Pollution , momen 9
Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Transcripts - Pollution , momen 9
Student Name : Momen DawoodGrade : NinePOLLUTION
Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into thenatural environment that cause adverse change.Pollution can take the form of chemicalsubstances or energy, such as noise, heat orlight. Pollutants, the components of pollution, can beeither foreign substances/energies or naturallyoccurring contaminants. Pollution is often classedas point source or nonpoint source pollution.
Forms of pollution :-• -Air pollution:- the release of chemicals and particulates into theatmosphere. Common gaseous pollutants include carbonmonoxide,sulfur dioxide, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and nitrogenoxides produced by industry and motor vehicles.Photochemical ozone and smog are created as nitrogen oxidesand hydrocarbons react to sunlight. Particulate matter, or fine dust ischaracterized by their micrometresize PM10 to PM2.5.-Light pollution:- includes light trespass, over-illumination and astronomical interference.Littering:- the criminal throwing of inappropriate man-made objects,unremoved, onto public and private properties.
contaminants are hydrocarbons, heavymetals, MTBE,herbicides, pesticides and chlorinatedhydrocarbons.Radioactive contamination, resulting from 20th centuryactivities in atomic physics, such as nuclear power generationand nuclear weapons research, manufacture and deployment.-Soil contamination occurs when chemicals are released byspill or underground leakage. Among the most significant soil
-Noise pollution:- which encompasses roadway noise, industrial noise aswell as high-intensity sonar.noise, aircraft-Thermal pollution, is a temperature change in natural water bodiescaused by human influence, such as use of water as coolant in a powerplant.-Visual pollution, which can refer to the presence of overhead powerlines, motorway billboards, scarred landforms (as from strip mining),open storage of trash, municipal solid waste or space debris.
-Water pollution, by the discharge of wastewater fromcommercial and industrial waste (intentionally or throughspills) into surface waters; discharges of untreateddomestic sewage, and chemical contaminants, suchas chlorine, from treated sewage; release of waste andcontaminants into surface runoff flowing to surface waters(including urban runoff and agricultural runoff, which maycontain chemical fertilizers and pesticides); waste disposaland leaching into groundwater; eutrophication and littering.
Effects:-Human healthOverview of main health effects on humans from some common typesof pollution.Adverse air quality can kill many organisms including humans. Ozone pollutioncan cause respiratory disease, cardiovascular disease, throat inflammation,chest pain, and congestion. Water pollution causes approximately 14,000deaths per day, mostly due to contamination of drinking water byuntreated sewage in developing countries. An estimated 700million Indians have no access to a proper toilet, and 1,000 Indian children dieof diarrhea every day. Nearly 500 million Chinese lack
access to safe drinking water. 656,000 people die prematurely eachyear in China because of air pollution. In India, air pollution isbelieved to cause 527,700 fatalities a year. Studies have estimated thatthe number of people killed annually in the US could be over 50,000.Oil spills can cause skin irritations and rashes. Noise pollutioninduces hearing loss, high blood pressure, stress, and sleepdisturbance. Mercury has been linked to developmental deficits inchildren and neurologic symptoms. Older people are majorly exposed todiseases induced by air pollution. Those with heart or lung disorders areunder additional risk. Children and infants are also at seriousrisk. Lead and other heavy metals have been shown to causeneurological problems. Chemical and radioactive substancescan cause cancer and as well as birth defects.
EnvironmentPollution has been found to be present widely in the environment. There are a numberof effects of this:- Biomagnification describes situations where toxins (such as heavy metals) may passthrough trophic levels, becoming exponentially more concentrated in the process.Carbon dioxide emissions cause ocean acidification, the ongoing decrease in the pHof the Earths oceans as CO2 becomes dissolved.The emission of greenhouse gases leads to global warming which affects ecosystemsin many ways.Invasive species can out compete native species and reduce biodiversity. Invasiveplants can contribute debris and biomolecules ( allelopathy ) that can alter soil andchemical compositions of an environment, often reducing nativespecies competitiveness.
- Nitrogen oxides are removed from the air by rain and fertilize landwhich can change the species composition of ecosystems.Smog and haze can reduce the amount of sunlight received byplants to carry out photosynthesis and leads to the productionof tropospheric ozone which damages plants.- Soil can become infertile and unsuitable for plants. This will affectother organisms in the food web.Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides can cause acid rain whichlowers the pH value of soil.