Nano-technology (Biology, Chemistry, and Physics applied)
Nano-science involves research to discover new behaviors and properties of materials with dimensions at the nanoscale which ranges roughly from 1 to 100 nanometers(nm). Nanotechnology is the way discoveries made at the nanoscale are put to work. Nanotechnology is more than throwing together a batch of nanoscale materials - it requires the ability to manipulate and control those materials in a useful way. This slides contain a bit of History of Nanotechnology, The Application of Nanotechnology from the Previouses Centuries, The Applications of Nanotechnology in the Next Generation, The Advantages and The Disadvantages.
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Transcripts - Nano-technology (Biology, Chemistry, and Physics applied)
Nanoscience involves research to discover new
behaviors and properties of materials with
dimensions at the nanoscale which ranges
roughly from 1 to 100 nanometers(nm).
Nanotechnology is the way discoveries made at
the nanoscale are put to work. Nanotechnology
is more than throwing together a batch of
nanoscale materials - it requires the ability to
manipulate and control those materials in a
According the other sources, nanotechnology
(sometimes shortened to "nanotech") is the study of
manipulating matter on an atomic and molecular
scale, i.e., is the engineering of tiny machines — the
projected ability to build things from the bottom
up, using techniques and tools being developed today
to make complete, highly advanced products.
‘Nano’ means ‘billionth of a meter’. One
billionth of a meter is one meter divided by one
billion (1000,000,000), that is 0.00000001 cm.
History of Nanotechnology
What could have inspired scientist to think of
minute Nano-sized things? Nature. It needed the
genius of that charismatic physicts,
Feynman on December 29, 1959
delivered a lecture on “There’s plenty of room at
the bottom” but everyone considered him as crazy.
But not genius K.Eric drexler, and he only coined the
term ‘Nanotechnology’. These two great legends on
the field of Nanotechnology became the inspiration for
the development of Nano-tech. He is now considered
as the “FATHER OF NANOTECHNOLOGY”
But before all these 20th
century genius have noted the
nature and made some articles
The Application of
Nanotechnology from the
The Lycurgus Cup
The Lycurgus Cup made from glass
appears red in transmitted light and
green in reflected light. The glass
contains 70nm particles as seen in
an electron microscopic image. The
cup itself is dated to 4th century
AD, but the metallic holder is a later
Today we manipulate matter such as silicon with optical
methods so that transistors and integrated circuits are
made, with which we built the era of information, technology.
The dimensions of materials manipulated got systematically
reduced with time and the modern Core i7 chip has above 700
millions of transistors in it (developed based on 45nm
Rapid growth requirements in computing capabilities
necessitated smaller and smaller transistors so that devices could
shrink in size; this is popularly referred to as the Moore’s Law
which may be stated as,' Number of transistors in an integrated
circuit double in every 18months’.
The Applications of
Nanotechnology in the Next
Graphene is a rival of silicon and it
an allotrope of carbon that will
eventually revolutionize electronic
supercomputers to cell phones.
devices will be faster, less powerconsuming than silicon, and much
Molecules in Jeans as Solar Cells
Molecules, typically used in
blue jeans and ink dyes, have
been used for building and
organic framework that could
lead to economical, flexible
and versatile solar cell.
Print Display Almost Anywhere
Ntera, a US-based company, has
developed a nanotechnology
mass-produce electronic displays
paper, packaging, ticket and
greeting card products.
Memristors- A Memory and
Memristor logic devices are quite
smaller than devices made from
transistors, enabling packing more
computing power into a given space.
Memristor arrays performing both logic
and memory functions would eliminate
transferring data between a processor
and a hard drive in future.
In the fields of molecular computing
Caltech, USA, have created robots the
size of a molecule that can move freely
across a nanoscale track.
achievement would lead molecular
robots to fix individual cells or assemble
nanoproducts. The project involves
reprogramming DNA molecules to
perform in specific ways.
robots have been used
for cell surgery and
even these robots can
be sent through the
blood stream and can
identify the damaged
parts which cannot be
found using xrays, etc.
Nanorobots in the Blood Stream
Not only these the Nanorobots has
got many advantages
It is dame as nano-robots
Sensor and CPU
Nanotechnology will provide new tools for medicine.
It could radically change the way surgery is done. It will make it
possible to do molecular scale surgery to replace defective
cells, repair and rearrange cells. Since disease is the result of
physical disorder, misarranged molecules and cells, medicine at
this level should be able to cure most diseases. Mutations in
DNA could be repaired and cancer cells, toxic chemicals and
viruses could be destroyed through the use of medical Nano
Nanotechnology has found innumerable applications
in the field of medicine, particularly in treatment of cancer. It
has the Power to radically change the way cancer is
diagnosed, imaged and treated. Currently, there is a lot of
research going on to design novel Nano devices capable of
detecting cancer at its earliest stages, pinpointing its location
within the body and delivering anticancer drugs specifically to
Carbon nanotube 'muscles'
could aid drug delivery
Artificial muscles strong enough to rotate
objects 1,000 times their own weight have been invented
by an international team of researchers.
The development could lead to the realisation of
a propulsion system for Nano robots that can deliver drugs
or remove parasites. Using yarns of carbon nanotubes, the
researchers developed artificial muscles that can rotate
250 degrees per millimetre of muscle length.
This is claimed to be more than 1,000 times that
of available artificial muscles, composed of either shapememory alloys, conducting organic polymers; or
ferroelectrics, a class of materials that can hold positive
and negative electric charges even in the absence of
The nanotube yarns are activated by charging
them in a salt solution and deformation of the yarns is
reportedly proportional to the size and number of ions
Nanotechnology Used to
Measure Low Concentrations of
Cyanide Ion in Water
Iranian researchers successfully measured low
concentrations of the toxic and harmful cyanide ion in
aqueous environments by using nanotechnology.
“synthetic Silver nanoparticles were used in the research
as the colorimetric sensor in order to measure low
concentrations of cyanide ion in aqueous environments.
The purpose of this research was to present a
simple, cost-effective, selective, and sensitive method for
the measurement of low concentrations of the toxic and
dangerous cyanide ion in water by using nanotechnology.
The pollution of water reservoirs with cyanide
compounds is among the important environmental
challenges. Most of the reported colorimetric methods to
measure cyanide are based on organic colors, so they are
applicable in organic environments. Therefore, it is
necessary to present a simple and cost-effective method
to measure cyanide in aqueous solution.
Creating a transistor with
a single atom
In Technology there is a strong desire to
shrink things. Consider the sheer amount of news
these days surrounding nanotechnology: it is
arguably one of the fastest growing sectors in
technology. Recent news out of two universities
on potentially ground-breaking work on singleatom transistors should not be that
surprising, then. Scientists have created a
transistor the size of a single atom, opening the
way for the next generation of nanotechnology: a
quantum computer that might one day function
in a Nano scale world and would be significantly
smaller and quicker than today's silicon-based
machines. Until now, single-atom transistors were
created on a hit-or-miss basis.
Entire Medical Lab in a
high powered chip
Nanotechnology and medicine makes it
possible to put an entire medical lab into one
high-powered chip, which not only fits in the
palm of your hand, but also performs
diagnostic tests in a matter of minutes.
Researchers are gradually finding ways to
create reliable, Nano-sized labs that are able
to perform a variety of diagnostic
tests, which used to require teams of people
and weeks of waiting. The tiny wafers of glass
or plastic work by compressing a series of
tests. For example, the Guardian reports
Professor Tom Duke at the London Centre for
Nanotechnology is working on a "lab-on-achip" to test for HIV.
Advantages of Nano-tech
• Nanotech materials which are more stronger and the main
thing is it cannot be damaged easily.
• The e-waste which is a part of Land pollution can be
• New molecules, materials and artificial structures which
are functional made in the lab.
• Solar energy conversion will be much more efficient and
cheap by the use of nanotech.
• Diseases will be diagnosed using molecular principles such
as detecting cancer at the single cell level by using
scenned or nano-robot.The medical advantages are
process, immortality, painless child births, and universal
immunity like aids, flu and end of sickness.
The advantages of
Nanotechnology in medicine
The medical advantages are change of body appearance, stops aging
process, immortality, painless child births, and universal immunity like
aids, flu and end of sickness.
The Advantages of
Nanotechnology in Industrial
The industrial advantages are automatic
pollution cleanup, expanding computer
technology by making it faster and smaller in
include, reproducing extinct animals and
plants, safe and space travel, higher
education, molecular food synthesis, to
mention a few.
The engineered robots will perform jobs instead of people which will result in a
loss of jobs.
The wastes released while making the materials for nano-technology are released
into the atmosphere and can even penetrate human and animal cells and effect
Agricultural countries will lose their income as nanotechnology will take over.
It has very high initial investment costs along with high manufacturing costs.
If any damage is done at the molecular level then it is not possible to revert it.
Global monetary crisis, oil becomes worthless, diamonds become
worthless, atomic weapons more destructive and accessible. In relation to health
problems, it is so minute that its existence in the hand is much unnoticed. The risk
of inhaling this could be very dangerous, due to which it can be a cause of death.
Science itself could be shaken by nanotechnology. The
vitally important elementary particle, electron, the
backbone of electronics and the electronics industry, has
been found to behave in a bizarre manner in the very
minute Nano-structures. Not only Nanotech even Biotech,
Green Chemistry and so on can also be made use for
minimizing the pollution in the world.
Muhammad Yossi Hadiyoso