Kind of text
kind of text
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Transcripts - Kind of text
KIND OF TEXT
by : m. Fadhli mubarak
class : x-2 executive
a. The Definition of Narrative Text
Narrative writing presents a story of sequence events which involves characters.
According to Pratyasto, narrative is a type of text that is proposed to amuse and to
deal with actual and vicarious experience in different ways; narrative also deals with
problematic events which lead to a crisis or turning points of some kind, which in
turn find a resolution. Abrams in his article.
states that narrative text is “a description of a series of events, either real or
imaginary, that is written or told in order to entertain people.” This type of text
structurally organizes the action, thought, and interactions of its characters into
pattern of plot.
There are many types of narrative. Generally, it could be categorized into the
fictional narrative or imaginary, the nonfictional narrative, or combination of both;
1) A Fictional Narrative presents an imaginary narrator’s account of a story that
happened in an imaginary world. It includes fairy tales, folklore or folktales, horror
stories, fables, legends, myths, and science fictions.
2) A Nonfictional Narrative (also factual narrative) presents a real-life person’s
account of a real-life story. It includes historical narratives, ballads, slice of life, and
The generic structure of narrative text focuses on
a series of stages that proposed to build a story.
In traditional narrative the stages include:
1) Orientation : the introduction of the characters
who involve in the story, time and the place
where the story takes place.
2) Complication : a series of events in which the
main character attempts to solve the problem.
3) Resolution : the ending of the story containing
the problem solution.
There are some features that writers should be
recognized in writing a narrative text. Those are as
1) Plot : What is going to happen?
2) Setting : Where will the story take place? When will
the story take place?
3) Characterization : Who are the main characters?
What do they look like?
4) Structure : How will the story begin? What will be
the problem? How is the problem going to be
5) Theme : What is the theme/message the writer is
attempting to communicate?
Example of narrative text
3. Story of Aji Saka and Dewata Cengkar
Many, many years ago, the kingdom of Medangkamulan was ruled by a king
named Dewata-chengkar. This king had a strange and frightening habit. He liked to
eat human beings.
One day, a young traveler arrived in the kingdom.He was called Ajisaka. Ajisaka
took shelter in the house of a widow who quickly came to look upon the young
man as her own son. When he heard of the king's strange appetite, Ajisaka
sympathized with the villagers' plight and immediately volunteered to become the
king's next meal.
Ajisaka went directly to the king's palace.“I am willing to be your next meal. Your
Highnees. However, I have a request.“ said Aji Saka to the king. “Whatever you
please, young man, I will grant your request,“ the king replied. “Before you eat
me, grant me some land. Just enough length of my own headcloth.“ continued Aji
Saka. “Come, Young Man. Let's measure your headcloth so that I can have my meal
and you can have your land“ agreed the king.
Ajisaka began to unwrap the cloth tied around his head. The king got down from
his throne and hold one end of the headcloth. He stepped backward. What he
didn't know was that this headcloth was much longer. The king kept going
backward, step by step, as the cloth kept unraveling. He stepped backward
through the palace square, backward across the village, holding the end of
Ajisaka's headcloth. The king kept stepping backward until reached the sea cliftts
of the sea.
A great crowd of people had gathered. They held their breath as their king took
his final step backward over the cliff's edge and plunged into the waves crashing
againts the rocks at the foot of the sea wall.
THE DEFINITION OF DESCRIPTIVE TEXT
descriptive text is a text which presents information about
The purpose of descriptive text:
to describe a particular person or thing or place specifically.
The Generic Structure of descriptive text:
1. identification: introduce a particular person or thing or place.
2. Description: describing physical
appearance, quality, behaviour, etc.
Language feature of description:
Language feature of description:
To engage a reader‟s attention;
To create characters;Using simple present tense;
Focus on specific participants;
Using attributive and identifying processes;
Frequent use of epithets (adjective or adjective phrase) and classifier in nominal groups;
To set a mood or create an atmosphere;
To bring writing to life;
Aims to show rather than tell the reader what something/someone is like;
Relies on precisely chosen vocabulary with carefully chosen adjectives and adverbs;
Is focused and concentrates only on the aspects that add something to the main purpose of
Sensory description - what is heard, seen, smelt, felt, tasted. Precise use of adjectives, similes,
metaphors to create images/pictures in the mind e.g. “Their noses were met with the acrid
smell of rotting flesh”;
Strong development of the experience that „puts the reader there‟ focuses on key details,
powerful verbs and precise nouns.
THE DIFFERENTS BETWEEN DESCRIPTIVE AND REPORT TEXT
The tips how to write a good descriptive text:
make the reader imagine the situation. For make the reader can
imagine the situation you have to add adjective.
Give additional information. The information should
interesting, example: the weather, the special thing from what
Make an interaction with the reader, example you add question
words (see?, how about that?)
Example of descriptive text
Jakarta is the capital city of Indonesia.
It is centrally located within the country on the northwest coast of Java Island at the mouth
of the Ciliwung river.
Jakarta dominates Indonesian’s administrative, economy, cultural activities, an is a major
commercial and transportation hub within Asia-with a population of about 9 million, Jakarta
has more people than any other cities in Indonesia.
The climate is hot and humid year-round.
Rainfall occurs throughout the year, although it is the heaviest from November to May.
To average annual precipitation in Jakarta is 1, 790 mm.
The city lies on a flat, low plain and is prone to flooding during periods of heavy rainfall.
Kota is city’s oldest commercial area.
It is located south of the old Sunda Kelapa harbour.
Glodok, the south of Kota is a banking, retail and residential neighborhood with a large
Merdeka Square with Monas (The National Monument) dominates the city’s central district.
Surrounding the square are Istana Merdeka, the presidential palace, the National
Museum, and the Istiqlal Mosque.
1. Definition of News Item
• News item is a text which informs readers
about events of the day. The events are
considered newsworthy or important.
2. Generic Structure of News Item
1. Main event
(background, participant, time, place)
3. Resource of information
3. Language Feature of News Item
1. Using material process;
2. Using projecting verbal processes in sources
3. Short, telegraphic information about story
captured in headline.
Example of News Item
3. Iran: Workers protest at delayed wages and redundancies
Published on Friday, 10 January 2014 15:07
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The 250 Workers at the Lushan cement factory staged a protest at administrative corruption and four-months of
unpaid wages on January 5.
Workers at the Kamyab sugar cube factory in the city of Khomeini Shahr in Isfahan also staged a protest on January 5
at the failure of their employer and province officials to improve conditions at the factory, at the ongoing halt in
production and at delayed wages. The factory's 150 laborers believe lack of production is placing their jobs at risk.
Transportation and kitchen employees at the Parsian gas refinery in the city of Mehr, Fars Province, staged a protest
on January 1 at low wages, and demanded extra pay for hard labor and for working in harsh weather conditions.
Garden owners in Damavand, Tehran, staged a rally outside the regime’s municipality office on January 1 to protest
at the illegal construction by the regime’s officials and destruction of their gardens, where the mayor and his agents
have received huge bribes from building contractors to gain permits to build apartments, leading to many
Damavand gardens being destroyed.
Private taxi drivers of the city of Esfarayen, in Isfahan, have gathered in protest at their fuel quota and fares, which
are lower than public transportation taxis. They demanded that the municipality address the issue that they are
forced to purchase fuel at a cost of 700 Tomans per liter.
Despite freezing weather in the province of Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari, more than 100 sacked cement factory in the
city of Shahrekord staged a protest at their forced redundancies. Security forces forced the protesters to disperse
when they attacked them with batons.
More than 150 workers of the Iran Tire rubber production company in Tehran staged a second protest on December
27 at job losses resulting from the closure of the company.
And 250 workers of the Sea Star Company in the city of Bandar Abbas protested at non-payment of wages and
pensions for four months.
Retired workers of the Sangrud West Alborz Mine staged a demonstration outside the city’s Retirement Office, while
residents of the wealthy town of Kan, in Tehran, protested against the dilapidated state of parks and recreation
The purpose of a procedure is to tell the
reader how to do or make something.
The information is presented in a logical
sequence of events, which is broken up into
small sequenced steps.
The most common example of a procedural
text is a recipe.
Types of Procedural Texts
• Texts that instruct how to do a particular
• recipes, rules for games, science
experiments, road safety rules, how to do it
• Texts that instruct how to operate things
• how to operate an appliance, a machine, the
photocopier, the computer
• A procedure usually has four components
Goal or Aim
states what is to be done
listed in order of use
includes items needed to
a series of steps
how the success of the procedure
can be tested
Headings, subheadings, numbered
steps, diagrams, photographs
are often used to help clarify instructions.
The text usually:
is written in the simple present tense (do this, do that)
focuses on generalized people rather than individuals
(first you take, rather than first I take)
the reader is often referred to in a general way, i.e.
pronouns (you or one)
action verbs (cut, fold, twist, hold etc)
linking words to do with time (first, when, then) are
used to connect the text
detailed information on how (carefully, with the
scissors); where (from the top); when (after it has set)
detailed factual description
(shape, size, colour, amount)
example of procedure text
1. HOW TO MAKE BROWNIES
• 150gram of butter.
• 150gram of dark chocolate.
• 300 gram of flour
• 4 eggs.
• 600 gram of regular sugar
• 1 tsp vanilla extract
1. Melt the chocolate with the butter.
2. Stir the eggs with the sugar and the vanilla extract.
3. Preheat the oven at low temperature
4. Combine the mixes you made.
5. Add the flour and stir with a wooden spoon.
6. Grease a brownie tin.
7. Add a little flour to cover the tin.
8. Add the brownie dough.
9. Bake for 10-30 minutes.
10. To check the brownies, put a knife in the mix. The knife must be moist!
11. Eat them 15 minutes after you took them out of the oven.
1 Definition of Recount
Recount is a text which retells events or
experiences in the past. Its purpose is either
to inform or to entertain the audience. There
is no complication among the participants and
that differentiates from narrative
Generic Structure of Recount
1. Orientation: Introducing the
participants, place and time
2. Events: Describing series of event that
happened in the past
3. Reorientation: It is optional. Stating
personal comment of the writer to the story
Language Feature of Recount
• Introducing personal participant; I, my
• Using chronological connection;
then, first, etc
• Using linking verb;
was, were, saw, heard, etc
• Using action verb; look, go, change, etc
• Using simple past tense
Example Of Recount Text
1. MY BUSY HOLIDAY
On April 16th, 2010, I thought this would be a great holiday for me because that
was the holy day for Hindhu people . I was so tired about the study, so I guessed
this time I could get full refresh anyway. However, the fact said the other way.
First like an ordinary daughter, I had to get up early morning helping my mother, of
course after I prayed. Then I did my chores, cleaned up my room, and spread out
my bed under the sun ray. I was really in danger if my mom knew that my room
was messy. So, I made it as soon as possible. Second, my aunts called me in the
afternoon. I did not meet them for a long time, that was the way I kept for hours
to talk with them. After that, unpredictable my neighbor visited me. She asked my
help finishing her homework. At last, the time was running and I just remembered
that I had a lot of homework. I got mad, confused and regretful why I did not
check my homework before. Therefore, I did my homework until 2:00 a.m. the
I did not feel this was holiday instead of I had to work hard and got a long ship
with my homework.