Nano-niosomes in drug, vaccine and gene delivery: a rapid overview
Niosomes, non-ionic surfactant vesicles (NSVs), are the hydrated lipids composed mainly of different classes of non-ionic surfactants, introduced in the seventies as a cosmetic vehicle. Nowadays, niosomes are used as important new drug delivery systems by many research groups and also they are effective immunoadjuvants which some commercial forms are available in the market. These vesicles recently used as gene transfer vectors as well. This review article presents a brief report about the achievements in the field of nanoscience related to NSVs. Different polar head groups from a vast list of various surfactants with one, two or three lipophilic alkyl, perfluoroalkyl and steroidal moieties may be utilized to form the proper vesicular structures for encapsulating both hydrophilic and hydrophobic compounds. The methods of niosome preparation, the vesicle stability related aspects and many examples of pharmaceutical applications of NSVs will be presented. The routes of administration of these amphiphilic assemblies are also discussed.
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Transcripts - Nano-niosomes in drug, vaccine and gene delivery: a rapid overview
Nanomed J, Vol. 1, No. 1, Autumn 2013 1
Received: Apr. 15, 2013; Accepted: May. 12, 2013
Vol. 1, No. 1, Autumn 2013, page 1-12
Online ISSN 2322-5904
Nano-niosomes in drug, vaccine and gene delivery: a rapid overview
Abbas Pardakhty1, 2*
, Esmaeil Moazeni3
Pharmaceutics Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
Aerosol Research Laboratory, School of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Niosomes, non-ionic surfactant vesicles (NSVs), are the hydrated lipids composed mainly of
different classes of non-ionic surfactants, introduced in the seventies as a cosmetic vehicle.
Nowadays, niosomes are used as important new drug delivery systems by many research
groups and also they are effective immunoadjuvants which some commercial forms are
available in the market. These vesicles recently used as gene transfer vectors too. This review
article presents a brief explain about the achievements in the field of nano-science related to
NSVs. Different polar head groups from a vast list of various surfactant with one, two or
three lipophilic alkyl, perfluoroalkyl and steroidal chemical moieties may be utilized to form
the proper vesicular structures for encapsulating both hydrophilic and hydrophobic
compounds. The methods of niosome preparation, the vesicle stability related aspects and
many examples about pharmaceutical applications of NSVs will be presented. The routes of
administration of these amphiphilic assemblies are also discussed.
Keywords: Cholesterol, Drug delivery, Non-ionic surfactants, Nano-niosomes
*Corresponding author: Abbas Pardakhty, Pharmaceutics Research Center, Kerman University of Medical
Sciences, Kerman, Iran.
Tel: +98-341-3220001, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
2 Nanomed J, Vol. 1, No. 1, Autumn 2013
The construction of the new phrase "nano-
medicine" which is a term implying the
application of nanotechnology for therapy and
diagnosis (1), has made new branches in this
field such as “pharmaceutical nanocarriers”.
Several varieties of nanocarriers are available,
such as nanoparticles, liposomes, solid lipid
particles, micelles, surfactant vesicles, quantum
dots and different nanodevices (2, 3). Liposome
is a general phrase covering many classes of
lipid vesicles. However, the term nano-
liposome has recently been introduced to
exclusively refer to nanoscale lipid vesicles (4).
Higher ratio of surface area to volume of
nanocarriers results in improved
pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of
therapeutic agents; therefore, they diminish
toxicity by their preferential accumulation at
the target site (5). On the other hand,
nanocarriers at first improve therapeutic
potential of drugs by facilitating intracellular
delivery and prolonging their retention time
either inside the cell (6, 7) or in blood
circulation (8). The second available approach
is to modify the composition of the systems,
such as the incorporation of polyethylene
glycol (PEG) to make stealth vesicle drug
carriers or by reducing the size into nanoscale
(9). Niosomes are vesicles composed mainly
of hydrated non-ionic surfactants in addition
to, in many cases, cholesterol (CHOL) or its
derivatives. While most niosomes are in the
nano or sub-micron (colloidal) size range, not
many authors used the "nano-niosome" or
"nanovesicle" term in their published articles
which was due to introduction of new
nanotechnology related phrases during the
past few years. Niosomes are capable of
encapsulating both hydrophilic and lipophilic
substances where the former usually are either
entrapped in vesicular aqueous core or
adsorbed on the bilayer surfaces while the
latter are encapsulated by their partitioning
into the lipophilic domain of the bilayers.
Cosmetic industry was the place for the first
account of niosome production (10) after
which a large number of niosome applications
in drug delivery have been explored.
Non-ionic surfactants have more chemical
stability against both oxidation and
temperature in comparison to phospholipids,
the main constituent of liposomes, thus
requires less care in handling and storage (11,
12). Furthermore, greater versatility and lower
cost make this type of vesicles more attractive
in drug, gene and vaccine delivery (13). From
the pharmaceutical manufacturing stand of
view, the superiority of niosomes is the ease
of their production in large scale without the
use of pharmaceutically unacceptable solvents
(14). Although the niosome has better
chemical stability in storage but the physical
instability during dispersion may be
equivalent to that of the liposome. During
dispersion, both liposomes and niosomes are
at risk of aggregation, fusion, leakage of
drugs, or hydrolysis of encapsulated drugs
Chemical composition of niosomes
Following the application of some forms of
energy such as mechanical or heating, the
formation of niosomes is a self-assembly
process due to high interfacial tension
between aqueous medium and the lipophilic
alkyl chain(s) resulted in the association of
non-ionic surfactant monomers into vesicles
(16). Concurrently, the hydrophilic head
groups of amphiphilic molecules make water
mediated interactions counter the previous
formed force eventually results in bilayer
Formation of niosomes requires an
amphiphilic molecule composed of two main
parts, a polar or hydrophilic head group and a
non-polar or hydrophobic tail. This is
obviously the ordinary structure of surfactant
molecules, but in many cases the presence a
wedge-shaped molecule such as CHOL is
essential for turning the micellar structure of
surfactant aggregates to bilayer arrangement
(17). The lipophilic moiety of amphiphile
molecule may contain one (18), two (19) or
three (20-22) alkyl or perfluoroalkyl (23)
groups or in some cases, a single steroidal
Pardakhty A, et al.
Nanomed J, Vol. 1, No. 1, Autumn 2013 3
Alkyl ethers, alkyl esters, alkyl amides, fatty
acids and amino acids are the main non-ionic
surfactant classes used for niosome
production. However, the most frequently
used surfactants in niosomes formulations are
sorbitan monoesters (Spans®, Fig. 1). The
versatility of compounds capable of forming
vesicle is due to the presence of different and
various polar head groups attached to
saturated or unsaturated alkyl chain(s)
composed of 12 to 18 carbon atoms (C12-C18).
Figure 1. Chemical structure of most frequently used
surfactants in niosomes formulations, sorbitan monoesters
The most common additive found in niosomal
systems is CHOL which is known to abolish
the gel to liquid phase transition of liposomal
and niosomal systems, resulting in less
leakiness of the vesicles and improved
niosomes stability (25). Surface pressure
measurements on monolayers of nonionic
surfactant/CHOL mixtures demonstrated a
condensing effect of CHOL as evidenced by
the decrease in the effective area per molecule
as the CHOL content of the monolayer
increased. This effect maybe attributed to the
accommodation of CHOL in the molecular
cavities formed by surfactant monomers
assembled into vesicles and is responsible for
the observed decreased permeability of
CHOL-containing membranes compared to
CHOL-free membranes (26). CHOL is used
to complete the hydrophobic moiety of high
HLB single alkyl chain non-ionic surfactants
for vesicle formation (27). In general, it has
been found that a molar ratio of 1:1 between
CHOL and non-ionic surfactants is an optimal
ratio for the formulation of physically stable
niosomal vesicles (28). Some reports denote
the formation of monohydrate or anhydrous
CHOL crystals among the surfactant/CHOL
bilayers (29). The minimum amount of CHOL
required to form vesicles without evoking
surfactant aggregates or other irregular
structures depended on the type of surfactant
and it's HLB (30).
Charged molecules may be incorporated into
vesicular formulation to enhance the
electrostatic stability of vesicle, to increase
the encapsulation or adsorption of charged
molecules, to increase the transdermal
iontophoretic transport of active materials
(31) and to orient the vesicles for better
specific interaction with target cells (32).
Dicetyl phosphate (DCP) is the most used
charged molecule introducing a negative
charge in bilayers (33).
Solulan C24 (Fig. 6), a polyethoxylated
derivative of CHOL has also been used as
surface modification material which contains
a PEG moiety with molecular weight of
approximately 1000 Da (34). It has a steric
stabilizing effect on the non-ionic surfactant
vesicles (35). Solulan C24 also increases the
elasticity of some vesicle bilayers (36).
Yang et al. (37) used various molecular wei-
ghts of PEG-cholesterols (Chol–PEGm
entrapping nimodipine in modified niosomes
which showed greater accumulative release
than that of plain niosomes over a period of
24 h. Incorporation of PEG in niosomal
formulations also led to more physical stab-
ility of vesicles.
Methods of niosome preparation
Generally there are two strategies for niosome
or liposome preparation; the first set involves
4 Nanomed J, Vol. 1, No. 1, Autumn 2013
dissolving the whole lipids in organic
solvent(s) for molecular level mixing of the
bilayer constituents, then removing the
organic solvent and hydration of formed lipid
thin films or surfaces by an aqueous medium.
Film hydration (38), reverse phase evap-
oration (REV) (25, 39), ether injection (20,
26, 40), dehydration rehydration (DRV) (41),
and solvent evaporation from double
emulsion droplets (42) are the most common
methods in which an organic solvent is
exploited. The second strategy involves the
direct mixing of lipids and hydration medium,
usually in high elevated temperature, which
has the advantage of not having the hazardous
effects of residual of organic solvents on
entrapped substance or biologically applied
environments. The widely used and well-
documented methods for vesicle production
include heating and sonication of lipid (36),
homogenization of lipids (43), lamellar liquid
crystal transformation (44), heating (Mozafari
method) (45), supercritical CO2 (46), inert gas
bubble (47), microfluidic hydrodynamic
focusing (48) and the electroformation of
vesicles which utilizes alternating electric
fields to generate vesicles in aqueous
solutions of the amphiphilic molecules (49).
Nano-niosomes in drug delivey
Nano-niosomes are currently used as versatile
drug delivery systems with many
pharmaceutical applications, including for
oral, pulmonary, transdermal, parenteral,
vaginal, nasal and ophthalmic route of
The in vivo distribution study of Ginkgo
biloba extract nano-vesicles composed of
Tween 80/Span 80/CHOL showed that the
flavonoid glycoside content in heart, lung,
kidney, brain, and blood of rats treated with
niosomal carrier system was greater than
those treated with the oral Ginkgo biloba
extract tablet (50). Mean particle size of
mentioned niosomes was in nano size range
(141 nm) which resulted in both altered
pharmacokinetic behavior and in vivo
distribution of the plant extract. Di Marzio et
al. (51) prepared polysorbate 20 nano-
niosomes for oral delivery of unstable or
poorly soluble drugs by film hydration
associated with sonication in order to reduce
the size down to sub-micron range. These
vesicles were stable in different pH and in
simulated gastrointestinal media with high
Anticancer chemotherapy by using vesicular
system have many benefits such as reduced
organ toxicity (52), enhanced antineoplastic
efficacy (53), prolonged circulation of
vesicular carriers (54) and less mortality in
patients (55). On the basis of these
pharmaceutical and clinical facts, innovative
niosomes made up of α,ω-hexadecyl-bis-(1-
aza-18-crown-6) (bola) (Fig. 2), Span 80 and
cholesterol (2:5:2 molar ratio) were prepared
as suitable delivery systems for the
administration of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) (54).
Magnetic drug targeting to a specific organ or
tissue is proposed on the assumption that
magnetic fields are harmless to biological
On the basis of this hypothesis, Tavano et al.
(56) prepared Tween 60 and Pluronic L64
doxorubicin loaded magneto-niosomes with
low toxicity and high targeting potential.
Reducing the mean volume diameter and
PEGylation of hydroxyl-camptothecin
niosomes resulted in stealth effect and high
antitumor activity of this chemotherapeutic
Ribavirin niosomes were prepared by thin
film hydration method using Span 60, CHOL,
and DCP for liver targeting purpose (58). The
results showed that the niosomal formulation
significantly increased ribavirin liver
concentration (6 fold) in comparison with
Mukherjee et al. (59) showed the superior
stability and encapsulation efficiency of
acyclovir in 200 nm niosomes in comparison
to soya L-α-lecithin liposomes. They con-
cluded that niosome could be a better choice
for intravenous delivery of acyclovir.
Pardakhty A, et al.
Nanomed J, Vol. 1, No. 1, Autumn 2013 5
Figure 2. Chemical structure of bolaform surfactants: (a)
Bola A-16, (b) Bola C-16 (54).
To minimize the problems associated with
conventional eye drops, different ocular drug
delivery devices have been investigated such
as niosomes for brimonidine tartrate delivery
in glaucoma management (60).
Drug delivery to lungs appears to be an
attractive proposition on account of the large
surface area of the alveolar region (61).
Nanocarriers could be used for protection and
more effective delivery of different
therapeutics to respiratory tract. Proniosomes
of the anti-asthma steroid beclometasone
dipropionate were developed to generate
niosomes that were suitable for aerosolization
by eithr air-jet or vibrating-mesh nebulization
methods (62). Proniosomes prepared by
coating sucrose particles with Span 60/CHOL
and nano-sized niosomes were produced by
manual shaking of the resultant proniosomes
in deionized water followed by sonication
(median size 236 nm).
Priperm et al. (63) prepared melatonin
encapsulated niosomes composed of Span
60/CHOL/sodium deoxycholate. Size
reduction of melatonin niosomes was
performed by extrusion through 100 nm
polycarbonate membrane and intranasally
administered nanovesicles could distribute
melatonin to the liver, hypothalamus and
testis of male rats.
Preparation of vesicles could be a versatile
technique to enhance topical penetration of
applied drugs trough natural barrier layer,
stratum corneum. The ability of a particle to
diffuse through the stratum corneum (for
particles of the same charge) depends mainly
on its size and viscoelastic properties (64).
Alvi et al. (65) reported that vesiculization of
5-FU not only improved the topical delivery,
but also enhanced the cytotoxic effect of 5-FU
in actinic keratosis and non-melanoma skin
carcinoma. Mali et al. (66) used Span 60,
Span 20, and Tween 20 with CHOL to
prepare nano size vesicle of minoxidil.
Niosome formulation prepared with 1:2 ratio
of Span 60 and CHOL showed 17.21 ±3.2 %
skin retention of minoxidil, which was six
fold more than that of minoxidil gel as
control. By preparation of nano-niosomes,
both poor water solubility and low skin
penetration of minoxidil were addressed.
A gel containing the novel Tween 61 elastic
niosomes containing diclofenac diethyl-
ammonium have not only showed physical and
chemical stability for 3 months, but also
exhibited high fluxes through rat skin and high
in vivo anti-inflammatory activity in rat ear
edema assay (67). Honeywell-Nguyen and
Bouwstra (68) prepared 95 to 110 nm L-595
(sucrose laurate ester)/ PEG-8-L (octa-
oxyethylene laurate ester) nano-niosomes as
excellent transdermal carrier for pergolide.
In addition to nanovesicle encapsulation,
some other methods were developed for
enhancing transdermal transport of large
molecules such as insulin. A combination
techniques of charged nano-liposome encap-
sulation of insulin and iontophoresis through
rat skins with microneedle-induced micro-
channels were resulted in 713.3 times higher
transport of the protein than that of its passive
6 Nanomed J, Vol. 1, No. 1, Autumn 2013
Two kinds of entrapped insulin vesicles with
Span 40 and Span 60 were prepared by lipid
phase evaporation and sonication methods
with particle sizes of 242.5 nm and 259.7 nm,
respectively (69). They concluded that
vaginally administrated nano-niosomes might
be a good carrier for protein drugs such as
Nano-niosomes as gene delivery vectors
Bilayer vesicles are biodegradable, less toxic,
less immunogenic and activating lower levels
of complement than the viral vectors;
therefore utilizing of these kind of gene
carriers are more convenient and safer than
the viral vectors. Huang et al. (70) used
cationic niosomes of sorbitan monoesters for
delivery of antisense oligonucleotides (OND)
in a COS-7 cell line among them Span 40 and
60 vesicles had more significant effect.
However, positively charged particulates are
prone to nonspecific interactions with plasma
proteins, which resulted in destabilization,
dissociation, and rapid clearance of
gene/carrier complexes (71). For preparation
of an effective non-phospholipid vesicular
gene delivery vector, Huang et al. (72)
hypothesized using PEGylated cationic
niosomes. They used DSPE-mPEG 2000 for
PEGylation of cationic niosomes and the
resultant OND-vesicle complexes showed a
neutral zeta potential with particle size about
300 nm. These complexes had less serum-
protein binding affinity and particle
aggregation in serum (72). On the other hand,
the PEGylated niosomes showed a higher
efficiency of OND cellular uptake in serum
when compared with cationic niosomes. A
new arising problem was reported by
Manosroi et al. (73) which was the lower
stability of luciferase plasmid (pLuc)
encapsulated in Span 60 or Tween
61/dimethyl dioctadecyl ammonium bromide
(DDAB)/CHOL in comparison to cationic
liposomes. However DDAB/Tween 61/CHOL
nanovesicles, made an effective cationic
vector for pLuc delivery following the
application of iontophoresis on the stratum
corneum of rat skin (74). Later, this research
team reported (75) successful transdermal
absorption, gene expression and stability of
tyrosinase plasmid (pMEL34)-loaded
DDAB/Tween 61/CHOL nanovesicles as a
promising topical delivery in vitiligo therapy.
They also successfully expressed human
tyrosinase plasmid (pAH7/Tyr) and increased
melanin production in tyrosinase gene
knocked out human melanoma (M5) cells and
in tyrosine-producing mouse melanoma
(B16F10) cells by loading the plasmid in elastic
cationic niosomes (76).
Niosomes in vaccine delivery
Protein subunit vaccines
Development of new safe and effective
vaccines is an important goal for many
research groups in all over the world. Subunit
proteins or DNA of various organisms are
safer than live organism-based vaccines even
they may show less efficacy. The use of
adjuvanted systems have proven to enhance
the immunogenicity of these subunit vaccines
through protection (i.e. preventing degra-
dation of the antigen in vivo) and enhanced
targeting of these antigens to professional
antigen-presenting cells (77). Brewer and
Alexander (78) reported the first application
on niosome antigen delivery for immunization
of Balb/c mice against bovine serum albumin
(BSA). They deduced that niosomes were
potentially better stimulators of the Th1
lymphocyte subset than was Freund's
complete adjuvant and by inference, potent
stimulators of cellular immunity. Hassan et al
(79) showed better immunogenicity with
herpes simplex virus 1 antigen encapsulated
in l-mono palmitoyl glycerol (MP)/-
CHOL/DCP niosomes in mice. On the other
hand, partial protection against homologous
(type 2 herpes simplex virus HSV-2)
challenge infection afforded to mice by HSV-
2 antigen encapsulated niosomes (80) shows
the importance of composition and method of
niosomal adjuvant formulations. Yoshioka et
al (81) formulated Span/CHOL/DCP nio-
somes containing tetanus toxoid (TT)
Pardakhty A, et al.
Nanomed J, Vol. 1, No. 1, Autumn 2013 7
emulsified in an external oil phase to form a
vesicle-in-water-in-oil (v/w/o) formulation.
Initial studies of the system in vivo using
cottonseed oil as the external oil phase,
showed enhanced immunological activity
over the free antigen or vesicles.
Encapsulation of BSA or haemagglutinin
(HA) in v/w/o emulsion was also reported by
Murdan (82). Immunogenicity studies showed
that the v/w/o gel as well as the water-in-oil
(w/o) gel as control, possess immunoadjuvant
properties and enhance the primary and
secondary antibody titres (of total IgG, IgG1,
IgG2a and IgG2b) to HA antigen. Chambers et
al (83) reported a single subcutaneous dose of
killed Mycobacterium bovis BCG in Brij®
based nano-niosomes (NovasomeTM
protected guinea pigs from lethal tuberculosis.
Vangala et al. (84) incorporated three
different protein antigens in positively
charged niosomes made from MP/CHOL/
α,α´-trehalose 6,6´-dibehenate (TDB) or
dioctadecylammonium (DDA). Antigens
encapsulation led to increase in size of
vesicles from submicron to larger (1-2.7 µm)
ones which may be due to the high molecular
weight of antigens, in addition to their high
hydrophobic nature, causing the association
of the proteins with the hydrophobic regions
of the vesicle bilayers and possibly
encouraging a degree of vesicle fusion or
influencing the packing arrangements of the
surfactants. Their results suggest that both
DDA- and MP-based vesicular systems may
be useful in enhancing the immunogenicity of
the subunit vaccines, especially with the
subunit antigen Ag85B-ESAT-6 against
tuberculosis, for which a high cell-mediated
Th1 immune response is essential (85).
Vangala et al. (86) also reported DDA
formulations incorporating TDB which
showed markedly increased hepatitis B
surface antigen specific splenocyte
proliferation and elicited cytokine production
concomitant with a strong T cell driven
response, delineating formulations that may
be useful for further evaluation of their
clinical potential. Ferro and Stimson (87) used
a gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH)
analogue, GnRH-glycs, linked to different
carrier molecule and encapsulated in NSV
formulations to immune-neutralisation of
GnRH in male Sprague-Dawley rats. The
results were encouraging to use NSVs as a
non toxic immune adjuvant. Then, a modified
GnRH peptide (CHWSYGLRPG-NH2) was
conjugated to TT and formulated with
different adjuvants such as C18EO2/CHOL-
/DCP niosomes (88). The best castration
effect, depicted in production of IgG2b
antibody, was not as well by nano-niosomes
as compared to sustained release poly(lactide-
co-glycolide)/triacetin (PLGA) formulation.
A promising immunization effect was
reported by Lezama-Davila (89) in C57BL/10
mice immunized with L. m. mexicana
For developing non parenteral niosomal
vaccines, Rentel et al. (90) prepared sucrose
ester niosomes for encapsulation of
ovalbumine and administered the vesicular
formulations through oral route in Balb/c
mice. Significant increase in antibody titres
was observed following oral vaccination with
less hydrophilic vesicular formulation.
Chattaraj and Das (91) entrapped hema-
gglutinin antigens from three different
influenza A strains in Span 4o or 60 niosomes
for nasal mucosal delivery.
BSA-loaded niosomes composed of Span
60/Span 85/CHOL/stearylamine were coated
with a modified polysaccharide O-palmitoyl
mannan (OPM) for targeting them to
Langerhan’s cells, the major antigen
presenting cells found in abundance beneath
the stratum corneum (21). Measuring serum
IgG titre and its subclasses (IgG2a/IgG1 ratio)
elicited a significantly higher serum IgG titre
upon topical application of mannosylated
niosomes as compared with topically applied
alum adsorbed BSA (P < 0.05). The
mannosylated niosomes also were used orally
for induction of the oral mucosal
immunization against TT (92). Coating with
OPM was carried out to protect antigen
encapsulated vesicles from bile salts
dissolution and enzymatic degradation in the
8 Nanomed J, Vol. 1, No. 1, Autumn 2013
gastrointestinal tract and to enhance their
affinity toward the antigen presenting cells of
Peyer’s patches. On the other hand, Gupta et
al. (93) showed topically given TT containing
transfersomes, after secondary immunization,
could elicit immune response (anti-TT-IgG)
that was equivalent to the one that produced
following intramus-cularly alum-adsorbed
TT-based immu-nization. The immunity
response of Span 85/CHOL niosomes was
weaker than trans-fersomes.
DNA entrapment in liposomes may be due to
protection of genetic material in biological
milieu, promoted greater homoral and cell-
mediated immune responses against the
encoded antigen in immunized mice (94).
Parentral (95), topical (96) and oral (21)
administration capability of NSV/DNA
formulations made these systems as new non-
toxic and effective vaccine delivery tools.
Perrie et al. (95) reported the entrapment of
nucleoprotein expressing plasmid of H3N2
influenza virus in NSVs and subcutaneous
injection of the formulations resulted in better
immunization of treated mice in comparison
to naked DNA. Encapsulation of plasmid
pRc/CMV-HBs(S) expressing sequence
coding for the small proteins of the hepatitis
B virus, HBsAg, in mannolysated niosomes
signified the potential of these vesicles as
DNA vaccine carrier and adjuvant for
effective oral immunization against hepatitis
B (21). Vyas et al. (96) formulated Span
85/CHOL niosomes encapsulating DNA
encoding HBsAg and applied them topically
in Balb/c mice. Elevation of serum anti-
HBsAg titer and cyokines level (IL-2 and
IFN-γ) indicated the efficacy of used topical
vesicular vaccine delivery.
Recently, we reported the different positively
charged micron-sized niosomal formulations
containing sorbitan esters, CHOL and CTAB
for the entrapment of autoclaved Leishmania
major (ALM) (32). Inspite of large diameter
of prepared vesicles, the results obtaind
showed that the niosomes containing ALM
have a moderate effect in the prevention of
cutaneous leishmaniasis in BALB/c mice.
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