Narendra Kumar_NIT warangal
this is the presentation based on live project analysis & existing situation framework of the city which is being selected for water supply design, methods & results are based on the calculation standardized by the ministry of urban development CPHEEO.
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Transcripts - Narendra Kumar_NIT warangal
Roll no. 121660
Overview of WSS.
System components & description.
Water treatment plant process & flow layout.
Storage reservoirs & distribution network theories.
Selection of pipe material for distribution & conveying mains.
Scope of thesis work.
Tonk city profile & existing situation-data collection.
Comprehensive water supply system design for the city.
Population projection for the ultimate year & demand
Gap study analysis between present & future demand.
Issues & challenges in water supply system in the city.
future strategies & adequacy.
Analysis of non revenue water.
Overview of WSS.
A water supply system or water supply network is a system
of engineering hydraulic & hydraulic components which
provide cleaned & aesthetic quality supply of water to the
A set of hydraulic pumps, storage reservoirs, filtration
unit, pumping stations & elevated reservoirs including
distribution network pipelines & consumer metering.
standards, availability of water sources, appropriate flow
rate, pressure are needed for effective use.
System components &description
Sources of water-surface & ground water
Catchment-water supply & quality land use.
Pumping or gravity system withdrawing water from source.
Water treatment plant.
Storage reservoirs ( CWR & ESR)
User-general public potable.
Water treatment process & flow
Filtration-to remove clay, silts, natural OM, Fe & Mg.
Ion exchange-to remove excess fluoride, Ar, nitrates, hard
Absorption – through activated carbon removing organic
contaminants, unwanted coloring, taste & odour.
Storage reservoirs & DN theories
Objective-To store the clear treated water & to give
desired pressure in the distribution line for every
Treated water is pumped to a storage tank, those are
elevated( ESR-OHSR , CWR & GSR)
ST serves two purposes-I. store water until it is needed
which reduces the peak demand on the treatment
facility .II.ESR creates pressure in the WDN.
Distribution network contains water pipelines, fitting
valves, service lines ,metering & fire hydrants.
Two types of distribution network are:
I . Loop system. II. Branch system- parallel & series.
Loop system are more desirable because it provide
redundancy due to installed isolation valves , these
valves creates flow more than one direction, if leak
occurs no need to shut down entire system.
Whereas in branch if leak occurs entire system must
be shutdown to repair a leak.
For DN gravity system is more reliable & pumping system
is provided for reliability.
Selection of pipe material-It depends on the topographical
land use pattern & feasibility of the system. CPHEO & EPA
guidelines decide the size standard, material of the pipes.
Pipe materials-ductile iron, plastics (HDPE/PVC)
Reinforced concrete, steel, Cast Iron or asbestos cement.
SDR-standard dimensions ratio is used – it is the ratio of
pipe diameter to pipe wall thickness.
Pipe strength depends on the
size, thickness, load, trench, depth & pressure.
Joints & valves are used in the DN .
Types of joints- Compression
Solvent & soldered.
Types of valves used-
Check valves( permit water flow in one direction only)
Pressure reducing valves & solenoid.
Altitude valves ( control flow into &out of a storage tank)
Solenoid pilot valves ( electric current)
Evaluating criteria Supply + storage must meet current daily demand.
Intake capacity must be designed large enough to handle
demand. It must be reliable .
Pumping capacity should be reliable .
Design life of pumping network -40 to 50 years.
Large mains size-12” sub mains size-6” or 8”
Typical distribution pressure-65-75psi, designed for <150psi.
Iron pipe should not be > 150 psi pressure can cause leak &
damage to the system.
Consumer-for residential minimum pressure should be
40psi.pressure reducing valve are used for this purpose.
For industrial & commercial consumers more pressure is
required ,so for that purpose maximum DP should be
80psi. Pumps can be used to increase pressure.
Adequate supply of pure drinkable water with uniform
pressure & flow rate are main objective.
Drinkable water should be appetizing &
tempting, colorless, clear, cold, odorless & perfectly fresh
with regards to taste.
Design for <150psi smooth interior pipes surface, cement
lining or coating are to reduce pitting & corrosion
associated with iron pipe line.
pressure reducing valves.
Scope of thesis work
Study existing situations.
Analyzing t he gap assessment ( demand & population forecasting)
Future sustainability for next 30 years demand.
Proposals & identifications.
Water supply system technologies.wtp methods.
Economics of the technologies.
Design of wtp, DN-design, selection of pipe material,
Economics of transmission
Metering & connections.
Costing & estimation of the project.
Work progress- Tonk cityRajasthan
City profile-existing water supply situations in the city.
Area of the city
Population as per 2011 census
Growth rate(2001-2011) CAGR
Work force participation ratio
No. of wards
Total road length
Existing road network
Tonk is a district headquarter located 100km far away from
the state capital Jaipur on the NH-12 (Jaipur Kota NH.)
Surrounded by Aravali hills region on the northern side
300 meter from MSL.
Almost flat town with rocky but rugged
274.32metre above sea level.
Shape of the town
Relatively very low.
During June to Sept.
Kite or rhombus with its eastern & western
Dry in south western monsoon starts at
June &ended till September.
Sources of water
Ground & underground water( banas
river tube wells
Seasonal lack perennial river.
24 open wells sunk in the banas river bed,
other sources are underground water through
37 tube wells created at various locations in
Alternate major source for future
Bisulpur dam storage capacity
115.50 cubic meter
Presently water supply through
Jaipur , Ajmer,Deoli, Beawar,Kishangarh.
Three seasonal rivers are available
Existing water supply system
There is no treatment plant of
chlorination using bleaching powder. PHED is
responsible for planning, design & development of
water supply schemes.
Source of water supply
BW & OW
No. of bore wells
No. of functioning open wells
Average ground water level
Quantity supplied daily
Length of transmission main
Length of distribution mains
No. of storage reservoirs
Total Storage capacity
Rate of supply
Total house service connections
Maintenance staff available
Population projection & water
Demography-The town witnessed high population
growth (average CAGR 2.71 percent) during 1971-2011
Compound annual growth rate
Growth Rate (CAGR)
Water demand calculation& methods-incremental
increase method is preferred here because results are
coming more appropriate.
• Total water demand for the year 2016-2046
The total daily demand to meet the intermediate year (2031)
population and ultimate year population i.e., 2046are 35.58
MLD and 44.96 MLD respectively
Gap analysis in present year &
Total water demand= 26.33
Total water demand=44.96mld
Total storage capacity=9.212ml
Total storage capacity=15.73mld
Gap between demand=44.96-26.33=18.63mld is required to fill up the gap.
Distribution network coverage it should be
90% 0f the total road length.
Existing total road length
Existing distribution network coverage
For 90% coverage of total road length is
Gap between existing & proposing
So the required DN
Issues & challenges of WSS in the city
Water supply is major concern of town and at present water is supplied @ 72 LPCD
No master plan of water supply exists for the entire TMC area incorporating proposal
for the future population growth
The problem with the existing distribution system is non-uniform supply. Many areas do not receive water while
some area receives water scantly.
High amounts of distribution losses averaging to about 40 percent due to old distribution network. In
addition, unauthorized tapings are found to be more. Due to pipe incrustation and scaling, the carrying
capacities of the pipes have greatly reduced.
Poor performance of pumping mains due to corrosion, formation of scales etc., resulting in extra load on the
pumps, which needs immediate replacement. Sucking using electric motors from the distribution mains is a
New developing areas needs to be considered I. Ground water is not potable.
II. Capacity of service reservoir is not sufficient and their locations can’t serve the community equally with
Future strategy & water supply goals
Banas river, bisulpur dam & some chambal project are the future sources .
The state, therefore, has to depend on water from inter-state river basins where
total 14.50 MAF water has been allocated to the state from various inter-state
river basins agreements.
The goal of GoR in water supply sector is that potable water shall be made
available to the entire population of the state within 150 m from their door step
at affordable cost. In order to achieve this goal, GOR has a well thought strategy
for water sector that include the following components. The same will be more
relevant to the present project town also. Water Resource Management .
Already 31 mld water is sanctioned for tonk city from bisulpur dam project.it
will fulfil the demad of water supply for future.
Extension of water Supply services to uncovered areas
Cost recovery mechanism
Efficiency in operation and maintenance
Replacement of old machinery and network systems.
Capacity building of staff.
Reduce transmission and distribution losses.
Shift the source of water supply from ground water to surface water, wherever
Non revenue water reduction must be carried NRW is water loss, difference
between demand & supply due to water losses & pumping static & dynamic
Suppose we are producing 20MLD water through consumer metering, only
15MLD water is billing. So. Remaining 5MLD is the NRW.
Reduction of NRW is also main objective in WSS.
Preliminary data collection has been completed.
Fly level survey completed to reduce RL.
Design work will be carried out meanwhile detail feasibility
report for the city is going on.
Feasibility report for WSS & flow analysis is carried out.
Detail design will complete from now onwards.
A comprehensive wss is required for the city.
Water supply system & evaluation methods volume-I water supply system concepts
FEMA, U.S.fire administration.
Frank R. Spellman, Handbook of Water and Wastewater Treatment Plant
Operations, Second Edition (2008), p. 8.
US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (2004). "Primer for
Waste water Treatment Systems." Document no. EPA 832-R-04-001.
Metcalf & Eddy, Inc. (1972). Wastewater Engineering. McGraw-Hill Book Company.
"Safe Water System", US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA.
Fact Sheet, World Water Forum 4 Update, June 2006.
"Household Water Treatment Guide", Centre for Affordable Water and Sanitation
Technology, Canada, March 2008.
CPHEEO guidelines & design criteria for WSS.
Bisulpur water supply system design details report under RUIDP scheme.
Dion, T. (2002). Land development for civil engineers (2nd Ed.). New York:
John Wiley &Sons
11. Lindeburg, M. (2008). Civil engineering reference manual for the PE
exam (11th Document no. EPA 832-R-04-001.)
USDA at http://www.ks.nrcs.usda.gov/news/highlights/2006_april.html
NOAA at http://www.csc.noaa.gov/alternatives/infrastructure.html
The Groundwater Foundation at www.groundwater.org
USGS at http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2004/3069/