Bridging the development gap
1.Development gap players
2.Narrowing the d...
Funding to
Designed to prevent a ...
Providing incentive
and motivation to
drive development Land reform
forward ...
Increased earning
potential and
Aid agencies, NGOs
Less likely to marry
Averages 70% of
In Mozambique it is
204% of GDP Debt
of 6

Narrowing The Development Gap Mind Maps

Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Published in: Business      Education      

Transcripts - Narrowing The Development Gap Mind Maps

  • 1. Bridging the development gap FOUR MIND MAPS TO HELP WITH REVISION 1.Development gap players 2.Narrowing the development gap 3.Smart aid 4.Barriers to narrowing the gap in sub-Saharan Africa
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  • 3. Funding to Designed to prevent a Led many prevent disruption country nations into to international meeting its significant debt financial system commitments and increased Most loans at poverty to other market interest countries Focuses on a rates - many country's critics ... international IMF Promoted Controversial - To date dependency Often imposes financial often hindering funded over and hindered progress rather conditions for transactions 4000 development than enhancing it support, such World Bank as stabilisation development programmes projects in 130 countries For the poorest nations loans are Target the poor so often interest free and small scale local projects allow long repayment periods Non-biased assistance Work with local people so responding to often bottom-up schemes catastrophes (floods, Promotes trade and drought, NGOs Development economic cooperation Good track record of real earthquakes) Gap Players between countries. benefit for the poor But some critics suggest that that can Arbitrates on trade whilst wealth increases interrupt disputes leading to cuts globally the drive towards development WTO in tariffs that hinder free trade exploits poor Depends on charitable countries leaving them poor funding which can be free trade (there has unreliable been notable GDP growth in many parts of Attracts the world inward investment Free trade has extended their reach Exert influence to the poorest parts of the world Creates necessary by policies and infrastructure (power, roads, membership of technology, etc) international Control over what and where organisations different countries buy and sell, Capitalist enterprises which some argue is more to the Supplies health and that create supply benefit of the TNCs education services chains which spread TNCs across the world. The Governments driving force behind provide employment and When effective leads to Top down investment in LEDCs and some approach economic development that argue creates opportunities for (Kenya) with development trickles down to development peripheral regions but high levels of can stifle local initiatives control Two different job creation leads to more wealth approaches to which encourages spending and development thus further demand - the Grass roots local Bottom up multiplier effect development that 'hidden hand' encourages approach others to follow - (Asian Tigers) altogether more sustainable
  • 4. Providing incentive and motivation to drive development Land reform forward Eradicating extreme poverty and hunger - achieved in Thailand, progressing in South Creating the means to Africa & Mexico develop education, training, maternal Debt health and general re-scheduling Eg mobile phones are Primary education for health (see MDGs) all - achieved Mexico & High cheaper and easier technology than computers at Thailand and accessing information progressing in South Africa, Bangladesh & Linked to 'tied aid' Kenya that is both top down IMF's structural Eg Pergau Dam in and donor controlled readjustments Malaysia - UK TOP DOWN government aid Capital programme set up Gender equality and intensive and without local empowering women - often consultation. Many achieved in Bangladesh Tiny loans that can government believe the £234m aid & Thailand and facilitate progress but Micro-funding led package was 'tied' to a progressing in South be easily repaid £1b arms deal. Africa & Mexico Reducing by two thirds Multilateral - IMF, UN Millennium infant mortality - World Bank, etc Narrowing the Development Goals achieved in Mexico & Thailand Development Gap priorities achieved by Bilateral - individual International Aid strategies opposite countries Official Development Improvement to Assistance (ODA) maternal health - Achieved in Thailand Both multi- and bi- Eg Hunger Project - one lateral ODA aid are of several organisations examples of top-down BOTTOM UP forging partnerships Combating diseases development Local with local communities especially HIV & initiatives in Africa, Asia & Latin malaria - Achieved in supported by America to mobilise Thailand and NGOs grassroots people for progressing in Mexico Fairtrade - working self-reliant action as with small farmers well as intervening for helping to make them gender equality more economically Ensuring environmental secure sustainability - achieved in Thailand Trade and progressing in Appropriate to means South Africa & Mexico Managing subsidies and needs and tariffs to facilitate a level playing field Appropriate technology Developing a global Eg tube wells are less partnerships for costly and more development - practical than large Progressing in South Facilitating dam schemes at development in Africa Reducing the providing clean water education, infrastructure, digital divide communication, etc
  • 5. Increased earning potential and greater independence Aid agencies, NGOs Less likely to marry and governments young and children getting more girls Educated more spaced apart into school by: More education the abolishing fees girls change Girls forced to queue for up greater likelihood worlds providing toilets to 10 hours a day to collect that the children (not having them is water from a far off well will be immunised, a huge deterrent). denies them of an education better fed and better educated too. Water & A matter of human dignity as well as saving lives - sanitation thousands of under 5s die save lives from cholera, dysentery and Tiny loans (known typhoid every day Being very small as microfinance) (often less than that buy inexpensive items, Preventing diarrhoeal 200$) repayment is possible in a few such as mobile diseases reduces malnutrition months, so avoiding phones, enable burdensome debt and entrepreneurs to Wider benefits include fewer turning on its head start a small days off work or school thus the entrenched view business - eg benefiting the economy both that poor people are selling, weaving, short term (work) and long credit risks. baking, bicycle SMART AID Researchers, term (school). repair, etc. governments, NGOs and health workers Small loans cooperating to help eradicate killer Sickness can be devastating Improved earnings mean: produce big diseases like malaria, for the entire family because: children can be sent to school results measles, polio and they must pay for doctors, families eat better and are therefore AIDS, that can kill hospitalisation and healthier millions each year. medication from their own women earning gain self-esteem and pockets more say in the home & neighbourhood. someone in the family has to stop work to care for the Killer disease sick relative Success means others can be employed in can run into debt just by on the runs paying for over the counter the business. drugs to combat childhood fevers. New strains of plants developed such as the staple crop cassava led to yields 9X that of older varieties. Important developments include: Research insecticide treated bed nets to prevent drives malaria development improved vaccines and better access to Helps understand how plant, animal and human diseases spread those who need them.
  • 6. Averages 70% of GDP In Mozambique it is 204% of GDP Debt There have been at least 18 civil and Repayments drain Conflict international conflicts in government income the region since 1990 Lack of water supply prevents farm Barriers to improvements narrowing the Water development Averages 4% of GDP Aquifers over used gap in and is off-set by debt and running dry sub-Saharan Africa Aid Most MEDCs do not give the 0.7% of their GDP 12 countries have they promised experienced famine since 1990 Food Deforestation, soil erosion and desertification are occuring as Per capita food production is falling Resources increasing populations degrade resources in the region