Pollution monitoring sm
Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Transcripts - Pollution monitoring sm
FOR MEASUREMENT OF POLLUTION
Environmental pollution -detection and monitoring is
being one by involving biosystems. For this purpose,
several group of plants , animals and microorganisms
The environmental protection agencies consider - bio
monitoring of pollution as a useful device to monitor
environmental pollution from diagnostic, preventive
and remedial measures.
The criteria chosen for bio monitoring of pollution
are very crucial. They should be reliable,
reproducible and cost-effective
Three types of criteria
1. Visual rating
2. Genotoxicity rating
3. Metabolic rating
The growth rate and productivity are
considered. The growth can be measured by
Sometimes the presence or absence of a
particular species of an organism serves as an
indicator for the environmental pollution.
Measure the extent of damage caused to
an organism by environmental pollution at the
cellular and sub-cellular levels.
The genotoxic lesions may be detected on the
cellular organelles, genomes,immuno systems,
Measurement of chromosomal damage, sister
chromatid exchange and micronuclei counting are
also useful for pollution detection.
Cell viability - can be measured by detecting in vitro
DNA probes - are in use for the identification of
disease causing organisms in water.
Biochemical changes with environmental pollution
can be measured in selected organisms.
The biomarkers used in metabolic rating include
chlorophyll, proteins, nucleic acids and changes in
2.cell biological assays
3.Molecular biological assays
Bioassays in environmental pollution
The conventional physical and chemical
methods were used for the detection of
1.Algae, 2.Bacteria, 3. Lichens,
4.mosses 5.vascular macrophytes
Algae considered to be reliable
indicators of pollution due to their high
sensitivity and easy availability, besides
simple culturing techniques
e.g.; Chlorella,Spirulina, Anabena, Ulva,
Codium, Fucus and laminaria
Organic pollution –Microcystis
Metal pollution –Navicula
These are commonly used for the detection
of fecal pollution in portable water, the most
widely employed test being coliform test
.Ames test that detects mutagenic pollutants
is carried out by the bacterium Salmonella .
Bacterial bioluminescence is used for the
measurement of gaseous pollutants and
other compounds. e.g.; sulfur dioxide,
farmaldehyde,ethylacetate. e.g.; organism
photobacterium phosphoreum .
Lichens in bioassays
It is used for atmospheric gas
pollution.Lichens are very
sensitive for the measurement of
Environmental metal pollution can be detected by
using forest and aquatic mosses e.g; Sphagnum
Vascular macrophytes in bioassays
Aquatic metal pollution e.g.; Eichornia crassipes
Bio chemical parameters of macrophytes are used to
serve as biomarkers of pollution. e.g.; peroxidase
activity increases due to metal pollution inhibition of
nitrate reductase activity by mercury.
Identified the presence of small peptides within the
plant cells which are pollution induced .
These peptides referred to as phytochelatins.
It is detection of metal pollution
Cell biology deals with the study of the
structural and functional aspects of cells and
Cell biological methods –the harmful effect
of pollutants on different cellular components
– membranes, chloroplast, mitochondria,
chromosomes. Macromolecules –nucleic
acids, proteins are also used.
Membrane damage in bioassay-The plasma
membrane an envelope surrounding the cell,
protects the cell from hostile environment. It
is the first cellular component to be directly
exposed to pollutants.
The physical damage caused by pollutants on the
membranes can be detected by light, phase contrast
and electron microscopy.
The semi permeable properties of the membrane due
to pollutants can be detected by leakage of
The genetic damages the cells as reflected
by changes in the chromosomes can be
effectively used in biomonitoring of
pollution. For this purpose plants such as
(Soya bean, maize )
Chromosomal damage –The pollutants
causes chromosomal damage-
fragmentation, bridge formation in cell
division. The chromosomal alternations
can be effectively use for pollution
Damage to chromosomes by pollutants may result –
large scale fragmentation of chromosomes,
micronuclei formation. Micro nucleus test used for
screening of mutagenic compounds.
Sister chromatid exchange –The damages caused
by pollutants results- misexchnge of chromosomal
segments during cell division. Sister chromatid
exchange detected by fluorescent dye technique.
Ames test –detection of chemical mutagens and their
carcinogenicity. This is widely used bioassay – screening of
various pollutants, drugs cosmetics, metals
Ames test employs – special mutant strain of bacterium
(Salmonella typhimurium.This organism can not synthesize
Addition of chemical carcinogens causes mutations this
bacterium to synthesize histidine .
Yeast cell use for detection of chemical carcinogens
Molecular bioassays- detection of bacteria, viruses,
pathogenic organisms that cause diseases.
DNA probes – water quality monitoring ,
particularly potable water.
Used for detection of pollutants(pesticides,
herbicides) identification of pathogens that exhibit
by immunological properties.
Immunoassays - measurement of several
pesticides (aldrin, glyphosate .some bacteria
detected by immunoassays. chlorella and
Lux reporter genes on the plasmids
produce assayable signals
This genes expressed in luminescent
bacteria like (Photobacterium and
vibrio.Some bacterial strain have been
developed through gene cloning for the
detection of pollutants and degradation.
Pseudomonous –detecting Napthalene,
A biosensor is an analytical device containing an immobilized
biological material (enzyme, organelle, cell) which interact
with an analyte and produce physical, chemical and electrical
signal that can be measured.
BOD biosensor (Biological oxygen demand ) –detection of
organic pollution. This test requires for 5 days of incubation .
(ex- yeast –Trichosporon cutaneum )
Gas biosensor – detection of gases (sulfur dioxide, methan,
carbon dioxide ) have been developed
Thiobacillus –detect the pollutant SO2,CH4 - detected by
immobilized Methalomonas .
Immunoelectrodes as biosensor – detect
low concentrations of pollutants.
Pesticide – specific antibodies – detect the
presence of low concentrations of
malathion and carbamates by