Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Transcripts - Nadcon
NADCON COORDINATE TRANSFORMATION (NAD27 - NAD83)The March 2001 build of the Pathloss program now uses NADCON data to transform latitudes andlongitudes between the North American Datum of 1927 (NAD27) and the North American Datum of1983 (NAD83). The transformation is only valid in the United States territorial limits. NADCON is theUnited States Federal standard for NAD27 to NAD83 datum transformations.The following operations are affected:" Coordinate transformation between the NAD27 and NAD83 datums in the Coordinates - Transform procedure in the Terrain Data module." All terrain database operations using the USGS 7.5 minute - 30 meter DEMS including: - single profile generation - radial profiles generation in the Coverage Module - network backgrounds - terrain view If the NAD83 datum has been specified, then a copy of the user’s coordinates will be automatically transformed to the NAD27 datum to read the database.Transformation ProcedureTo transform coordinates between the NAD27 and NAD83 datums, the following settings must bemade in the Geographic Defaults dialog box:“Use Datum” must be checked in the Use Datum or Ellipsoid dialog box.Either the NAD27 or NAD83 datum must be selected.Select the NADCON region.In the case of the NAD27 datum, the NADCON region is an all encompassing term and includes thefollowing specific datums and regions.CONUS (lower 48 states) North American datum of 1927Hawaii Old Hawaiian datumPuerto Rico and Virgin Islands Puerto Rico datumSt. Laurence Island, Alaska Old Island datum within AlaskaSt. George Island, Alaska Old Island datum within AlaskaSt. Paul Island, Alaska Old Island datum within AlaskaAlaska North American datum of 1927
The transformation data is contained in seven files. The program will automatically select the correct filebased on the coordinates.Coordinate TransformationCoordinate Transformation is carried out in theTerrain Data module. Select Coordinates -Transform. To access this procedure, a datummust be selected and coordinates for at leastone site must be entered.Set the “To Datum” to either NAD27 orNAD83 and then select the NADCON region.Click the Transform button to carry out thecoordinate transformation.The Accept button changes the site coordinatesto the transformed coordinates.NADCON and the USGS 7.5 minute (30 meter) Terrain Database.When the USGS 7.5 minute quad (30 meter) terrain database has been selected, and the inputcoordinates are in the NAD83, datum, the coordinates will be transformed to NAD27 for the specificdatabase operation. This transformation will always be carried out for any of the region selectionsavailable under the NAD83 datum.Primary and Secondary Terrain Database OperationGiven the situation below:º User coordinates are in NAD83º The primary terrain database is set to USGS 7.5 minute (30 meter)º The secondary terrain database is set to the USGS 3 second compressed, GTOPO30 or any of the DTED selections. These are all referenced to the WGS84 datum.º Due to incomplete coverage of the USGS 7.5 minute database, the secondary database will be used for part of the profile.What region should be selected for the NAD83 datum?The NADCON region should not be selected. Instead use the specific region (i.e. CONUS, Hawaii,Alaska excluding Aleutian Is or the Aleutian Islands). When the program reads the USGS 7.5 minutedatabase, the coordinates will be automatically transformed to NAD27 using NADCON. When theprogram reads the secondary database, the transformation to WGS 84 will be carried out for the
specified region.NADCON UpgradeThe NADCON data sets used in the Pathloss program, consists of the seven files shown in the tablebelow. The original NADCON data uses separate files for latitudes and longitudes for each region. Inthe Pathloss program, these have been combined into a single file. These files must be located in a subdirectory named NADCON in the Pathloss program directory.The NADCON data files for use with the Pathloss program are available from the CTE web site(www.pathloss.com) and are packaged in a self-extracting WinZip file named PLnadcon.exe.Download this file and execute it. The destination directory must be set to the Pathloss programdirectory. The required subdirectory will be automatically created.NADCON DescriptionIn addition to the Conterminous United States, the NADCON data is also used to transform dataoriginally expressed in old island datums that exist in Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islandsinto data referenced to NAD 83. However all datums, including these, are referred to as NAD 27.The procedure automatically chooses the proper transformation; the user does not need to know thespecific name of the original datums.Transformation AccuracyAt the 67 percent confidence level, the transformation introduces the following uncertainties:" approximately 0.15 meter uncertainty within the conterminous United States" 0.50 meter uncertainty within Alaska" 0.20 meter uncertainty within Hawaii" 0.05 meter uncertainty within Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands.In areas of sparse geodetic data coverage NADCON may yield less accurate results, but seldom inexcess of 1.0 meter.In near offshore regions, results will be less accurate but seldom in excess of 5.0 meters. Fartheroffshore NAD 27 was undefined.
Area File Latitude Longitude Grid-deg Conterminous US (lower 48 states) conus.ncd 20N - 50NW 63W - 131W 0.25 Alaska including the Aleutian Islands alaska.ncd 46N - 77N 128W- 194W 0.125 St. Lawrence Is., Alaska - Old stlrnc.ncd 62N - 64N 168W - 0.05 Island Datum within Alaska 172W St. George Is., Alaska - Old Island stgeorge.ncd 56N - 57N 169W - 0.01667 Datum within Alaska 171W St. Paul Is., Alaska - Old Island stpaul.ncd 57N - 58N 169W - 0.05 Datum within Alaska 171W Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands prvi.ncd 17N - 19N 64W - 68W 0.05 Hawaiian Islands hawaii.ncd 18N - 23N 154W - 0.025 161WSt. George Island and St. Paul Island are part of a region known as the Pribilof Islands. There weretwo separate datums, one for each island, before NAD 83. The old island datums differ significantlyfrom NAD 27. Data input into NADCON must be consistent with the identified transformation datasets. The transformation of misidentified data can result in very large errors (as much as hundreds ofmeters).The CONUS file covers an area from 20 to 50 degrees north latitude and from 63 to 131 degrees westlongitude. The Alaskan file covers an area from 46 to 77 degrees north latitude and from 128 to 194degrees west longitude. The CONUS and Alaskan files overlap between 46 to 50 degrees northlatitude and 128 to 131 degrees west longitude. In this area, the CONUS and Alaskan files agreewithin 2 centimeters. For those cases requiring precision greater than this, the CONUS file isconsidered correct. In this overlapping region the CONUS file will always be used in the Pathlossprogram. Transformations based on NADCON data should be used only within the U.S. territoriallimits.