.
10. Human accommodation.
11. Over grassing of forest by live stocks.
12. Destruction by insects and pests.
13. Forest fires.
14. Extreme weather conditions.
Threats associated with Deforestation:
1. Increase in the possibilities of flash floods.
2. Decrease in the rain fall.
3. Increase in the atmospheric temperature.
4. Increase in the amount of soil erosion.
5. Migration of tribal population leads to mental frustration.
6. Extinction of some useful medicinal species.
7. Shelter problem for forest animals will increase.
8. Problem of urbanization will arise.
9. Atmosphere will become adverse.
10. Desertification of forests and agricultural land.
11. Forest dwellers will have a problem of survival.
12. Decrease in the population of animal species.
13. Increased chances of cyclone due to climate change.
Need and measures of Forest Conservation:
1. To maintain equilibrium in Ecosystem.
2. To maintain Bio-diversity.
1. Forest fires should be prevented.
2. Use of pesticides to eliminate the risk of pests.
3. Plantation of resistant varieties.
4. Replacements of trees (aforestation)
5. Replacing the fire woods by biogas and solar cooker.
6. Implementation of social forestry programmes.
7. Aforestation programmes should be undertaken on wastelands.
8. Trees of aesthetic value should be planted.
9. Renewal of forest crops.
10. Reforestation by suitable monoculture.
11. Unwanted felling of trees should be restricted.
What is Biodiversity?
“Biological diversity is that part of nature which
includes the differences in genes among the
individuals of a species.”
It deals with the degree of nature’s variety in the
biosphere. This variety can be observed at three levels:
1. the genetic variability with in the species
2. variety of species with in the community
3. organization of species in an area into distinctive
plant and animal communities.
Forests as a reservoir of
E.P. Odum: “the vegetations created without
ploughing and animals which are not considered as
tamed animals are the species of forests.”
Biodiversity in India:
1. 350 mammals
2. 1200 birds
3. 20000 insects and bacteria
note: 55 mammals, 38 birds and 18 reptiles are on the
verge of extinction.
Forests are the source of timber, bamboo, sandal wood,
vegetations, fodder for animals, medicinal plants, and
Forests provides ecosystems for wild animals like, Lions,
Tigers, Leopards, wild Donkeys and various types of birds
and reptiles. Thus, forests can be considered as a reservoir
Services provided by forests:
1. Watershed protection
2. Atmospheric regulation
3. Erosion control
4. Food , fuel wood, charcoal, poles, timber, medicines
5. Livelihood for dwelling peoples. (market use)
Uses of Water:
1. Use of water in Agricultural and
2. Drinking and Washing
3. Vital for Fishing Industry.
4. Marine transportation.
5. Electricity generation.
Sources of Water: (Water sheds)
Underground water Surface water Evaporation water
2. Gravity Stream
3. Surface Stream
Dug Wells Shallow
Tanks Sea Rivers Lakes Lakes
or and and formed
Ocean Streams Ponds by collected
Types of Wells:
1. Shallow wells:
- 2 to 6 mts. Diameter
- Half or Full Built up (brick walls)
- 7 to 15 mts. Depth
- used for household purposes
2. Deep Wells:
- made of cement pipes (format)
- 20 to 40 mts depth
- 0.6 to0.9 mts diameter
- pure water ready to supply directly
3. Tube Wells:
- 60 to 300 mts depth
- 0.5 to 1.3 mts diameter
- 40 to 50 liters per second water flow
- Water used for gardening or water supply to distant place
- Purification is necessary
4. Artesian Wells:
- Constructed in valley or hilly areas
- Water pump is not required
- Purification of water is necessary
5. Dug Wells:
- Similar to Shallow wells
- Digging tools and spades are used to dug these wells
- Parapet wall of 1 mt. height is constructed
- Well is surrounded by inside slope
Dams and its Social and Environmental Impacts:
Advantages of Dams:
1. Helps in water supply in Summer.
2. Blocking the water flow towards Sea.
3. For forming artificial lakes to maintain daily water
4. Helps in irrigation and electricity generation.
5. Useful in creating Ecosystems for Birds and Aquatic
6. Useful to farmers to yield multiple crops in a year.
Problems Caused by Dams:
1. Fragmentation and Physical Transformation of rivers.
2. Serious impact on river-line Ecosystem.
3. Social consequences of large dams due to displacement of
4. Water logging and selinization of the surrounding land.
5. Dislodging animal population, damaging their habitat and
cutting of their migratory routes.
6. Disruption of fishing and water- way traffic.
7. emission of green house gases due to rotting of vegetation.
8. Serious impact on tribal people.
9. failure in achieving the targeted objectives and high cost.
Impact of Over Utilization of Water:
1. Water scarcity specially in summer.
2. Wastage of Water may lead to blockage of drainage
line, water pollution, Air pollution and Virulent
disease or epidemics.
3. Economic loss due to over usage of Water.
4. It may be considered as Crime or Offence in the court
Recharging and Conservation of Water:
1. Construction of small Dams and artificial lakes for the water storage
2. Construction of ponds for the purpose of storing rain water.
3. Grow more trees to increase the chances of Rain.
4. Economical use of water. (avoid water wastage)
5. Try to reuse the water. E.g:
1. Water used for bathing can be reused for vegetation
in the veranda.
2. Reuse of water by spraying it on dusty roads to prevent
small particles to mix with air.
6. Use based water charges for controlling water usage.
7. After purification of Dirty water it should be used in farms or grass
A mineral is a naturally occurring substance of definite
composition and identifiable physical properties.
Coal, natural gas and mineral oil
Metals like iron, copper, silver, aluminum, manganese
and other valuable stones.
Classification of Minerals:
1. Energy Providing Minerals: Coal, Natural Gas and
Mineral oil etc.
2. Valuable Minerals: Gold, Silver and Diamond.
3. Minerals Useful in Construction Work: Stones,
Marbles, Lime etc.
4. Industrial Minerals: Iron, Copper, Manganese,
Mineral Resources of India:
Mineral Name Quantity (‘000 tons) Mineral Name Quantity (‘000 tons)
Copper 5393 Fire Clay 445
Lime stone 66900 Celica 1139
Manganese 1363 Canite 38
Lead- Zink 43- 138 Steatite 390
Bauxite 4773 Dolomite 2505
Chromite 939 Mica 4
Asbestos 26 Gypsum 1657
Pyrite 94 Iron 53700
Gold 1983 kg Lignite 13900
Diamond 18000 carets Magnetite 544
Silver 33 Silmenite 17
Falspar 46837 Barytes 707
Salt 3 Tugsten 22
Exploitation of Minerals:
Minerals are recovered by the process of mining. It is
the physical removal of minerals from the crust of the
Methods of mining:
A. Surface Mining:
1. Open pit mining: For obtaining Lime-stone, sand stone,
marble, granite, mica etc.
2. Dredging: To Obtain the under water Mineral deposits.
3. Strip mining: Use of big digging tools to obtain the minerals
from the ore.
B. Underground Mining: By making big Holes into the
earth’s surface to bring out the minerals lying in the deep
Impact of Mines and Minerals on
1. Air pollution by the emission of Sulphur Dioxide and
Nitrogen Monoxide (SO2 and NO) during the mining
2. Various types of diseases arises due to air pollution.
3. Possibility of Acid Rain due to Toxic substances in the air.
4. Increase in Noise pollution due to the use of Heavy
machineries in mining process.
5. Emission of Radon and Thorone in the Uranium Mines.
6. When water flows from mines, there will be Water
7. Polluted water obtained from the Natural oil wells may
create Land pollution.
Conservation of Minerals:
Recycling: Reusing of useless articles by adopting
proper processes for them.
Reusing: Reusing the Articles again and again.( glass
Decrease consumption: Minimizing the requirements
of certain minerals and reducing the wastage.
Substitution: Try to find the Substitute of the
Use of Waste: the Wastage of some industries can be
used as Raw materials in other Industries.
Any substance or thing which is able to satisfy appetite
to meet the physiological needs for growth to maintain
all body processes and to supply essential energy
required for maintaining body temperature and
Chapatti, rice, bread, butter, fruits, vegetables, milk,
edible oil, etc are the routine examples of food.
Functions of Food:
It provides energy to do day to day work and maintains
It provides nutrients for the development and the
growth of the body.
It provides substances to replace the catabolic cells by
new cells or to appropriately repair the damaged cells.
It provides substances for the proper functioning of
the reproductive system.
It regulates body activities to ensure longitivity of life
Components of Food and their Functions:
1. Carbohydrates 500 gms. Energy and Temperature of
the body is maintained
carrot, honey, etc
2. Fats 50 gms. Important for the
development of cells and
edible oil, milk,
butter, eggs, etc
3. Proteins 100 gms. Necessary for the growth
and development of body
meat, fishes, and
4. Water 2.5 liters Essential for the bio-
chemical process in the
5. Salt (minerals) 0.7 gm. Security against damage and
6. Vitamins 0.6 gm Useful for bio chemical
processes, health, growth
7. Roughage Rarely
It is useful for proper
digestion and bowel’s
Chaff of grains.
Importance of Vitamins:
Meaning: Food preservation is the process of
treating and handling food to stop or slow
down food spoilage, loss of quality, edibility, or
nutritional value and thus allow for
longer food storage.
Importance of Food Preservation:
1. Increasing the self-life of foods thus increasing the supply. So
many perishable foods can be preserved for a long time.
2. Making the seasonal food available throughout the year.
3. Adding variety to the diet.
4. Saving time by reducing preparation time and energy, as the
food has already been partially processed.
5. Stabilizing prices of food, as there is less scope of shortage of
supply to demand.
6. Decreasing wastage of food by preventing decay or spoilage
7. Improving the nutrition of the population. Preserved foods
help people to bring a variety in the diet, thereby decreasing
Methods of Food Preservation/
The most ancient food of preservation methods, drying is a
great way of preserving herbs, fruits, vegetables and meats.
Since the beginning of time people have let sun and nature
take care of drawing moisture out of foods. This practice is
used throughout the world. For example, Southern Italy is
known for drying tomatoes while India is known for drying
chilies, mangos and a host of spices.
To dry herbs, simply tie them together and hang in a sunny
spot away from any humidity. To dry fruits or vegetables,
set them out on a clean surface and keep them in the sun
for a few weeks (this only works well in dry, warm
climates). A more modern method of drying is to use an
electric dehydrating machine.
In order to can foods, you need heat. The canning
technique was developed by a French chemist during 1795
and was used to preserve food for Napoleon's army.
Canning is a popular way of preserving fruits, vegetables
Both cans and glass jars are suitable for canning. The
important thing will be to sterilize your recipients in
simmering water for a few minutes (this includes lids).
Then they will be ready to be filled with things like jam.
After filling, place the lid on firmly but not too tight. To
finalize the process lower the jars into a pot full of water,
cover and bring to a boil. Process for about 10 minutes. Pull
the jars out of the hot water and let cool. They will vacuum
seal as they cool. Cooking times vary per recipe.
In the olden days, people would carry ice down from a
neighboring mountain. Of course, now we use electric
freezers to preserve our foods. Freezing changes the
texture of most fruits and some vegetables but meats
and fish fair well. In the summer time, you may want
to freeze your berries so that you have them available
for smoothies or baking later in the year.
The best way to do this is freeze fruit in batches (the
same method would apply to vegetables). For instance,
scatter fresh berries on a baking tray and put it in the
freezer. After they have frozen solid, put them in a bag.
This will avoid clumps of berries that are impossible to
separate without thawing.
The main difference between this category and
canning is that you need two things for pickling: salt
and acid. Pickling requires you soak your produce,
most famously cucumbers, in a brine with salt. When
they have pickled for the desired amount of time you
transfer them to a jar full of vinegar. At this point you
can use the canning method to produce a vacuum seal,
if you wish.
A bonus of pickling is that it does not change the
texture too much. The vegetables undergo a
fermentation process, which also results in a vitamin
boost. Pickled vegetables are known for having an
increased level of vitamin B6.
Salting is a sub category of the drying method. The
main difference here is that salt is added to products,
mainly meat and fish, to draw out moisture. This
lowers the bacteria content and makes food adaptable
for later use. Adding salt to animal protein turns it into
a bit leathery. Popular foods made in this tradition are
beef jerky and dry salted cod.
Advantages of Food Processing:
The food minerals can be preserved with in the
food, it will not get spoiled.
Helps in maintaining the food supply for whole
It is easy to transport the processed food to the
distant places of the country.
It helps in maintaining the basic nutritional
It is easy to store and distribute the packed
Disadvantages of Food Processing:
Due to processing the Quantity of the food gets
Slight reduction in the nutritional level in the stored
or processed food.
57% of Indian population is engaged with the
India possesses the diversity in the field of cultivars.
Different states of India are having specialization in
From the last 2 decades the agricultural facilities are
expanding. (irrigation, farming tools, equipments,
The crop yield obtained from the agricultural land are
known as Cultivars.
Monoculture/ single type of crop
Diversity/ multi type of crop yield
One crop in one year. More than one crop can be taken in a
Crop yield depends on the rain water. One crop is based on rain water, while
the others are depended on irrigation
No expenses towards obtaining water by
Higher expenditure for obtaining water.
Sufficient time is available to regain the
lost fertility of land.
When the process of land reclamation
is going on, the agricultural activity
must be stopped.
No or less rain will lead to crop failure. In the case of less rain, the alternative is
available in the form of irrigation.
The fertility of the land is not lost
The land fertility drains very frequently.
Less income to the farmers as the land
remains uncultivated for nearly 8
Farmers earns more as the land
provides crops for almost 12 months.
The substance which brings an improvement in the
productivity of the land and which is also helpful in
bringing up vegetation is called fertilizer.
The Fertilizers can be divided in to two parts
A. Chemical or mineral Fertilizers
B. Biological or Natural Fertilizers
A. Chemical Fertilizers:
The continuous crop yield will exhaust the level of minerals
(nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium and potassium). To regain
the minerals chemical fertilizers are used.
Characteristics of Chemical Fertilizers:
1. It is soluble in water.
2. It is durable.
3. It should not be harmful to the plans.
Types of Chemical Fertilizers:
B. Biological Fertilizers:
Classification of Biological Fertilizers:
It is obtained by decomposition of organic substances
2. Bio Fertilizers:
It includes the micro living organisms in the land which
is used to increase the fertility of the land. It provides
the nitrogenous elements to the plants and vegetation.
The main resource of bio fertilizers are; bacteria, algae
Forms of Manures:
1. Farmyard manures: Mixture of crop residues and
excreta of animals. It has all maintenance elements of
land and makes the land fertile.
2. Compost: Decomposition of organic matter by the
micro- organisms: like fungi and bacteria. To prepare
the compost, layers of plant materials, cattle dung and
soil are arranged and water is sprinkled to keep it
3. Green manures: It consists of fast growing green
plant materials. The leguminous and the non
leguminous plants are planted on the same land. The
process is called green manuring.
Manures vs. Bio Fertilizers
Manures Bio Fertilizers
It is semi rotten or decayed organic
substance, which is added to the soil.
It is a living formation which
increases the fertility of the soil by
This fertilizer provides nutrient
elements (such as organic and
inorganic) to the soil.
It provides inorganic elements to the
soil. When the living species of this
fertilizer are dead, it provides the
organic elements in some extent.
This fertilizers keep the soil in its
proper form and forms the aeration
and hydration in appropriate
proportion in soil.
It does not keep the soil in the proper
These fertilizers are not available in
the sufficient necessary quantity for
These fertilizers are available in the
sufficient necessary quantity for the
Drip irrigation or trickle irrigation is an irrigation
method which saves water and fertilizer by allowing
water to drip slowly to the roots of plants, either on to
the soil surface or directly on to the root zone, through
a network of valves, pipes, tubes, and emitters.
There are certain advantages and disadvantages of this
irrigation method which are:
Advantages of drip Irrigation
1. Minimizes the use of fertilizers.
2. High water application efficiency.
3. Leveling of the field not necessary.
4. Ability to irrigate irregular shaped fields.
5. Moisture within the root zone can be maintained at
6. Minimized soil erosion.
7. Highly uniform distribution of water.
8. Lower labour cost.
Disadvantages of Drip Irrigation
1. High initial cost.
2. The sun can affect the longetivity of the tubes
used in the drip irrigation.
3. Clogging problem will arise.
4. Drip tape causes extra clean up costs after
5. If not installed properly, then it may create waste
of water, time and harvest.
Pesticides are poisons used to kill pests.
We use pesticides to kill off pests that hurts us,
animals or plants. Farmers first used them to kill
off bugs and weeds because they have big fields.
After a while the cities and towns started using
Pests don’t have to be just bugs they can be
weeds, diseases that kill plants, and other animals
such as rats or mice.
At least three million people are poisoned by
pesticides every year.
25 million agricultural workers are poisoned every
More than 200,000 people die each year from
Half of all pesticides are used on the five main
crops- cereals, corn/maize, rice, cotton and soya.
Benefits of pesticides:
1. It helps in increasing the yield of crop plants.
2. Application of pesticides may be beneficial in Public
Health Programmes. (e.g. for controlling the growth
of mosquitoes causing malaria, yellow fever, etc.
houseflies, lice, cockroaches, poisonous insects, etc.
3. It helps in controlling the pests causing damage to
animals, stored food, books, wooden articles, etc.
4. Pesticides are also used to protect stored food grains
Disadvantages of Pesticides;
1. Along with the harmful pests, it may also damage the
crops or plants.
2. It may cause the damage to the bacteria which are useful
for the growth of plants.
3. It causes the damage to the health of the person who is
spraying it in the field.
4. Some pesticides are able to mix with the air and may
pollute the atmosphere.
5. The durable poisonous pesticides may cause the water
pollution as it can flow with the water and mixes to the
6. Some types of pesticides may enter into the food chain
and can harm the human health.
o Energy is the amount of force or power when
applied can move one object from one position to
o Energy defines the capacity of a system to do work.
o Energy exists in everybody whether they are
human beings or animals or non living things. e g:
Jet, Light, Machines etc..
o Energy is intimately related to power.
o According to the law of conservation of energy, any
form of energy can be converted into another
form, the total energy will remain the same.
o For example: when you charge your mobile phone
the electrical energy is converted into the chemical
energy which gets stored inside the battery.
Energy and Environment
Energy and environment have a strong
relationship. The production and consumption of
energy is one of the biggest causes of
environmental damage on earth.
It leads to large amounts of destruction of natural
landscapes and habitants through the process of
fuel extraction, pollution of soil, climate change,
Energy is at the heart of many of the world’s
current environmental problems, and posses many
problems for the sustainable development.
Renewable energy is energy which is generated
from natural sources i.e. sun, wind, rain, tides and
can be generated again and again as and when
They are available in plenty and by far most the
cleanest sources of energy available on this planet.
Renewable technologies are suited to
small off grid applications
Main forms of renewable energy
Airflows can be used to run wind turbines.
Areas where winds are stronger and more
constant, such as offshore and high altitude sites,
are preferred locations for wind farms.
wind energy is believed to be five times total
current global energy production, or 40 times
current electricity demand.
This could require large amounts of land to be
used for wind turbines, particularly in areas of
higher wind resources. Offshore resources
experience wind speeds of ~90% greater than that
Wind power produces no greenhouse gases during
operation, and power is growing at the rate of 30%
annually, with a worldwide installed capacity of
Solar energy is the energy derived from the sun
through the form of solar radiation.
Solar powered electrical generation relies on
photovoltaic and heat engines. A partial list of
other solar applications include day lighting, solar
hot water, solar cooking and high temperature
process heat for industrial purposes.
Solar technologies are broadly characterized as
either passive solar or active solar depending on
the way they capture, convert and distribute solar
Active solar techniques include the use of
photovoltaic panels and solar thermal collectors to
harness the energy.
Passive solar techniques include orienting a
building to the Sun, selecting materials with
favourable thermal mass or light dispersing
properties, and designing spaces that naturally
Advantages of Renewable resources
Lower running cost
Decentralized power production
Available for the foreseeable future
Disadvantages of Renewable
Usually produced in small quantities
Often very difficult to store
Currently per unit cost of energy is more compared
to other types
A nonrenewable resource is a natural resource that
cannot be re-made or re-grown at a scale
comparable to its consumption.
COAL, PETROLEUM, AND GAS
NUCLEAR ENERGY, COAL, PETROLEUM,
Nuclear fission uses uranium to create energy.
Nuclear energy is a nonrenewable resource because
once the uranium is used, it is gone!
Coal, petroleum, and natural gas are considered
nonrenewable because they can not be replenished in
a short period of time. These are called fossil fuels.
When coal is burnt it produces carbon dioxide that
causes global warming.
Since coal contains impurities like S and N, it produces
toxic gases during burning which causes acid rain and
Traces of mercury and radioactive compounds are also
released when coal is burned.
Severe human health threat.(lung disease)
Disadvantages of Non-renewable
Advantages of Non-renewable
Available in highly concentrated form
Easy to store
Lower cost per unit of energy produced as the
technology is matured
Uses of Land:
1. For Residential and for Construction purpose.
2. For the construction of roads.
3. For Agricultural and for Gardening purpose.
4. For creating Forests.
5. For the construction of big Industrial Units.
6. For preparing canal and water resources.
Misuses of Land:
1. Destruction of forests.
2. Unused grass land.
3. Non planned urbanization.
4. Excess use of chemical fertilizers.
5. Use of land for mineral industries.
1. Avoid Soil erosion.
2. Avoid Water congestion.
3. Water slop on the slope has to be controlled to
4. Water should be absorbed in the soil with a slow
5. Control the wind velocity by growing more trees.
6. Construct the drain of such a breadth that the soil
particles may be kept to stick one another.
Classification of Rocks:
Igneous rocks: This kind of rocks are formed by the
frizzing of “Lava” fluid having minerals. E.g., Granite,
Benzalt, Quartz, Felspar etc.
Sedimentary rocks: This types of rocks are formed by
chemical and physical decomposition of rocks. E.g.,
sandy stone, dolomite etc.
Distorted rocks: This type of rocks are formed by the
conversion of rocks, into some distort form due to the
internal heat of the rocks or pressure: E.g., salt,
marble, gneiss, etc.
Importance of Land in India:
India is an Agricultural Economy and it is inevitable to
have Agricultural activities without proper usage of
available land resource.
60% of the land in India is either cultivable or non
cultivable in which 1/3 of which is not proper for crop-yield
due to soil erosion and less mineral content in the land.
1/3 land is having less productivity.
So we have only 1/3 land available for crop yield.
Due to deforestation the problem of soil erosion is
increasing day by day.
To increase the crop production, we have to use scientific
farming techniques and will have to look for the solutions
towards soil erosion.
Steps to conserve the Land:
1. Waste land reclamation. (convert the non cultivable
land into cultivable land)
2. Adopting diversity by the use of proper irrigation
3. The Agricultural lands should be kept reserved for
the Agricultural use only.
4. Use of Hybrid seeds should be promoted to maintain
the fertility of the land for long period.
5. Grow more trees to avoid soil erosion.
6. Farmers should be given advices after proper testing
of the land minerals.