National capital region
this document gives information about NCR..
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Transcripts - National capital region
National Capital Region
Metro Manila, otherwise known as National Capital Region, is the center of Luzon and the
capital region of the Philippines. Unlike the other 17 Philippine regions, NCR does not have any
provinces. It is composed of 16 cities – namely the:
2. Las Pinas,
8. Municipality of Pateros
14. Quezon City,
15. San Juan,
Metro Manila is bounded by the Cordillera Mountains on the east, Laguna de Bay on the southeast,
Central Luzon on the north and Southern Tagalog Region on the south.
Metro Manila is composed of almost all the cultural groups of the Philippines. The primary language
used is Tagalog with English as the secondary language.
Metro Manila lies entirely within the tropics and because of its proximity to the equator, the
temperature range is very small. It has a distinct, relatively short dry season from January through
April and a long wet season from May through December.
The region is considered as the political, economic, social, and cultural center of the Philippines and
is one of the more modern metropolises in Southeast Asia.
According to Presidential Decree No. 940, Metro Manila is the Philippines’ seat of government but the
City of Manila is the capital.
The Malacanan Palace, the official office and residence of the President of the Philippines, and the
buildings of the Supreme Court of the Philippines are based in Metro Manila.
Metro Manila is the shopping center of the Philippines. Three “megamalls” are located in this region
and these are SM Mall of Asia, SM Megamall and SM City North Edsa which is the 2nd largest mall in
the world. Makati is regarded as the main central business district of Metro Manila while Ortigas City
is the second most important business district in Metro Manila.
Metro Manila is a place of economic extremes. Many high-income citizens live in exclusive
communities such as Forbes Park in Makati and Ayala Alabang in Muntinlupa. In contrast to these
residences are the slums and illegal settlement scattered across the metropolitan area and are often
found in vacant government land or in districts such as Tondo.
Metro Manila is rich in historical landmarks and recreational areas. Located west of Metro Manila is
the famous Rizal Park, also known as the Luneta Park. Rizal Park features the Rizal Monument, a
statue of the Philippine National Hero, Dr. Jose P. Rizal.
Near Rizal Park is the 400-year-old Imperial City known as Intramuros, a walled domain which was
once the seat of government during the Spanish Colonial Era and American Period.
City of Caloocan
The City of Caloocan (Kalookan City; Lungsod ng Caloocan) is one of the
16 cities that comprise Metro Manila or the National Capital Region of
the Philippines. The city is located north of the City of Manila, and is the
country's third most populous city with a population of 1,381,610 according
to the 2007 Census, with Manila and Quezon City coming in second and
Caloocan is divided into the northern and the southern parts. Southern
Caloocan is located north of Manila and is bounded by the cities of Malabon and Valenzuela. To the west
is Navotas City while Quezon City is to the east.
Northern Caloocan is in the northernmost area of Metro Manila. It is located east of Valenzuela City, north
of Quezon City and south of San Jose del Monte, Bulacan.
Caloocan was first called Aromahan or Espina by the Spanish colonizers when it was just a small barrio
in Tondo. The word Caloocan came from the Tagalog root word lo-ok (bay) attributed to its nearness
to Manila Bay. According to other folk tales, lo-ok means sulok(corner) and in the past, Caloocan was
located at the corner where the old towns of Tondo and Tambobong (Malabon) met. The city is on the
fringe of Dagat-dagatan, a small lake separated by Manila Bay and Navotas.
Caloocan was proclaimed a city in 1962.
Government and Barangays
In the 2010 national and local elections, incumbent mayor Enrico R. Echiverri was reelected for the third
straight time as Caloocan City’s topmost official. Echiverri’s running mate Edgar Erice gained the highest
number of votes for the vice-mayoral seat. Incumbent congresspersons Oscar G. Malapitan and Mitzi
Cajayon once again won as the representatives of the first and second districts respectively.
The city is politically subdivided into 188 barangays, which have no official names but are simply
numbered Barangay 1 through Barangay 188.
Records show that Caloocan's first residents were Chinese, mestizos or indios of the Philippines. They
were mostly fishermen, especially those who lived near Manila Bay, Dagat-dagatan and Navotas.
Today, regardless of racial background, inhabitants of Caloocan City primarily speak Filipino or Tagalog,
and also use English for education and business.
The people of Caloocan City were eager to start their livelihood when the city was constituted. Many were
worked in agriculture producing a variety of crops while others were engaged in quarrying, weaving, pot-
making and more.
Today, the city is mainly residential with scattered commercial and urbanized settings.
City of Las Piñas
The City of Las Piñas (Lungsod ng Las Piñas) is one of the 16 cities that make
up Metro Manila or the National Capital Region of thePhilippines. It is located in the
southern part of the metro. It is bordered by Paranaque City to the north, Muntinlupa
City to the east, the municipality of Imus, Cavite to the south, the municipality
of Bacoor, Cavite to the west and the Manila Bay to the northwest.
Las Piñas City is famous for St. Joseph Church’s bamboo organ which was built in
1824 by Father Diego Cera from wood, metal and bamboo. The organ is famous all
over the world for its unique sound.
During the Spanish occupation, Las Piñas was a significant site for the Philippine Revolution because of its
tactical location to the south of Manila, the country’s capital. In 1896, General Emilio Aguinaldo stayed in the
city. He later became the first Philippine president. After the Spanish colonizers had fled the country, Las Piñas
City officially became a municipality of Rizal province in 1901.
When the city became a part of the National Capital Region, it also remained part of Rizal until 1976.
When World War II started, the Japanese colonizers occupied Las Piñas.
On 1997, Las Piñas officially achieved its cityhood under then president Fidel V. Ramos.
Government and barangays
Like all the other cities in the country, Las Piñas is governed by a mayor, vice mayor, lower house
representative for their congressional district and other local officials for a three-year term in office. The mayor
is responsible for the execution and implementation of the city’s ordinances. He is also in charge of public
services. The vice mayor meanwhile is assigned to unite the whole city by communicating among its
subordinates in each barangay, the smallest unit of government in the city.
The city is made up of 20 barangays which are divided into two legislative districts. Though the city has two
districts, it has only one congressional district translating to only one seat in the lower house.
According to the 2007 Census, Las Pinas has a population of 532,330 compared to 472,780 in the year 2000.
These figures show an annual population growth of 1.65%.
Las Pinas is generally a residential, commercial and industrial town. Through the years the city continues to
develop into a much more urbanized Las Pinas. Aside from the famous bamboo organ here are some of the
Sarao Jeepney Factory
The Nature Church
The Las Pinas Corridor
City of Malabon
The City of Malabon (Lungsod ng Malabon) is one of the 17 cities and
municipalities that comprise Metro Manila. Located just north ofManila, the city
has a population of approximately 370,000 as of 2007. Malabon City is primarily a
residential and industrial town and is one of the most densely populated cities in
the metropolis. Malabon is part of the sub-region of Metro Manila informally called
CAMANAVA consisting of Caloocan City, Malabon City, Navotas, and Valenzuela
City. Caloocan lies to the south and east, Navotas to the west, and Valenzuela to
the north. Malabon also borders the town of Obando in the province of Bulacan to
the northwest. Under stet president Joseph Estrada’s administration, Malabon
became a resettlement area for the demolished urban poor communities in the commercial cities of Metro
Manila. The Estrada government developed the once desert-like area for habitation.
Originally called the town of Tambobong, Malabon was founded as a “Visita” of Tondo by the Augustinian
friars on 21 May 1599 and remained under the administrative jurisdiction of the province of Tondo from 1627 to
1688. Malabon was officially made a municipality of the newly-created province of Rizal on 11 June 1901 by
virtue of Philippine Commission Act 137. According to the locals, the name Malabon came from “maraming
labong,” meaning plenty of bamboo shoots. When Philippine Commission Act 942 was promulgated, Malabon
was merged with Navotas under a new government. On 6 January 1906, Philippine Commission Act 1441
separated Malabon from Navotas into two distinct municipalities of Rizal province. For seventy years, Malabon
was a municipality of Rizal, until 7 November 1975, by virtue of Presidential Decree No. 824, when Malabon
became a part of Metropolitan Manila or the National Capital Region.
Like all the cities in the country, Malabon is governed by a mayor, vice mayor, lower house representatives and
councilors for each district. In the 2010 national and local elections, incumbent city mayor Tito Oreta was
reelected. His son Len-len Oreta was elected as the vice mayor while Rep. Josephine Veronique Lacson was
reelected. They were proclaimed at the session hall located at the 6th floor of the City Hall right after the
canvassing of votes was completed. On Malabon City's 7th anniversary, 21 April 2008, President Gloria
Macapagal-Arroyo inaugurated the 11-storey city hall along F. Sevilla Blvd. The building is intended to be a
“potential business center of the city”.
Malabon City is composed of 21 barangays.
City of Makati
Makati (Lungsod ng Makati) is one of the 16 cities that comprise Metro Manila or
the National Capital Region in the Philippines. It is known for its developed
business district making it one of Asia's prominent financial, commercial and
The city is bordered by neighboring towns and cities such as Mandaluyong
City to the north, the municipality of Pateros to the east ,Manila to the northwest
and Pasay City to the south and southwest. It has a land area of 27.36 square
kilometers which is 4.30% of Metro Manila’s total land area.
Makati literally means “ebbing tide”. In the 1570s when the Spanish began to take over the Philippines, Spanish
conquistador Miguel Lopéz de Legaspi declared the city’s area as a worthless swamp. But in later years, the
worthless swampland was turned into a social, economic and cultural area. When the Spanish colonizers gave
up the country to the Americans, the Americans established Fort McKinley in the city. With its population of
2,500, San Pedro de Makati was established in 1901. By 28 February 1914, Philippine Legislature Act No.
2390 was passed shortening the name to merely Makati.
Like all the other cities in the Philippines, Makati City is led by a mayor, vice mayor, lower house
representatives for each congressional district and other local officials per barangay. For many years, the city
was governed by the Binay family. Jejomar Binay and his wife, Elenita are both former mayors. Their son Jun-
jun has been proclaimed mayor-elect, having won in the 2010 national and local elections. Romulo Pena,
Jr. secured the vice mayoral seat while Monique Yazmin Lagdameo and Jejomar’s daughter Mar-len Abigail
won as lower house representatives for the first and second districts respectively.
According to the 2007 Census, Makati City has a population of 510,383. This shows an increase of 95,970 from
the 2000 figure. Because of its commercial and business establishments, Makati’s population reaches an
estimate of a million during a typical working day. People from all over the NCR come and go to Makati to work,
shop and do business especially in the Central Business District.
The most famous area in the city is its central business district which houses skyscrapers,
condominiums, parks, high-end shopping malls, museums and other commercial establishments. Also located
in Makati City’s business district is the famous Ayala Center which is a chain of high-end malls,
namely Glorietta and Greenbelt. The malls have a wide variety of shops, from clothing stores to movie
theaters to morning-till-night bars. Another landmark is the Ayala Triangle which is located at the corner of
Makati Avenue and Paseo de Roxas. It is a monument of the country’s heroes, Ninoy Aquino, Gabriela
Silang and Pio del Pilar. Along J.P. Rizal Avenue is Makati Park and Garden. Residents visit the park for the
peaceful ambience. The Rockwell Center and Power Plant Mall are other for well-to-do shopping
establishment also found in the city. The Ateneo Graduate School of Business is located here, as well
as Nestle Philippines and PHINMA offices. Other establishments located in Makati are:
Power Plant Mall
Sta. Ana Race Track
The Manila Polo Club
The Manila Golf Club
The Makati Sports Club
The Metropolitan Club
City of Mandaluyong
The City of Mandaluyong (Filipino: Lungsod ng Mandaluyong) is one of the
cities and municipalities that comprise Metro Manila in thePhilippines. It is
bordered on the west by the country's capital, Manila, to the north by the
municipality of San Juan, to the east byQuezon City and Pasig City, and
by Makati City to the south. At present, it is widely considered the "Tiger City of
the Philippines", "Metro Manila'sHeart", and the "Shopping Mall Capital of the
Mandaluyong City is located right at the center of Metro Manila. Among the many
attractions in the city is the western half of the Ortigas Center, one of the major centers of business and
commerce in the metropolis (the eastern half is in Pasig City). Found within the Mandaluyong portion of the
Ortigas Center is the main headquarters of the Asian Development Bank and the headquarters of San Miguel
Corporation, the Southeast Asia's largest food and beverage company. Located also in Ortigas Center is
the Shangri-La Plaza, comprised of the Edsa Shangri-La Manila, the St. Francis Towers (one of the tallest
towers in the Philippines when built) and Shangri-La Plaza, adjacent to SM Megamall, one of the biggest
shopping malls in Asia and the premiere mall of the largest chain of shopping malls in the country, can be
found here, as well as EDSA Central and Star Mall. The Shaw Boulevard Station of the MRT is a mall in itself,
besides the fact that the station is connected to three other malls (Star Mall, Shangri-La Plaza and the newly
renovated EDSA Central).
Mandaluyong city also boasts some of the best educational institutions in the country, namely Lourdes School
of Mandaluyong (est. 1958), a Franciscan-Marian all-boys school, located also in Ortigas Center. Slightly
northwest of Ortigas Center is the La Salle Greenhills(est. 1959), an famous all-boys high school. Mandaluyong
city also exhibits another exclusive all-male institution, the Don Bosco Technical College (DBTC) (est. 1953), a
prestigious Salesian school and the Motherhouse of all Salesian works in the Philippines.
Among locals, Mandaluyong City is often used in jokes pertaining to a person's mental health (e.g., a person
whose mental well-being is suspect is often labelled as coming from Mandaluyong, the joke going "sa loob o sa
labas?, which translated, means "inside or outside?"). This is because the National Center for Mental Health is
found in the city.
Mandaluyong City got its name from the Tagalog mga which means many and daluy which means flowing.
This is in reference to the many tall grasses that used to grow in the area; the grasses seemed to 'flow' in the
Another possible origin is from the word "daluyong" which means tidal waves or a place of waves. This may
perhaps pertain to the Pasig River that passes through Mandaluyong City.
Mandaluyong formed part of what was once the Kingdom of Sapa of the Great Majapahit Empire around 1300.
More than a century later, around 1470, it expanded and was called the Kingdom of Namayan. The vast
kingdom comprised what are now Quiapo, San Miguel, Sta. Mesa, Paco, Pandacan, Malate and Sta.
Ana in Manila, and Mandaluyong, San Juan, Makati, Pasay, Pateros, Taguig, Parañaque, and portions
of Pasig and Quezon City up to Diliman.
During the Spanish era, Mandaluyong (then San Felipe Neri) was established when it was separated from
Santa Ana de Sapa in 1841.
During the American period, San Felipe Neri was consolidated with the municipality of San Juan del Monte For
several months in 1904, San Felipe Neri became the capital of Rizal province.
However in 1907, San Felipe Neri became an independent municipality with its separation from San Juan. It
was also renamed its town to its present name.
Mandaluyong is politically subdivided into 27 barangays.
1 Addition Hills 121.19 69,885
1 Bagong Silang 14.26 4,162
2 Barangka Drive 24.54 12,670
2 Barangka Ibaba 16.92 8,943
2 Barangka Ilaya 47.45 4,461
2 Barangka Itaas 17.21 10,811
2 Buayang Bato 7.26 1,083
1 Burol 2.78 2,634
1 Daang Bakal 17.34 2,797
1 Hagdan Bato Itaas 18.36 9,769
1 Hagdan Bato Libis 15.48 6,204
1 Highway Hills 105.12 12,131
2 Hulo 29.30 20,585
2 Mabini-J. Rizal 11.88 6,418
2 Malamig 29.52 5,853
1 Mauway 60.06 16,877
2 Namayan 30.60 4,889
1 New Zaniga 21.96 5,555
2 Old Zaniga 42.48 5,843
1 Pag-Asa 12.60 3,847
2 Plainview 115.92 24,608
1 Pleasant Hills 20.33 6,115
1 Poblacion 24.12 14,751
2 San Jose 3.18 6,227
2 Vergara 15.12 4,153
City of Manila
The City of Manila (Filipino: Lungsod ng Maynila), or simply Manila, is
the capital of the Philippines and one of the municipalities that comprise Metro
Manila. The city is located on the eastern shore of Manila Bay on Luzon, the
country's largest island.
Manila is the hub of a thriving metropolitan area home to over 10 million people.
Manila is the second most populous city proper in the Philippines, with more than
1.5 million inhabitants. Only nearby Quezon City, the country's former capital, is
Manila got its name from may nilad, Tagalog for "there is nilad," in reference to the flowering mangrove plant
that grew on the marshy shores of the bay. In the 16th century, Manila (then Maynilad) grew from
a Muslim settlement on the banks of the Pasig River into the seat of the colonial government of Spain when it
controlled the Philippine Islands for over three centuries from 1565 to 1898. Beginning in 1898, the United
States occupied and controlled the city and the Philippine archipelago until 1946. During World War II, much of
the city was destroyed. The Metropolitan Manila region was enacted as an independent entity in 1975. Today,
the city and the metropolis thrive as an important cultural and economic center.
Manila lies at the mouth of the Pasig River on the eastern shores of Manila Bay, which is on the western side
of Luzon. It lies about 950 kilometers southeast of Hong Kong and 2,400 kilometers northeast of Singapore.
The river bisects the city in the middle. Almost all of the city sits on top of centuries of
prehistoric alluvial deposits built by the waters of the Pasig River and on some land reclaimed from Manila Bay.
The layout of the city was haphazardly planned during Spanish Era as a set of communities surrounding the
original Spanish Era walled city of Manila, called Intramuros. Intramuros is one of the oldest walled cities in the
Far East. During the American Period, some semblance of city planning using architectural designs by Daniel
Burnham, was adopted for the portions of the city south of the Pasig River.
City planning projects did not stop at Chicago though; Burnham helped shape cities such as Cleveland (the
Group Plan), San Francisco, Washington, DC (the McMillan Plan), and Manila and Baguio in the Philippines,
details of which appear in The Chicago Plan publication of 1909.
Manila isbordered by several municipalities and cities in Metro Manila: Navotas and Caloocan City to
the north, Quezon City to the northeast, San Juan and Mandaluyong City to the east, Makati City to the
southeast, and Pasay City to the south.
The Seal of Manila depicts the words Lungsod ng Maynila and Pilipinas, Filipino for City of
Manila and Philippines, in a circle around a shield. The circle also contains six yellow stars representing the
city's six congressional districts. The shield, in the shape of pre-colonial people's shield, depicts the city's
nickname Pearl of the Orient on top; a sea lion in the middle, in reference to the city's Spanish influences; and
the waves of the Pasig River and Manila Bay in the bottom portion. The colors of the seal mirror that of the Flag
of the Philippines.
National Government Offices
The City of Manila is the capital of the Philippines and is also the seat of political power in the country. During
the early years of the American colonial government, they envisioned a well-designed city outside the walls of
Intramuros. In nearby "Bagumbayan" or what is now Rizal Park, was chosen to become the center of
government and a design commission was given to Daniel Burnham to create a master plan for the city
patterned after Washington D.C.
Eventually, under the Commonwealth Government of Manuel L. Quezon, a new government center was to be
built on the hills northeast of Manila, or what is now Quezon City. Several government agencies have set-up
base in Quezon City but several key government offices are in Manila such as, the Office of the Philippine
President, the Supreme Court, the Court of Appeals, the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas, the Departments of
Budget, Finance, Health, Justice, Labor & Employment, and Tourism.
Parks and open areas
Directly south of Intramuros lies Rizal Park, the country's most significant park. Also known as Luneta (Spanish
term for "crescent-shaped") and previously as Bagumbayan, the 60 hectare Rizal Park sits on the site
where José Rizal, the country's national hero, was executed by the Spaniards on charges of subversion. A
monument stands in his honor where Rizal's remains were buried. The big flagpole west of the Rizal Monument
is Kilometer Zero for road distances on the island of Luzon and the rest of the country.
Other attractions in Rizal Park include the Chinese and Japanese Gardens, the Department of Tourism
building, the National Museum of the Filipino People, The National Library of the Philippines, the Planetarium,
the Orchidarium and Butterfly Pavilion, an open-air auditorium for cultural performances, a relief map of the
Philippines, a fountain area, a children's lagoon, a chess plaza, a light and sound presentation, and the Quirino
Another famous open space in Manila is the Baywalk. This promenade lies in front of the Manila Bay where
one can experience one of the most breathtaking sunsets of the world. Coconut trees, giant kaleidoscopic lamp
posts, al fresco cafès and restaurants, and live acoustic bands dot this two-kilometer stretch of ample space
beside Roxas Boulevard.
Aside from Rizal Park, Manila has very few other open public spaces. Rajah Sulayman Park, Manila
Boardwalk, Liwasang Bonifacio, Plaza Miranda, Paco Park, Remedios Circle, Manila Zoological and Botanical
Garden, Plaza Balagtas and the Malacañang Garden are some of the other parks in the city. In 2005,
Mayor Lito Atienza opened the Pandacan Linear Park, a strip of land that served as a buffer zone between the
oil depot and the residential-commercial properties in Pandacan and could be found along the banks of the
Pasig River. In the northern most part of the city lies the three cemeteries of Loyola, Chinese, and Manila North
Green Park, the largest public cemetery in Metropolitan Manila.
The original settlers of Manila were the Tagalogs. Throughout the centuries, there has been a constant
migration of Visayans, Bicolanos, Ilocanos, peoples from other parts of Luzon,Chinese and Spaniards. There
are also Americans, Arabs, Indonesians, Indians, and Koreans in Manila. Intermarriage between ethnic groups
is not uncommon in the Philippines.
There are 3 distinct local ethnic groups in Manila. The natives, the Chinese, and the Spanish. The Chinese and
Spanish groups, companies and families control most political and financial institutions.
With a population of 1,581,082 and a land area of 38.55 km², it has the highest population density of any major
city in the world with 41,014 people/km² (with district 6 being the most dense with 68,266, followed by the first
two districts (Tondo) with 64,936 and 64,710, respectively, and district 5 being the least dense with 19,235). A
million more transients are added during daytime as students and workers come to the city.
Manila's population density dwarfs that of Paris (20,164 inhabitants per km²), Shanghai (16,364 people/km²,
with its most dense district of Nanshi's 56,785 density), Buenos Aires (2,179 people/km², with its most dense
inner suburb Lanus' 10,444 density), Tokyo (10,087 people/km²), Mexico City (11,700 people/km²),
and Istanbul (1,878 people/km², with its most dense district Fatih's 48,173 density).
The main languages are Tagalog and American English, the language used in education and business
throughout of the Metro Manila region, which is also the reason why Metro Manila attracts English students
from neighboring Asian countries, and this fuels a call center industry.
Manila is the seat of the Archdiocese of Manila and the Primate of the Philippines. Being the seat of the
Spanish colonial government in past centuries, it has been used as the base of numerous Roman Catholic
missions to the Philippines. Among the religious orders that have gone to the Philippines include
the Dominicans, the Jesuits, the Franciscans, and the Augustinians (which includes the Augustinian
Intramuros is currently the seat of the Archdiocese of Manila, the oldest archdiocese in the country. The
archdiocese's offices is located in the Manila Cathedral (Basilica Minore de la Nuestra Señora de la
Immaculada Concepcion) in Intramuros.
Other notable churches and cathedrals in the city include Catédral de San Agustin in Intramuros, a UN World
Heritage Site is a favorite wedding place of notable people and one of two fully air-conditioned churches in the
city; Quiapo Church, also known as the Basilica Minore del Nazareno Negro, site of the annual January Black
Nazarene procession; Binondo Church, also known as Basilica Minore de St. Lorenzo Ruiz; Malate
Church (Nuestra Señora de Remedios); and San Sebastian Church or the Basilica Minore de San Sebastian,
the only all-steel church in Gothic style in Asia. Many of the other districts of Manila have their own notable
There are many Buddhist and Taoist temples built by the Chinese community in Manila. The Quiapo district is
home to a sizable Muslim population in Manila, and The Golden Mosque is located there. In Ermita is a large
Hindu temple for the Indian population, while on U.N. Avenue, there is a Sikh Temple. There is also an LDS
temple. In Malate, along Quirino Avenue, there once was a synagogue for the small Jewish community in the
Philippines. (See Jews in the Philippines.)
Education and culture
Manila is home to majority of the colleges and universities in Metro Manila. The University Belt or U-Belt,
informally located in the districts of Malate, Ermita, Intramuros, Paco, San Miquel, Quiapo, and Sampaloc is the
colloquial term for the high number of institutions of higher education that are located in the city. Among them
are private school De La Salle University-Manila, all-girls school St. Paul College of Manila and the state-
owned University of the Philippines, Manila at Ermita, the private schools Far Eastern University, University of
Santo Tomas and University of the East in Sampaloc, previously all-girl school Centro Escolar University and
all-boy school San Beda College along Mendiola, private school Colegio de San Juan de Letran, technical
school Mapua Institute of Technology, and the city-owned Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila at Intramuros,
and the state-owned Polytechnic University of the Philippines in Santa Mesa.
The National Museum of the Philippines, where the Spoliarium of Juan Luna is housed, the Metropolitan
Museum, the Museong Pambata (Children's Museum), as well as the National Library is also in Manila, located
within Rizal Park.
Centro Escolar University
Chinese General Hospital College of Nursing
and Liberal Arts
Colegio de San Juan de Letran
De La Salle-College of Saint Benilde
De La Salle University-Manila
Emilio Aguinaldo College
Esteban Abada High School
Far Eastern University
Far Eastern University - East Asia College
Lyceum of the Philippines University
Manila Science High School
Manuel L. Quezon University
Mapua Institute of Technology
National College of Business and Arts
Paco Catholic School
Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila
Philippine Christian University
Philippine Normal University
Philippine School of Business Administration
Polytechnic University of the Philippines
San Beda College
San Sebastian College - Recoletos
St. Joseph's School - Pandacan
St. Scholastica's College
Technological Institute of the Philippines
Technological University of the Philippines
Universidad de Manila
University of Manila
University of Santo Tomas
University of the Philippines, Manila
Every district in the city with the exception of Port Area has its own public market, locally called the pamilihang
bayan. Public markets are often divided into two, the dry goods section and the wet goods section. Commerce
in these public markets is lively, especially in the early morning. Under the urban renewal program of the
incumbent administration, some of the public markets had been refurbished and given a fresher look, like the
Sta. Ana public market. It is one of the more advanced markets in the city featuring a modern 2-story building
with an escalator.
The tropical climate in Manila plus the facilities of its world-class malls continue to attract Filipinos to the
shopping malls. Modern shopping malls dot the city especially in the areas of Malate and Ermita. SM City
Manila, part of the country's largest chain of malls, stands behind the Manila City Hall, while the original SM
Department store still operates in Carriedo in Sta. Cruz while another called SM Centrepoint is located north
east of the city in Sta. Mesa close to the Quezon City-San Juan boundary. One of the popular malls that lies at
the heart of Manila is Robinson's Place Ermita. In the southern part of the city in Malate district is Harrison
Plaza, one of the city's oldest shopping malls.
For the adventurous shoppers, you may venture beyond the hotel/shopping complex package and combine
other interesting destinations for cheap buys such as in Divisoria and Quiapo districts. Bargaining is the major
part of your shopping experience when you pass by on these areas, as it sells goods at rock-bottom prices. In
Divisoria, there is already a shopping mall that caters to the adventurous shoppers. Tutuban Center in Divisoria
gives a little comfort to the shoppers as it offers air-conditioned mall, but the price of the goods here is still very
similar to the goods bought outside. In Quiapo, one unique spot is the marketplace under the bridge. It sells
indigenous Filipino crafts and delicacies. Raon Center is famous for its cheap electronic products. Though
through the changing times, department stores began sprouting the Quiapo area, but still the flea market of
Quiapo is still vibrant and very much popular among the average Filipinos. Photo and video enthusiasts looking
for cheap equipment can proceed to R. Hidalgo street in the Quiapo district.
The establishment of the country's manufacturing base centered around the not so distant districts of Manila
during the Spanish colonial times. During the arrival of the Americans by the turn of the 20th century, Manila's
manufacturing base expanded and diversified into different areas and interests.
The district of Tondo due to its proximity to the Manila North and South Harbor became a center for several
manufacturing facilities and the district of Pandacan and portions of Paco nearest to the banks of the Pasig
River served as centers for manufacturing in the city.
Manila during the Spanish period was well-known for its quality tobacco production by the Manila Tabacalera
Company which had its manufacturing and production base along Tayuman street in Tondo. Philippine food
and beverage giant San Miguel Corporation first started its beer brewing production along San Miguel district.
The old brewing building for San Miguel is now within the high security enclave of Malacañan Palace grounds.
Nearby the old San Miguel brewery was the Manila Ice Plant and portions of its old building now houses the
Department of Budget and Management. Distilleria Limtuaco, a manufacturer of rhum still operates its facilities
in the San Miguel district while its rival La Tondeña which had its production facilities in nearby Quiapo district
has scaled down its operations.
Tondo was base for food manufacturing by the 1920s and several American companies established plants in
the area. The Philippine Manufacturing Company or PMC established production of various products derived
from coconut oil ranging from cooling oil to soaps and toiletries. The Philippine Manufacturing Company would
later become Procter and Gamble Philippines and in the late 1980s, production from within the crowded Tondo
area was gradually phased down and moved to areas outside of Metro Manila.
PMC's rival company, the Philippine Refining Company or PRC established its based of operations five
kilometers upstream of the Pasig River in Paco district, along the United Nations Avenue, near Isla de Provisor.
PRC was also engaged in the manufacture of product derivatives from coconut oil. In the 1990s, Philippine
Refining Company changed its corporate name as part of the global strategy of company brand recognition and
is now called Unilever Philippines.
The United Nation's Avenue near the corner of Romualdez street used to be the mini Detroit in the 1930s when
the Ford Motor Company established its first assembly plant in the area. The plant facility remains standing
and it houses the government office issuing the seaman's passbook.
American owned oil companies in the 1930s like Esso, Mobil Oil and Filipino Oil or FilOil established their oil
distribution and lube facilities along the banks of the Pasig River in Pandacan district, at a time when the area
was largely a farm village. after almost a century of operations, the fuel distribution and manufacturing facilities
are gradually being removed due to its potential security and safety risk to the highly dense population in the
Coca Cola still operates its bottling plant in Pandacan but its plant operations is more focused on product
distribution into the Metro Manila franchise area.
Several key and notable manufacturing facilities in the City of Manila closed down through the years especially
after 1980s. The country's then largest copra milling company at the boundary of Paco and Pandacan district
closed down and its plant site is now a middle class town house facility. The depot of the Philippines only gas
company with pipelines servicing every home, the Manila Gas Company ceased operations in the 1980s after a
protracted legal battle on ownership issue and its facilities were torn down as the 5.5 hectare Manila Gas
property is now being converted into a mixed condomimium and commercial tower.
Ninoy Aquino International Airport (NAIA), outside the city proper, serves Manila and the metro area. Over
30 airlines provide daily service to over 26 cities and 19 countries worldwide. Approximately 14 million
travellers use NAIA a year, straining what was originally a domestic airport built in the 1930s. A second
terminal, Terminal 2 (or the Centennial Terminal) opened in October 1999. The International flag-
carrierPhilippine Airlines now uses this terminal exclusively for both its domestic and international service while
all other international flights use the original NAIA terminal.
Another alternative point of embarkation and disembarkation is Diosdado Macapagal International Airport in
the Clark Special Economic Zone.
The main roads of Metro Manila are organized around a set of radial and circumferential roads that radiate and
circle in and around Manila proper. Roxas Boulevard, easily the most well-known of Manila's streets, line the
southern shores of Manila with Manila Bay. The boulevard is part of the Radial Road 1 that leads south to the
province of Cavite. Another well-known radial road is España Boulevard (part of Radial Road 7) that starts in
Quiapo and ends at the Welcome Rotunda along the border with Quezon City. Pres. Sergio Osmeña Sr.
Highway, part of the South Luzon Expressway or Radial Road 3 is the most important highway linking
Manila with the provinces of southern Luzon.
The most common types of public transportation are buses and the jeepney. Tricycles are used for short
distances. Pedicabs are bicycles attached with sidecars, where the drivers uses foot pedals to propel the
There are eight (8) major bridge spans in Manila, more than half of the number of bridges that connects the
north and south banks of the Pasig River in Metro Manila. There are two (2) rail bridges that crosses the river,
the Light Rail Transit 1 and the Philippine National Railways track. The bridges listed below are in a west to
east order, with the first bridge Del Pan, nearest to the mouth of the Pasig River into Manila Bay.
Roxas bridge - formerly called Del
Pan (Tondo to Port Area)
Jones bridge (Binondo to Ermita)
McArthur bridge (Santa Cruz to Ermita)
LRT 1 (Carriedo station to Central station)
Quezon bridge (Quiapo to Ermita)
Ayala bridge (San Miguel to Ermita)
Mabini bridge - formerly called Nagtahan
bridge (Santa Mesa to Pandacan)
Philippine National Railways (Santa Mesa
station to Pandacan station)
Padre Zamora bridge (Santa Mesa to
Lambingan bridge (Sta. Ana)
Manila is the hub of a railway system on Luzon. The main terminal of the Philippine National Railways is
in the Tondo district. Railways extend from this terminal north to the city of San
Fernando in Pampanga and south to Legazpi City in Albay, though only the southern railway is currently in
Manila is also serviced by the Manila Light Rail Transit System (separate from Manila Metro Rail Transit
System), a national priority project designed to address the overwhelming traffic that congests the national
These are the major rail systems, with their station within Manila:
LRT 1: R. Papa, J. Abad Santos, Blumentritt, Tayuman, Bambang, D. Jose, Carriedo, Central Station,
UN Ave., P. Gil, Quirino Ave, and Vito Cruz
LRT 2: C.M. Recto, Legarda, Pureza and V. Mapa
PNR: Vito Cruz, Herran, Pandacan, Sta. Mesa, España, Laong Laan, Blumentritt and Tutuban.
Seaports and piers
The City of Manila is the chief seaport of the Philippines. North Harbor and South Harbor experience busy
periods during long holidays such as Holy Week, All Saints Day and theChristmas holidays.
Like all cities of the Philippines, Manila is governed by a mayor who heads the executive department of the
city. The current mayor for the 2004-2007 term is Jose L. Atienza, Jr., who has been re-elected for his third
term in the 2004 elections. The city mayor is restricted for three consecutive terms (nine years), although
he can be elected again after an interruption of one term.
The city is divided into 897 barangays, which are the smallest unit of local government in the Philippines.
Each barangay has its own chairperson and councilors. For administrative convenience, all the
barangays in Manila are grouped into 100 zones and which are further grouped into 16 administrative
districts. These zones and districts have no form of local government.
Manila began as a Muslim settlement at the mouth of the Pasig River along the shores of Manila Bay.
The name came from the termmaynilad, literally "there is nilad." Nilad is a white-flowered mangrove
plant that grew in abundance in the area.
In the mid-16th century, the area of present-day Manila was governed by three rajahs, or Muslim
community leaders. They were Rajah Sulayman and Rajah Matanda who ruled the communities
south of the Pasig, and Rajah Lakandula who ruled the community north of the river. Manila was then
the northernmost Muslim sultanate in the islands. It held ties with the sultanates of Brunei, Sulu,
and Ternate in Cavite.
City of Marikina
The City of Marikina (Filipino: Lungsod ng Marikina) is known as the
Shoe Capital of the Philippines" (also the "Shoe Capital of Asia").
Located on the island of Luzon, Marikina City is one of the cities that
comprise Metro Manila, the National Capital Region of the Philippines.
Marikina City is part of the Metro Luzon Super Region (also known as
the Urban Beltway). Metro Luzon is composed of Region 3, Region 4-
A (CALABARZON) including the island province
of Marinduque and Mindoro Provinces, and Metro Manila. Metro Luzon
is one of four Super Regions in the Philippines.
Marikina City is a lush valley bounded by mountain ranges and sliced by a river. Located along the
eastern border of Metro Manila, it is bordered on the west by Quezon City, to the south by Pasig
City and Cainta, Rizal, to the east by Antipolo City, the capital of Rizal province, and to the north by San
Mateo also in Rizal province. It is approximately 21 km. away from Manila, and lies within 14° 38' 24" N,
121° 5' 50" E
Marikina City is the most industrialized city in Metro Manila, according to MMDA. There are many
landmarks located in the city, such as the Marikina Sports Park, Marikina River Park, Marikina Market
Mall, Marikina Industrial Zone, World of Butterflies, Marquinton Place, Loyola Memorial Park, Sentrong
Pangkultura ng Marikina, Riverbanks Center, the Guinness Book of Records biggest pair of shoes in the
world and other interesting places. Some of the biggest malls in the metropolis are also located near
Marikina City, like the Sta. Lucia East Grandmall and Robinsons Place Metro East, both malls being
situated along Marcos Highway and also the Riverbanks Mall in Riverbanks Center. SM City Marikina
which considered as the biggest SM mall in the eastern metropolis is also located in Riverbanks Center.
Marikina was given the title the "Shoe Capital of the Philippines", because of its notable shoe industry.
Shoemakers in the city recently finished creating the world's largest pair of shoes and it was only recently
that the Guinness Book of Records recognized this feat. The Shoe Museum in the city is also the home of
the famous shoes of the former First Lady Imelda Marcos.
One of the most important places in the city is Marikina River, a tributary of the Pasig River which runs
through the center of the city. The river in fact occupies a part of the Marikina Valley and is sometimes
prone to flooding along the riverbanks especially when monsoon rain season. Marikina River reflects the
Marikina pride because of its beauty. It is the best place for jogging, sightseeing, biking, camping and
more activities. At night, Marikina River transforms into a modern nightlife events because of some
numerous bars, restaurants, cafes and night clubs along the riverbanks. During Christmas Season,
the Marikina River is a traditional venue for the Marikina Christmas Festival which began annually on the
late October. Marikina Christmas Festival has annually themes which attracts not only the residents of
Marikina but also the neighboring cities and towns. The festivities offers different entertainment for the
family, friends and love ones because of different rides, boutiques, tents, food houses, shows and many
The Marikina City Hall has its own website. Other websites about the city includes Marikina News which
serves as the portal of websites and e-groups in Marikina. Marikina City Hall has a e-government services
offered for the people in Marikina. It has also an emergency hotline which exclusively for the residents of
Marikina in case of emergencies, the Marikina Rescue 161.
Famous Landmarks and Attractions
Located at the corner of Shoe Avenue and Sumulong Hiway. It has a beautiful and colorful fountain like in
Rajah Sulayman Park in Manila, and a facade like a church with giant clock and bells rang in every hour
with music theme at the same time.
Located in Marikina Heights, this park features 18 concrete cows reminiscent of the time when the area
was once the only grazing field in Marikina.
LRT Line 2 Santolan Station
The depot of LRT 2 along Marcos Highway. The first station of LRT 2 is Santolan station, although the
station is in nearby Pasig City but because of territorial agreement, the station and depot of Santolan
Station was now under Marikgina City government but the name Santolan which is one of the barangay
area of Pasig City was used.
LRT Line 2 San Roque Station (proposed)
For the extension of LRT Line 2 from Santolan, the LRT management proposed and extend additional 3-
kilometer extension of LRT from its depot. The proposed construction of new station was near at Sta.
Lucia Mall along Marcos Highway and it extends towards Masinag area in Antipolo. The proposed
construction begins in late 2007 at the same
Loyola Memorial Park
Located along A. Bonifacio Avenue, a private-owned memorial park set on a sprawling area of 36,000 m²
and developed in 1965. The Loyola Memorial Park is the oldest, and one of the biggest and most
prominent memorial parks not only in Metro Manila but also in the Philippines.
Marikina City's Largest Pair of Shoes in the World
This is certified by the Guinness Book of World Records as the world's largest pair of shoes. It is
displayed at the Riverbanks Center.
This is the city's first government-owned hotel that will further boost the influx of tourists in the city,
located at SSS Village.
Marikina Entertainment District
Angel Tuazon Avenue's (Gil Fernando Avenue) well-known line-up of having many bars, restaurants,
night clubs and shops.
Marikina Industrial Zone
Located in the northeast portion of the city which was established in the 70's. It is home to a number of
industries and some of which are the biggest and are the leaders in their fields, like Purefoods-
Hormel, Nestle, Fortune Tobacco, Armscor and other leading industries.
Marikina Market Mall
Metro Manila's cleanest market is Marikina Public Market, known as Marikina Market Mall. It is also one of
the biggest market place in Metro Manila.
Marikina River Park
Most awarded river which set as the Hall of Fame awardee for the Cleanest Inland Body of Water in NCR.
Marikina River Park is a popular camping site and picnic grounds and recreational park, such as concrete
jogging and bike lanes, and skating rink. Some of attractions there are Roman Garden, Chinese Pagoda,
Kawayanan, Youth Camp and Animal Trail. It is also a traditional venue for the
Marikina Christmas Festival which began in late October.
Marikina Sports Park
Established in 1969 and then known as the Rodriguez Sports Center, the property was bought from the
provincial Government of Rizal in 1995. It is now a popular venue for national, regional and international
sports competitions and other sports and entertainment events, such as 23rd Southeast Asian
Games 2005 and Starstruck 3 Final Judgement and among others.
Mar Quinton Place
The biggest condominium place at the eastern Metropolitan Manila area, the Marquinton Place was
developed by Federaland. it is located along Sumulong Highway.
Mar Quinton - Blue Wave Mall
Blue Wave Mall Marikina is located in the Marquinton compound. Building One Tenant line-up includes
some notable establishments like Starbucks Coffee Shop, Jollibee, KFC, Gerry's Grill, Pancake House,
Tapa King, Yellow Cab, Superbowl of China, Watsons, Hot Loops, Timezone, Kodak Store, Max's, Petron
Treats, Petron Gas Station, Siamese Grill, Meriam Webster BookStore, Globe Telecoms, Mendrez, Rusty
Lopez, Angel Playhouse, Looks Visioncare Center, Time Studio, Skaters, 4 Class Cinemas, Brother's
Burger, Character's Unlimited, Shakey's. Building 2, which is bigger than Bldg. 1, is currently under
Parish of Our Lady of the Abandoned
Also known as OLA Church located at J. P. Rizal, San Roque. Built by Augustinians in the 1600's, this
place of worship was destroyed by earthquakes and by fires in 19th Century. It has undergone a series of
renovations since 1963. The church houses the miraculous image of the religious patron of Marikina
City, Nuestra Señora de los Desamparados de Marikina (Our Lady of Marikina), which was canocically
crowned last October 15, 2005 by virtrue of Pope Benedict XVI.
Formerly Universal Textiles, Asia's largest textile mills, located along A. Bonifacio Avenue, Barangka. It is
now a center for shopping, commerce, business and entertainment because of its unique setting by the
river. Riverbanks Mall, Amphitheatre, Gazebo, Floating Stage and Stone Carabaos was also found inside
the complex. At Riverbanks Mall, here you will find almost everything you need at a price reasonably
affordable, such as SM Supermarket, Green Gallery, Off-Price Department Store, a numerous boutiques,
celfone shops, shops, food stands, fastfood chains and many more.
San Jose Manggagawa Parish Church
This church was the first permanent church established by the Jesuits in 1630, the same year Marikina
was founded. It is located in Jesus Dela Pena.
Sentrong Pangkultura ng Marikina
This 200-year old building was once owned by Don Laureano "Kapitan Moy" Guevarra, recognized as the
father of shoe industry in the Philippines. This is where the first pair of shoes in Marikina was designed
and made in 1887. Inside this building can be found Doll Museum, Marikina City's museum. This building
is now the center of culture and arts of Marikina.
Shoe Museum houses about 800 pairs of shoes belonging to former First Lady Imelda Marcos. It is also
record-holder as the most numerous pair of shoes in one place.
SM City Marikina
SM City Marikina is located in Riverbanks Center, Marcos Highway. The construction began in year 2006
and yet it still under construction. This is the first time that SM, the biggest chain malls in the Philippines
constructed beside the river and developed an open large park beside the beautiful settings along the
riverbanks. The SM Mall in Marikina considered as one of the biggest mall in Metro Manila in terms of
area. Aside from this features, like other SM Malls, this SM Mall is a 5-storey building, it has an open-air
large car park (with 2 elevated 5-storey carpark buildings), cinemas (a total of 10 cinemas), SM
Department store, SM Supermarket/Hypermarket, entertainment hall (the hall was fabulous design in-
front of Marikina River and the skyline of Ortigas Center) and many more features. SM City inaugurates
on December 8, 2007, same date of the cityhood of Marikina and it will be the biggest mall in the eastern
Metro Manila and Rizal Sub-orbs when it complete done. SM City Marikina opens early 2008.
This is the center of culture and the arts of eastern Metro Manila. This facility also caters to various events
such as plays, concerts, shows, graduations, exhibits and seminars. Teatro Marikina is also the venue of
pre-pageant of Miss Earth in the Philippines, notable concerts and plays played by the biggest celebrities
and artists in the country.
Located beside Marikina River Park. It is a park dedicated and exclusive to women empowerment of
World of Butterflies
Free flying of hundreds of butterflies in different variety, kind and sizes. Field trips and tourist attracts this
place because of very good ambience that truly Marikina is a nature lover.
Marikina City Today
At present, the shoe industry has become a pride of the country and a boost to the growth of its economy.
The city also now boasts of hosting other big companies, multinationals and local, as well as leading
exporting firms. Numerous banks, land development firms, residential realty, business center, industrial
centers, commercial centers, information and communication technology centers, hotels and
condominiums is also boasts the city that Marikina rapidly into a highly urbanized city in a short time.
Marikina City today is a multi-awarded metropolitan city, often cited for its vibrant economy, a highly-
skilled and literate work force, an involved and enlightened business community, environmental
awareness, people discipline and a responsive local government that puts a premium on governance,
sustainable urban development and public service.
Proof positive of the city's standing in the league of metropolitan cities in the country are the numerous
awards and citations that have been bestowed, most recent and most prestigious of which are
the 2003 Most Competitive Metro City in the Philippines award from the prestigious Asian Institute of
Management (AIM) Policy Research Center, Asia Foundation, International Labour Organization (ILO),
German Technical Foundation, and Konrad Adenauer Stiflung; and the Continuing Excellence Award in
Local Governance given by the Galing Pook Foundation, DILG, Local Government Authority and the Ford
Foundation. Marikina was also one of the host of the 23rd Southeast Asian Games 2005 in the
Philippines which held the women's football event at the Marikina Sports Park.
Marikina City is a developed city within Metro Manila. The city lies on a valley of the same name. Marikina
River runs through the central portion of the city. During the rainy season, most especially two discnit
seasons includes dry season from november to april and wet season from may to october , the river
overflows and jumps its banks, flooding low-lying areas. The dynamic Sierra Madre Mountains, the
longest mountain range in the country is located at the eastern portion while the Quezon City hills are
located to the west.
The city divided into 2 (geographical) districts: Districts 1 and 2. The southern portion of the city is District
1 and the northern part which is the larger part is District 2. Marikina City is one of the healthiest cities in
the Asia-Pacific region. Winning at least 78 awards and recognitions, both local and abroad, in a span of
just 12 years. Marikina has become an ideal location for industry, business, commerc e and for
Districts and Barangays
Marikina City has 2 geographical districts, the District 1 and District 2. District 1 occupies the southwest
side of Marikina River and the entire south of Marikina City and District 2 occupies the northwest (Loyola
Grand Villas) side of Marikina River and the entire northern and eastern part of Marikina City which
considered as the biggest district of the 2 districts. Here are the 2 districts with their barangays:
Jesus Dela Pena
Sta. Elena (Poblacion)
The people of Marikina is called "Marikeño".
Like other places in Metro Manila, the original settlers are Tagalogs. Throughout the centuries, there has
been constant migration of Visayas, Bikolanos, Ilokanos, Chinese andSpaniards. There are
also Americans, Indians and Arabs.
The main language is Filipino, which is based on Tagalog. In addition, Marikeños are also proficient in
the English language.
Marikina is one of the seat of the Spanish colonial government in past centuries, it has been used as the
base of Roman Catholic missions. Among the religious orders include theDominicans, the Franciscans,
the Jesuits, and the Augustinians which the first to arrive in Marikina. Almost 94% of Marikeño are Roman
Parish of Our Lady of the Abandoned is the seat of Nuestra Señora de los Desamparados, patron saint of
Marikina City. Other churches in the city include the San Jose Manggagawa Parish Church in J. Dela
Pena (the first chapel established) and Immaculate Concepcion Church in Concepcion Uno. Other
Christian faiths like Pentecostal Missionary Church of Christ, the headquarters of Church of Christ 4th
Watch in the Philippines, Jesus Miracle Crusade, Iglesia ni Cristo and some others.
Some other religions are Muslim, Buddhism and Judaism.
The city government prides itself in giving free education to its quality free education to its constituents
through its 15 primary schools and 8 secondary schools including one science high school.
Marikina has many colleges and universities, like the city-owned Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Marikina
and Marikina Science High School. There are also AMA Computer University, STI Learning School, St.
Scholastica's Academy Marikina , one of the best private schools in the city exclusive for girls, Marist
School, National Christian Life College (Maranatha Christian Academy), Roosevelt College, OLOPS
School, St. Nicholas School which sits as the head of Marikina Private Schools' Administrators
Association and National Cottage Technology Center which still the city literature rate as high as 99%.
Marikina provides medical missions and free medical operations in the city. There are numerous hospitals
in Marikina, one of the public hospital in Marikina is Amang Rodriguez Medical Center. There are also
newly constructed Marikina Medical Center just a few blocks away from AMMC. Other private hospitals
such as Garcia General Hospital and Immaculate Concepcion Hospital and the exclusive hospital of
Medical City which is located at Sta. Lucia Mall.
Numerous clinics provide basic health check-ups for Marikeños. The city also offers services such as
Health Centers and the city has also a privileges card for discounted fees and free services like
emergency, medical and security services.
Marikina is the home to a member of industries, some of which are the biggest and most successful in
their fields, and foremost of all, shoe manufacturing, being the best in localcraftmanship.
Marikina was the biggest manufacturer of quality shoes, and Marikina produced 78% of the shoe
production of the Philippines. All locally produced shoes was made in Marikina, from slippers to shoes.
Marikina also produces shoes which are made in rubber, wood (bakya) and plastic.
Public markets in Marikina are often divided into two, the dry goods section and the wet goods
section. Commerce in these public markets are in full swing, especially in the early morning. Under the
urban renewal program of the incumbent administration, some of the public markets had been refurbished
and given a fresher look, like the Marikina Public Market also known as Marikina Market Mall (or People's
Mall), the biggest and cleanest market in Metro Manila.
Modern shopping malls dot the city especially in Blue Wave Mall at Marquinton. Sta. Lucia East
Grandmall and Robinsons Place Metro East are Metro Manila's major shopping centers, stands
along Marcos Hiway bounded by the city of Pasig and Cainta, Rizal. One of the popular malls that lies in
Marikina is Riverbanks Center.
For the adventurous shoppers, you may venture beyond the hotel/shopping complex package and
combine other interesting destinations for cheap buys such as in Marikina Market Mall. Bargaining is the
major part of your shopping experience when you pass by on these area, as it sells goods at rock -bottom
prices. It sells indigenous Filipino crafts and delicacies.
Almost all of the major commercial banks in the Philippines operate a branch in the city. Many major
banks was operated in the city of more than 1 branch or much more. At this time, there are 50 banking
institutions offer banking services to businesses and residents. Most of these are concentrated in
Barangay Sta. Elena, Sto. Niño, Concepcion Uno and Barangka.
The city manufactures food processing, cigarettes, porcelain and china wares, confectionery, automobiles
and cars, appliances, crafts like bags, hats and slippers, and foremost of all, shoes.
Municipality of Pateros
Pateros is a municipality in Metro Manila in the Philippines. This small town is
famous for its duck-raising industry and especially for producing balut, a Filipino
delicacy that is boiled duck egg. Pateros is bordered by Pasig City to the
north, Makati City to the west, and Taguig to the south.
Pateros is the smallest among the cities and municipalities in Metro Manila both in
population and in land area, but it is the second most densely populated at around
27 thousand people per square kilometer after Manila.
The name of the Pateros most likely came from its duck-raising industry. The Tagalog word (of Spanish origin)
for duck is pato andpateros means duck-raisers. An equally viable theory, though less known is that the name
also came from the town's small shoe-making industry. The Tagalog word for shoe is sapatos and shoe-
makers are called sapateros.
Before 1770, Pateros was only a barrio of Pasig until the Spanish Governor-General in the Philippines issued a
decree making Pateros an independent municipality.
On March 29, 1900, Pateros became one of the towns in the newly created province of Rizal, by virtue of
General Order No. 40 Act No 137 of Philippine Commission promulgated o June 11, 1901. Then on October
12, 1903, Act No. 942 combined Pateros, Taguig and Muntinlupa into a single municipality under Pateros. The
municipality was renamed into Taguig on March 22, 1905, through Act 1308. Executive Order No. 20
dated February 29, 1908 separated Pateros from Taguig and Pateros then gained its independent status as
municipality on January 1, 1909 by Executive Order No. 36. On November 7, 1975, Pateros became a part of
the new Metropolitan Manila Area through Presidential Decree No. 924.
Pateros is politically subdivided into 10 barangays:
Martires Del 96
City of Muntinlupa
The City of Muntinlupa (Filipino: Lungsod ng Muntinlupa) is the southernmost
city in Metro Manila. It is bordered on the north by Taguig City; to the northwest
by Parañaque City; by Las Piñas City to the west; to the southwest by the
municipality of Bacoor, Cavite; by the municipality of San Pedro, Laguna; and
by Laguna de Bay to the east, the largest lake in the country. It is nicknamed the
"Emerald City of the Philippines". According to the 2000 census, it has a
population of 379,310.
Muntinlupa City was once notoriously known as the home of the maximum
security National Bilibid Prison, where the country's most dangerous criminals were incarcerated. Nowadays,
it has largely shaken-off this negative image to become one of the most progressive cities in the country.
Muntinlupa is home to some of the best commercial establishments in the metropolis and is the location
of Ayala Alabang Village, one of the country's biggest residential communities, where many of the wealthy and
famous live. Among the village's well-known residents include former Philippine President Fidel V. Ramos,
actor Aga Muhlach and his wife, actress/host Charlene Gonzalez, the Prince ofBrunei and Simone
The town of Alabang, part of the Second district of Muntinlupa City, has undergone tremendous growth in the
last decade. Because of two large scale commercial real estate development projects namely; the Filinvest
Corporate City by the Filinvest Development Corporation, and Ayala Land, Inc.'s Madrigal Business Park, both
of which changed the landscape of Muntinlupa City--from what was once vast fields of cow pasture in the late
1980s, into a supercity that houses new residential, business, industrial and commercial establishments.
Examples of these are: one of the country's premier shopping centers, Alabang Town Center, the Festival
Supermall (One of Asia's biggest malls), the towering Insular Life Towers, the Asian Hospital and Medical
Center, and the Northgate Business District, which specializes in hosting information and technology industries.
Nightlife is still relatively staid compared to those of its neighbors, and younger residents often flock to other
cities in Metro Manila, particularly Makati, Taguig, orManila, during the weekend to enjoy the night out.
Many companies from other crowded cities are planning to, or already have moved their base of operations into
Muntinlupa City, in a transformation reminiscent of Makati's development boom 30 years ago.
This city has recently acquired the status "Most Competitive City" and the "Most Improved City" in the
Districts and barangays
Muntinlupa City is composed of a lone congressional district, and two legislative districts which are further
subdivided into nineBarangay. Legislative District One contains four Barangays in the southern half of the city,
while legislative District Two occupies the five Barangays in the northern portion of the city.
While Barangays are the administrative divisions of the city, and are legally part of the addresses of
establishments and homes, many residents indicate their subdivision (village) instead of their Barangay.
Listed below are the Barangays in each district plus some notable subdivisions (villages).
District 1 Barangays
1. Country Homes Subdivision
2. Agro Homes
3. Alabang Hills Village
4. Alabang 400 Village
5. Camella Homes I
6. Camella Townhomes I (Townhomes of
7. Freewill Subdivision
8. Freedom Hills Subdivision
9. Kalipayan Homes
10. Pacific Malayan Village
11. Ayala Alabang Village
12. Hillsborough Alabang
13. JPA Subdivision
14. Mutual Homes Alabang Village
15. Victoria Homes Subdivision-Camella
Rigdeview (also called United Victoria-
Camella Homeowners Community)
16. Pacific Village
17. Posadas Village
18. San Jose Village
19. Soldiers Hills Village
20. Camella Homes III
21. Sto. Niño Village
22. Treelane Park Subdivision
23. Parkhomes Subdivision
24. Pleasant Village
25. Summitville Subdivision
26. Lakeview Homes
27. Lakeshore Village
28. Lodora Village
29. Villa Carolina 1
30. Villa Carolina 2
31. Katarungan Village 1
32. Katarungan Village 2
33. South Green Heights Village
35. Teachers Village
36. Tiosejo Village
37. Intercity Homes Subdivision
The name “Muntinlupa” came from at least three versions. First, its association with the thin topsoil in the area.
Second, residents, purportedly replying to a question by Spaniards in the 16th century what the name of their
place were, said “Monte sa Lupa”—apparently mistaking the question for what card game they were playing.
Third, the topographical nature of the area, where the term Monte or mountain was expanded to Muntinlupa or
Some documents suggest that the first and third versions of Muntinlupa and Monte sa Lupa respectively
eventually became Muntinlupa either through misspelling or mispronunciation. But no record to date can firmly
establish which of the three versions is historically correct.
Muntinlupa is an old term, which refers to a barangay (which means a smaller branch of a city or a
municipality;often referred to as a county) now known as the Población. As early as 1800, the Catholic priest
Father Joaquín de Zúñiga chronicled it as la población que sigue se llama Muntinlupa.
City of Navotas
The City of Navotas (Filipino: Lungsod ng Navotas) is a city in Metro
Manila, Philippines. The city occupies a narrow strip of land along the
eastern shores of Manila Bay. Navotas is directly north of Manila, west
of Malabon City, and south of Obando, Bulacan.
Dubbed as the "Fishing Capital of the Philippines", Navotas is
considered to be a very important fishing community with 70% of its
population deriving their livelihood directly or indirectly from fishing and its
related industries like fish trading, fish net mending, and fish producing
having marginal percentage of inter-Island fish producers. Navotas occupies a portion of the Metropolitan
Manila bound in the west with shoreline of Manila Bay, which is a strategic coastal front and suitable for all
kinds of vessels.
Navotas is part of the informal subregion of Metro Manila called CAMANAVA. This subregion, aside from
Navotas, includes the cities of Caloocan, Malabon, and Valenzuela. Navotas is perceived to be prone to flood
especially during the rainy season and during high tide, but the national and local government are trying to
alleviate the problem. Pollution and overpopulation are other problems that the government is trying to solve.
Navotas is famous for fish sauce and shrimp paste (patis and bagoong in Tagalog respectively).
Navotas celebrates its foundation day every January 16 and it becomes a city after a plebiscite was held on
June 24, 2007.
The entire place of Navotas was once part of Malabon. According to one legend, the long and narrow
delta extended unbroken from north to south along the seashore. The strip of land between the former
district of Tondo, Manila and this town was eaten away by the sea until an opening was made. Water
began to flow through the opening. The geographical change prompted the people to refer to the place as
"butas", "nayon ng butas",or "nabutas",a Tagalog word that means breached or pierced through. What
began as a natural channel developed into a regular waterway, now known as the Navotas River. In later
years, the place came to be known as "Nabotas", then "Navotas".
San Jose de Navotas was the name given to the locality after its patron saint, Saint Joseph. On June 11,
1859, a "Superior Decreto" established a new parish and municipality under the supervision of Friar
Matias Navoa. The populace was divided into two distinct groups, the naturales (locals) and the mestizos.
Mariano Estrellas was the gobernadorcillo (petty governor) of the naturales and Mariano Israel, of
the mestizos. Today, because records are incomplete, recognition is only given to
the gobernadorcillos for the mestizos. A school in honor of San Jose was built and known as "San Jose
In 1904, the town was again merged with Malabon. Bernardo Dagala, a native of Navotas, was elected
December 20, 1827 – The movement for separation of Navotas which was then a part of Malabon
February 16, 1859 – The date when the barrios of San Jose, Navotas and Bangculasi were
separated from Malabon.
1859 – Cavada, the year when Navotas became an independent town.
August 6, 1898 – Navotas joined the revolutionary government of General Emilio Aguinaldo.
June 11, 1901 – Navotas was eventually incorporated into the newly created province
of Rizal enacted Act. No. 137.
January 16, 1906 – Navotas finally became an independent municipality with the enactment of Act.
No. 1442 which separated from Malabon.
June 24, 2007 – Navotas becomes a city after a plebiscite was conducted on June 24, 2007.
Navotas is a coastal town in the northwest part of Metro Manila. It is a narrow strip of land with an
aggregated shoreline of approximately 4.5 km. In the north, Navotas shares a common border with the
town of Obando, Bulacan, along Sukol Creek. Along the eastern border runs the Binuangan River, the
Daang Cawayan River, the Dampalit River, the Batasan River, the Navotas River, the Bangculasi
Channel, the Malabon Channel and the Estero de Maypajo.
It is bordered on the north by Obando, Bulacan along Sukol Creek; on the south by the city of Manila; on
the east by Daang Binuangan River, Bangkulasi channel, Malabon Channel and Estrto de Maypajo; and
on the west by Manila Bay.
Navotas is politically subdivided into 2 districts, with a total of 14 barangays:
Northbay Boulevard, North
Northbay Boulevard, South
San Rafael Village
San Ildefonso Parish
San Jose de Navotas Parish
San Roque de Navotas Parish
San Lorenzo Ruiz and Companion Martyrs Parish
Sta. Cruz Parish
City of Parañaque
The City of Parañaque (pop. 449,811, 2000 Census), or
simply Parañaque (Filipino: Lungsod ng Parañaque or Lungsod ng Palanyag),
is one of the cities and municipalities that comprise Metro Manila in
the Philippines. It is bordered on the north by Pasay City, by Taguig City to the
northeast, Muntinlupa City to the southeast, by Las Piñas City to the southwest,
and by Manila Bay to the west.
Parañaque was founded in 1572 by Spanish missionaries as Palanyag. After its
establishment, the town fell under the authority of the Augustinians, beginning with Fr. Diego de Espinar in
During the Philippine Revolution, Parañaque became one of the hottest battle zones due to its location halfway
between the province ofCavite, where the revolutionaries held sway, and Manila, the seat of the Spanish
During the American occupation of the Philippines, Parañaque became one of the first municipalities in
the Metro Manila region. It was converted into a chartered city on February 15, 1998.
Districts and barangays
Parañaque is composed of two congressional districts and two legislative districts which are further subdivided
into 16 Barangays. Legislative District One contains eight barangays in the western half of the city, while
legislative District Two is comprised of the eight barangays in the eastern portion of the city.
While barangays are the administrative divisions of the city, and are legally part of the addresses of
establishments and homes, many residents indicate their subdivision (village) instead of their barangay.
Listed below are the barangays in each district plus some notable subdivisions.
Rainbow Village 2
BF Homes Parañaque
Better Living Subdivision
Camella Homes Parañaque II
Camella Homes Parañaque III (CHP III)
Gatchalian Subdivision 1
Goodwill II Subdivision
Goodwill III Subdivision
Marcelo Green Village
San Antonio Valley (numerous phases)
Severina Diamond Subdivision Km.18
Sun Valley Subdivision
United Parañaque Subdivision
Parkview Homes (Benedictine Drive, Brgy. Sunvalley)
Teoville East & West
Maywood (numerous village)
Fourth Estate Subdivision
Garden City I
Garden City III
South Bay Gardens
St. Andrew's Cathedral (Barangay La Huerta), the seat of Diocese of Parañaque and the Shrine of Nuestra
Señora del Buen Suceso
Ninoy Aquino International Airport Terminal 1
Baclaran Redemptorist Church, officially the National Shrine of Our Mother of Perpetual Help, one of the
biggest and most active churches in the country where devotees flock to hear mass every Wednesday
Dampa, a popular seafood restaurant
Manila Memorial Park, the country's first memorial park and resting place to some of the country's most
Loyola Memorial Park, part of one of the country's chain of memorial parks
Fiesta Shopping Mall (Duty Free Philippines)
SM City Sucat, part of the country's biggest chain of malls
SM City Bicutan, part of the country's biggest chain of malls
Parañaque City Hall
The name "Parañaque" is derived from the phrase "para na aque," which was commonly used in the past when
people who wished to disembark from kalesas (horse-drawn carriages). The phrase literally means "stop now,
boy": "para" from the Spanish parar (to stop), "na" from the Tagalog word for "now" or "already," and "aque"
from the Tagalog word for boy, lalaki. An alternative meaning of "para na aque" could be "stop here," with
"aque" being derived from the Spanish aquí ("here").
Parañaque is served by the LRT (via Baclaran station, which is located in Pasay City) and the PNR (via Bicutan
The City of Pasay (Lungsod ng Pasay) is one of the 16 cities that make up Metro
Manila or the National Capital Region in thePhilippines. It is considered to be the
third smallest subdivision in the region with a total land area of 18.50 square
kilometres. Pasay City is bounded by other neighboring cities in the metropolis
such as Manila, the country’s capital city, to the north, Taguig City to the
east, Paranaque City to the south and the city of Makati to the northeast.
There are several folk tales explaining where Pasay City got its name. One story
was about two forbidden lovers; there was also a story that the city name originated from a plant which was
abundant in the town’s area way back. Another story was that the name Pasay actually came from an ethnic
group in Malaysia called Pasai. Although local stories abound about the origin of Pasay's name, most people
believe that it came from Dayang-dayang Pasay, a princess from the Kingdom of Namayan, a cluster
of barangays. Princess Dayang-dayang inherited the land of Pasay and other areas including Baclaran from
the Kingdom. From the 12th until the 14th centuries, merchants from different lands used the Kingdom of
Namayan as a center of trade.
Like all the cities in the country, Pasay City is lead by a mayor, vice mayor, lower house representatives in
each congressional district and other local officials. In the 2010 national and local elections, Antonino Calixto
won as the mayor-elect of Pasay City with a margin of 1.44% over his close contender Consuelo Dy. Marlon
Pesebre garnered the highest number of votes for the vice-mayoral position. The lower house representative
seat went to Imelda Calixto-Rubiano, Calixto's sister. Pasay is made up of 200 barangays which are divided
into seven districts.
According to the 2007 Census research, Pasay City has a population of 403,064, compared to 354,908
residents in the year 2000. Based on these figures, the city has an annual population growth rate of 1.77%.
Pasay is famous for its commercial and urban establishments. It is also the location for art-enthusiasts because
it is where the Cultural Center of the Philippines (CCP) is located. There are also other art establishments and
museums in the city such as the Tanghalang Francisco Balagtas or the Folk Arts Theater, Metropolitan
Museum, Manila Film Center, Philippine International Convention Center(PICC), Design Center of the
Philippines, Aliw Theater and other entertaining sites such as amusement parks like the Star City and the
Boom na Boom where children and the young at hearts can have fun. Terminals two and three and the
deomestic terminal of the country’s premier airport, the Ninoy Aquino International Airport (NAIA), are also
situated in Pasay. There are also many government offices in Pasay. The Department of Foreign Affairs,
the Overseas Workers Welfare Administration, the Government Service Insurance System, the Philippine
National Bank headquarters and the Senate of the Philippines are all situated in the city.
The City of Pasig (Lungsod ng Pasig) is one of the 17 cities and municipalities
that make up Metro Manila or the National Capital Region in the Philippines. The
city is located along the eastern border of Metro Manila, and is bordered to the west by Quezon
City andMandaluyong City, to the north by Marikina City; to the south by Makati City, Pateros and Taguig City;
and to the east by the municipality of Cainta in the province of Rizal. Pasig City used to be the capital of Rizal
before Metro Manila was formed. Like most of the cities in the metropolis, Pasig is a residential/industrial area.
It has become increasingly commercialized and urbanized over the years. Pasig boasts of the Ortigas Center,
one of the country’s famous business districts, high-rise buildings, condominiums and schools, including one of
the most expensive universities in the country, the University of Asia and the Pacific. The national headquarters
of the Integrated Bar of the Philippines, the Manila Electric Company or Meralco Compound and the Philippine
Stock Exchange headquarters are also located in Pasig. Thanks to these business centers, Barangay San
Antonio has the largest income for any local government unit in the country. The city has a population of
617,301 according to the 2007 Census. This shows an increase of 112,243 since the year 2000. The provincial
capitol of Rizal is still located in Pasig City, located along Shaw Boulevard, Barangay Kapitolyo. Rizal High
School, one of the biggest high schools in the world in terms of student population, is located in Pasig.
The Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Pasig, a state university located in Kapasigan, Pasig City, offers degree
courses for poor but bright and deserving pasigueños.
Before the Spanish colonization, Pasig was a kingdom around the river Bitukang Manok (part of Pasig River).
Pasig was founded in July 1573 with the inauguration of the mission-parish of Pasig. It received its first bell with
the Our Lady of the Visitation as the city's patron saint. But in 1587, the Our Lady of Immaculate Conception
replaced the Our Lady of the Visitation as patron saint.
On 11 June 1901 the province of Rizal was created through Act No. 137 of the Philippine Commission. Pasig
was incorporated into Rizal, and was designated as the capital of the new province.
In 1975, Pasig was carved out of Rizal province and became part of Metro Manila when the Metro Manila
Commission (pre-cursor of Metro Manila Authority and later Metropolitan Manila Development Authority) was
created by President Marcos through Presidential Decree 824.
In July 1994, Pasig was converted into a highly urbanized city through Republic Act 7829. It was signed into
law in December 1994 by President Fidel Ramos, and was ratified through a plebiscite on 21 January 1995.
The woman (originally a mermaid) represents the Mutya ng Pasig, the idealism of perfection in all aspects
that epitomizes loyalty, goodwill and splendor of the City of Pasig.
The body of water on both sides of the woman is a suggestion of the Pasig River connecting two bodies of
water, Laguna de Bay and Manila Bay. The name “Pasig” is derived from Hindu word meaning a body of
water connecting two other bodies of water.
On the lower left portion is the Immaculate Conception Cathedral, one of the oldest edifices in the city. It is
also the seat of theRoman Catholic Diocese of Pasig.
On the lower right portion, it manifests prosperity and progress of the city.
Pasig City is politically subdivided into 30 barangays.
San Nicolas (Pob.)
Quezon City has been dubbed as the “City of New Horizons” due to its rich San
Diego Hills culture and lifestyle. It lies just northeast of Manila. It is named
after Manuel Luis Quezon, first president of the Commonwealth of the Philippines.
As a whole, Quezon City has one of the lowest poverty levels in the Philippines. It
is also known as country’s premier city due to its progress and performance.
There are many historical landmarks in Quezon City, among which may be
counted the San Pedro Bautista Church in San Francisco del Monte, the second
oldest church in the country; the site of the Unang Sigaw (first cry) in
the Balintawak area to mark the start of the Philippine revolution against Spain; the monument to Gen. Lawton,
the pot where the U.S. general was killed by Katipuneros in battle after the Pact of Biak-na-Bato failed in its
objective to stop the hostilities even continued after the Treaty of Paris which ended the Spanish-American war
and wherein the Philippines revolutionary forces continued the war of independence against America.
There are close to 60,000 business establishments in Quezon City. It is also the center of the entertainment
industry. The news programs and variety shows seen on every television screen all over the country are
beamed from ABS-CBN, GMA Network, NBN and other TV and radio stations based in the city.
Quezon City was conceived by the late President Manuel Luis Quezon. He envisioned a place where the
common man will find his place with dignity. In 1938, President Quezon purchased 1,529 hectares from the
vast Diliman Estate of the Tuason Family. The following year, the National Assembly enacted
the Commonwealth Act otherwise known as Charter of Quezon City. On October 12, 1939, President Quezon
signed the Bill into law, thus the city was born. Progress in Quezon City continued until the outbreak of World
War II in 1941. Seven years later, by virtue of Republic Act. No. 333 signed on July 17, 1948, Quezon City
officially became the capital of the Philippines and the permanent seat of the national government. Its
inauguration as capital city was marked by the laying of a cornerstone for a capitol building at Constitution Hills
on October 22, 1949. Subsequently, construction of government buildings began. On June 16, 1950, the City
Charter was revised by Republic Act. No. 537 which extended its boundaries to its present area of 15,359
hectares. It officially replaced Manila as capital in 1948; the capital returned to Manila by virtue of Presidential
Decree No. 940 on June 24, 1976.
Quezon City is the biggest of the six cities in the Metro Manila Area, lying immediately northeast of Manila and
straddling the northern extension of the Guadalupe plateau. This strategic location provides stable ground
foundation, adequate surface drainage, deep water table, and ample ground water supply. It is an area of
moderate slopes and the most common soil type is the hard loam, more popularly known as the adobe which
was heavily used in construction in the past. In terms of land area, Quezon City is the second biggest in the
country, being next in size to Davao City and is five times bigger than Manila.
Quezon City is 10 kms. north of Manila. To the city's east are San Mateo, Rizal and Marikina City; to the west
are San Juan and the city Manila; to the north are Caloocan City and San Jose del Monte, Bulacan, and to the
south are the cities of Pasig and Mandaluyong. Quezon City is five (5) times bigger than Manila; in area, it is
the second to the country's biggest city - Davao City. Rolling hills spread over a large portion of Quezon City.
Its lowest altitude is 25 feet above sea level, while its highest is 55 feet.
Quezon City has a land area of 16,112.58 hectares, almost one fourth of the Region and the biggest among the
cities and municipalities. Situated on the Guadalupe Plateau, the city's topography is largely rolling with
alternating ridges and lowlands. The southern region of the City has a low grade terrain while the northern half
is undulating that culminates at the Novaliches Reservoir. Served by a network of rivers and creeks, the city is
efficiently drained except for some portions which experiences flash floods due to the deterioration of
waterways. Rolling hills spread over a large portion of Quezon City. Its lowest altitude is 25 feet above sea
level, while its highest is 55 feet.
The City shares an aquafier system with Metro Manila which, due to overdrawing which has been subjected to
saltwater intrusion. Another feature which it shares with the rest of the region is the valley (Marikina) Fault
System traversing the city's eastern portion.
Quezon City is divided into four congressional districts composed about 142 barangays. Each district is
represented by six City Councilors, four representatives/congressmen, one from each district, are elected as
members of the National Legislature. The number of barangays per district is: District I, 37; District II, 28;
District III, 37; and District IV, 38. Although District II hast the least number of barangays, it is the biggest in
land area, including the Novaliches Reservoir.
District 1 - comprises 37 barangays with a population of 373,712 or 17% of the total population of Quezon
City of 2.17 million as of May 1, 2002. These barangays are located mostly in the northern part of Quezon
District 2 - with the least number of barangays (30) has the bulk of the population of Quezon City. Fifty
four percent (54%) or 1,163,537 people resides in the said district. Barangay Commonwealth has 120,569
persons counted during the 2000 census of population. Over half of the population is in Congressional
District 3 - Only 12% of the population are residing in this district comprising of thirty seven (37)
barangays. This is the least populated district where most of the large establishments (Cubao Area) and
posh villages/subdivisions such as White Plains, Corinthian Gardens etc... can be found. Also, the smallest
barangay in terms of population can be found in this district - Brgy. Mangga with a population count of 494
District 4 - has the most number of barangays (38). But have an almost identical share with District I Both
having a share of the population of Quezon City at 17% or a population of 365,410 person. This district
has the lowest household size of 4.29 compared to the other 3 districts.
Diliman is where many government offices are located including Quezon City Hall. At Diliman's center lies the
Quezon Memorial where the late President Manuel L. Quezon is interred. The monument, encased in marble,
is the highest structure in that part of the city. Running around the monument is the two-kilometer Quezon
Memorial Circle, also known as the Elliptical Road (R-7/C-5). The circle links Commonwealth (R-7/C-5),
Visayas, Kalayaan, East, North(C-5), and Quezon Avenues (R-7). The last three avenues provide access
to Epifanio de los Santos Avenue (EDSA) (C-4), the main highway in Metro Manila. Bureau of Internal
Revenue (BIR), Social Security System (SSS), the National Power Corporation, the Philippine Institute of
Volcanology and Seismology (Philvolcs), the National Computer Center (NCC), the Office of the Ombudsman,
the Department of Agriculture, Department and Agrarian Reform(DAR), and the Department of Environment
and Natural Resources (DENR) are some of the government agencies that are located in Diliman. University of
the Philippines as well as the 15-hectare campus of Far Eastern University's Institute of Technology (now FEU-
FERN College) is located at the central portion of Diliman.
Hospitals and other health centers are also housed in Diliman. Along East Avenue stands the Philippine Heart
Center, the East Avenue Medical Center (EAMC), the [[National Kidney and Transplant Institute]], and
the Philippine Mental Health Association. Along North Avenue is the Veterans Memorial Medical
Center (VMMC) and the Philippine Health Association. ThePhilippine Children's Medical Center and Lung
Center of the Philippines is located along Quezon Avenue.
Commonwealth and Balara
Commonwealth Avenue was formerly called Don Mariano Marcos Avenue. It is home to many subdivisions
such as Don Jose Heights, Ideal Subdivision, Jordan Park Homes and Doña Carmen Subdivision.
Commonwealth also plays host to one of the largest squatters' communities in the country, specifically in the
areas of Batasan Hills (formerly called Constitution Hills). Batasang Pambansa is located at the heart of
It got its name from the Mother of the Revolution, Melchora Aquino or Tandang Sora. The area is primarily
residential with Projects 6 and 8 located here, as are other subdivisions, like Town & Country Gardenville, San
Pedro Subdivisions (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8), NaPoCor Village, NIA Village, Reymar Subdivision, Villa Corrina, and
many more. A large portion of Tandang Sora district is Barangay Bahay Toro, where a historic site of
the Philippine Revolution known as Pugad Lawin is located. The main campus of AMA Computer University is
located in the western portion of Project 8.
Loyola Heights is Marikina City's gateway to Quezon City. The main campus of Ateneo de Manila
Univesity and Miriam College are located in Loyola Heights. Loyola Heights is an upper middle-class and rich
residential area that caters to students of the Ateneo de Manila, University of the Philippines, and Miriam
College. Near these areas, and right beside La Vista, are some squatters' settlements, making the Loyola
Heights area a place of mixed socio-economic classes.
Cubao is an important commercial area. At its heart is the Araneta Center, along EDSA and Aurora Boulevard.
It houses a number of shopping malls like Ali Mall, Farmers Plaza, and the modern Gateway Mall. Plaza Fair,
Rustan's, Shopwise Supercenter, and Makro can also be found here. At the center is Araneta Coliseum, often
called the Big Dome.
Libis is one of the newly developed commercial areas in Quezon City. The Eastwood City Business Center is
situated here. It consists of several office and residential skyscrapers, including many local IT and consumer
electronic firms. Numerous bars and restaurants, open-air restaurants and coffee shops.
Timog and Tomas Morato avenue is a popular entertainment area. Located along these two avenues are many
fine-dining restaurants and bars. Several of the streets in the surrounding area were named in honor of the 20
Boy Scouts who died in a plane crash en route to joining the 11th World Scout Jamboree. Because of this,
Timog area is also often called Scout Area.
Novaliches is primarily residential. The La Mesa Dam Watershed occupies the eastern portion. Malls like SM
City Fairview, Robinsons Place Novaliches, Fairview Center Mall and colleges like FEU (Far Eastern
University) -NRMF, Our Lady of Fatima University (OLFU), AMA Computer College Fairview Campus, Metro
Manila College (MMC), National College of Business and Arts (NCBA), La Consolacion College-Deparo(LCCD)
and Montessori College are located here.
Sta. Mesa Heights
Sta. Mesa Heights is said to be where many middle class and upper middle class families reside. Angelicum
College, St. Theresa's College, Quezon City and Lourdes School of Quezon City are three prestigious private
Catholic schools to be found here.
San Francisco Del Monte
San Francisco Del Monte (SFDM) was founded on February 17, 1590. It was an independent town during the
Spanish era that had an area of 250 acres of land filled with wildlife and trees. It was later absorbed by Quezon
City when it was created. SFDM is a heavily populated district. The two main intersections of this area are
Roosevelt Avenue and Del Monte Avenue.
The Galas-Santol District of Quezon City is located in its southwest border with the City of Manila. West of the
avenue lies the residential corner of many of the poorest in the city. Shanties predominate the area, stretching
from Araneta Avenue to Galas, while east of the avenue features the palatial mansions of some of the richest.
SM City Sta. Mesa lies at the end of the avenue.
The Project areas
The Project areas include Project 1 (presently Roxas), Project 2 (Quirino-A), Project 3 (Quirino-B), Project 4,
Project 5 (presently Kamias), Project 6, Project 7, and Project 8. These areas are among the first residential
subdivisions in the city developed by former Philippine Presidents Quezon, Quirino and Marcos.
Business in the city is dominated by small and medium-scale establishments engaged mostly in the
distribution of finished products and the provision of basic personal services. With a sizeable portion of the
city's land area being developed for commercial and industrial ventures, complemented by the availability
of a large manpower pool, Quezon City has great potential to support an increase in the number of big
businesses in the city.
The following are some of the well-known universities, private and public schools are located in Quezon
City: AMA Computer University, Colegio de San Lorenzo, Dr. Carlos S. Lanting College, New Era
University, St. Paul College, Quezon City, Saint Pedro Poveda College,St. Mary's College, Quezon
City, Siena College, Quezon City, STI College, Technological Institute of the Philippines (Quezon