Nanofinishes for UV protection in textiles
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Transcripts - Nanofinishes for UV protection in textiles
DR. BHUVANESH GUPTA
UVA (320 to 400 nm)
UVB (290 to 320 nm)
UVC (200 to 290 nm)
UV-B irradiance at the surface based on the abundance of
ozone, as measured by NASA’s Total Ozone Mapping
Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument during the month of
Ultraviolet Protection Factor (UPF)
Eλ = erythemal spectral effectiveness
Sλ = solar spectral irradiance in W/m2/nm
Tλ = spectral transmittance of fabric
Δ λ = the bandwidth in nm
λ = the wavelength in nm
Solar Protection Factor (SPF)
MED = Minimum Erythrymal Dose
Higher the UPF and SPF values, better the UV
protection by the fabric
Fabric construction, porosity, thickness and
Dye concentration, whitening agents, UV
UV absorbers Colors
Finishes - - NANO
Nanotechnology - structures sized between
1 to 100 nm in at least one dimension
ZnO, TiO2 , ZrO - absorb the UV radiation
ZnO, TiO2 - non-toxic, compatible with
human skin, chemically stable under both
high temp. and UVR, easily available
High surface-to-volume ratio - adhere well
to the fabric
High surface area and high surface energy -
bound to the surface of the fibres by van der
Waals forces - wash fastness
Woven better UPF than knitted
Polyester/cotton blend - better UPF than pure
cotton - UV absorption of polyester
Karthivelu et al., Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research, Vol. 34,
September 2009, pg. 267-273
Hexamethyelenetetramine and zincnitrate
Cotton fabric - treated in hot water to obtain
1D needle-shaped nano ZnO crystallites
(a) before treatment, (b) after soaking in the SiO2 solution, (c) after
chemical deposition of ZnO, and (d) after hot water treatment at 100
°C for 2.5 h
(a) before treatment, (b) after
soaking in the SiO2 solution, (c)
after chemical deposition of ZnO,
and (d) after hotwater treatment
at 100 °C for 2.5 h.
(a) before treatment, (b) after
soaking in the SiO2 solution,
chemical deposition of ZnO, and
boiling water treatment for 3 h,
and (c) after 20 washes
Mao et al., Thin Solid Films, Vol. 517, 2009, pg. 2681–2686
CeO2 -excellent UV absorption - low
CeO2 + ZnO - reduce the catalytic and
Fine ZnO:CeO2 particles with very small size
- unique UV absorbing ability, high stability
at high temp., high hardness, and low activity
J. F. Lima et al., Applied Surface Science, Vol. 255, 2009, pg. 9006–9009
Layered fabric systems with electrospun ZnO
nanocomposite fiber webs - various conc of
ZnO in a range of web area densities
Extremely thin, Light-weight, Mechanically
Desired functionalities imparted without
significant increases in weight or thickness
SEM micrographs of (a)
nanofiber web, (b) electrospun
nanocomposite fiber web and the
cross-sectional view of a
nanocomposite fiber (inset), and
(c) cross-sectional view of a
layered fabric system
S. Lee, Fibers and Polymers, Vol.10, No.3, 2009, pg. 295-301
Anti microbial + UV protective
Transmission spectra of PES fabrics loaded of with TiO2
D. Mihailovic et al., Carbohydrate Polymers, Vol. 79, 2010, pg. 526–
Particle-embedded acrylic coatings
transparent to visible light but absorb UVR
UV absorption behavior of nano- and micron
Thick coatings of 10 μm and 20 μm applied
to Kevlar fabrics
Absorption spectra from various size TiO2 particles
P. Katangur et al., Polymer Degradation and Stability, Vol. 91, 2006, pg.
2437 – 2442
Cotton, Polyester, Cotton/Polyester Blend –
Coated with ZnO – Gamma Irradiation for
UPF increased with an increase in the
concentration of the UV absorber
M. H. Zohdy et al., European Polymer Journal, Vol. 45, 2009, pg. 2926–2934
SEM micrographs of (a) uncoated polyester fabrics (b) ZnO coated
SEM micrographs of (a) untreated Cotton fabrics (b) Alum/ZnO
UPF &UV transmittance of coated
UPF & UV transmittance
of coated cotton fabrics
Large surface area – better UV absorption
Transparent appearance on coatings
Applied using different techniques
Reasonable wash fastness
Can be used to produce multifunctional
Richard A. Scott, “Textiles for Protection,” Woodhead Publishing Limited, 2005.
D. Saravanan, AUTEX Research Journal, Vol. 7, No 1, March 2007.
Hoffmann et al., Arch Dermatol, Vol. 137, August 2001.
Karthivelu et al., Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research, Vol. 34, September 2009, pg.
Mao et al., Thin Solid Films, Vol. 517, 2009, pg. 2681–2686.
J. F. Lima et al., Applied Surface Science, Vol. 255, 2009, pg. 9006–9009.
S. Lee, Fibers and Polymers, Vol.10, No.3, 2009, pg. 295-301.
D. Mihailovic et al., Carbohydrate Polymers, Vol. 79, 2010, pg. 526–532.
P. Katangur et al., Polymer Degradation and Stability, Vol. 91, 2006, pg. 2437 - 2442.
H. Zhang et al., Polymer Degradation and Stability, Vol. 94, 2009, pg. 278–283.
M. H. Zohdy et al., European Polymer Journal, Vol. 45, 2009, pg. 2926–2934.
Fernando et al., Nanotechnology Applications in Coatings, ACS Symposium Series,
American Chemical Society, Washington D.C., 2009.
M. D. Newman et al., Journal of American Academy of Dermatology, October 2009.