Nasal and pulmonary dds
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Transcripts - Nasal and pulmonary dds
NASAL AND PULMONARY
DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM
Presented By: Guided By:
Ansari Md Hares Dr.Swati C.Jagdale
M.Pharm(2nd Sem) M.Pharm Ph.D
Quality Assurance Techniques H.O.D (Dept.Of P’ceutics)
MAEER’S MIP Pune
MAEER’S Maharashtra Institute Of Pharmacy Pune,38
NASAL DRUG DELIVERY
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES
ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY OF NASAL CAVITY
MECHANISM OF DRUG ABSORPTION
NASAL DRUG DELIVERY
In ancient times the Indian Ayurvedic system of medicines used nasal
route for administration of drug and the process is called as “Nasya”
Intranasal drug delivery is now recognized to be a useful and reliable
alternative to oral and parenteral routes. Undoubtedly, the intranasal
administration of medicines for the symptomatic relief and prevention
or treatment of topical nasal conditions has been widely used for a
long period of time.
However, recently, the nasal mucosa has seriously emerged as a
therapeutically viable route for the systemic drug delivery.
In general, among the primary targets for intranasal administration are
pharmacologically active compounds with poor stability in
gastrointestinal fluids, poor intestinal absorption and/or extensive
hepatic first-pass elimination, such as peptides,proteins and polar
drugs. The nasal delivery seems to be a favourable way to circumvent
the obstacles for blood-brain barrier (BBB) allowing the direct drug
delivery in the biophase of central nervous system (CNS)-active
compounds. It has also been considered to the administration of
Bioavailability of larger drug molecules can be improved by means of
Convenient for long term therapy, compared to parenteral medication.
Drugs possessing poor stability G.I.T fluids given by nasal route.
Hepatic first pass metabolism avoided.
Rapid drug absorption and quick onset of action.
BA for smaller drug molecules is good.
Easy and convenient.
Easily administered to unconscious patients.
• Pathologic conditions such as cold or allergies may alter significantly
the nasal bioavailabilty.
• The histological toxicity of absorption enhancers used in nasal drug
delivery system is not yet clearly established.
• Relatively inconvenient to patients when compared to oral delivery
systems since there is a possibility of nasal irritation.
• Nasal cavity provides smaller absorption surface area when compared
ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY OF NASAL
• The nasal cavity consists three main regions:
1) Nasal vestibule
2) Respiratory region
major drug absorption.
15-20 % of the respiratory cells covered by layer of long
cilia size 2-4 μm.
3) Olfactory region
small area in the roof of the nasal cavity of about 10 cm2
drug is exposed to neurons thus facilitate it across the cerebro-spinal
• Normal pH of the nasal secretions in adult 5.5-6.5.
• Infants and young children 5.0- 6.7.
• Nasal cavity is covered with a mucous membrane.Mucus secretion is
composed of 95%- water,2%-mucin,1%-salts,1%-of other proteins
such as albumin,lysozyme and lactoferrin and 1%-lipids.
MECHANISM OF DRUG ABSORPTION
• Paracellular (intercellular)
Slow and passive
absorption of peptides and
proteins associated with
intercellular spaces and
• Transcellular : Transport
of lipophilic drugs passive
• Transcytotic: Particle is
taken into a vesicle and
transferred to the cell.
Interaction with Mucus
Hydration and swell of polymer
Hydrophilic Macromolecular drug
Cilliary clearance Enzymatic Metabolism
Fig:2 Scheme of Mucoadhesive Nasal Drug Delivery
THEORIES OF MUCOADHESION
Theory Mechanism of bioadhesion Comments
Electronic theory Attractive electrostatic forces between
glycoprotein mucin network and the bioadhesive
Electron transfer occurs between the two forming
a double layer of electric charge at the interface
Adsorption theory Surface forces resulting in chemical bonding Strong primary forces: covalent bonds
Weak secondary forces: ionic bonds, hydrogen
bonds and van der Waal’s forces
Wetting theory Ability of bioadhesive polymers to spread and
develop intimate contact with the mucus
Spreading coefficients of polymers must be
positive Contact angle between polymer and cells
must be near to zero
Diffusion theory Physical entanglement of mucin strands and the
flexible polymer chains Interpenetration of
mucin strands into the porous structure of the
For maximum diffusion and best bioadhesive
strength: solubility parameters (δ) of the
bioadhesive polymer and the mucus
glycoproteins must be similar
Fracture theory Analyses the maximum tensile stress developed
during detachment of the BDDS from the
Does not require physical entanglement of
bioadhesive polymer chains and mucin strands,
hence appropriate to study the bioadhesion of
hard polymers, which lack flexible chains
• High-viscosity thickened solutions or suspensions
• reduction of post-nasal drip due to high viscosity
• reduction of taste impact due to reduced swallowing
• reduction of anterior leakage of the formulation
• Reduction of irritation by using emollient excipients.
Nasal drops are one of the most simple and convenient systems
developed for nasal delivery. The main disadvantage of this system
is the lack of the dose precision and therefore nasal drops may not
be suitable for prescription products. It has been reported that nasal
drops deposit human serum albumin in the nostrils more efficiently
than nasal sprays.
• Both solution and suspension formulations can be formulated into
• Due to the availability of metered dose pumps and actuators, a nasal
spray can deliver an exact dose from 25 to 200 μm.The particles size
and morphology (for suspensions)of the drug and viscosity of the
formulation determine the choice of pump and actuator assembly.
• This dosage form may be developed if solution and suspension dosage
forms cannot be developed e.g., due to lack of drug stability.
• The advantages to the nasal powder dosage form are the absence of
preservative and superior stability of the formulation. However, the
suitability of the powder formulation is dependent on the solubility,
particles size, aerodynamic properties and nasal irritancy of the active
drug and /or excipients. Local application of drug is another advantage
of this system.
• Liposomal Nasal solutions can be formulated as drug alone or in
combination with pharmaceutically acceptable excipients.
• Administered to the respiratory tract as an aerosol or solution for a
nebulizer, or as a microfine powder for insufflation, alone or in
combination with an inert carrier such as lactose,the particles of the
formulation have diameters of less than 50 microns.
• Specialized systems becoming popular for designing nasal products,
as it provides prolonged contact with the nasal mucosa
• Microspheres (in the powder form) swell in contact with nasal
mucosa to form a gel and control the rate of clearance from the nasal
cavity.Thus increases the absorption and bioavailability by adhering
to the nasal mucosa and increase the nasal residence time of drug.
• The ideal microsphere particle size requirement for nasal delivery
should range from 10 to 50 μm as smaller particles.
STRATEGIES TO IMPROVE NASAL ABSORPTION
Type of compound Examples Mechanisms of action
Bile salts (and
Sodium deoxycholate, sodium
Disrupt membrane, open tight junctions,
enzyme inhibition, mucolytic activity
Surfactancts SLS, saponin, polyoxyethylene-9-lauryl
Chelating agents Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid(EDTA),
Open tight junction
Fatty acids Sodium caprylate, sodium laurate,
Carbopol, starch microspheres, chitosan Reduce nasal clearance, open tight
Liquids Chitosan, carbopol Reduce nasal clearance, open tight
The absorption of peptides like angiotensin II, bradykinin, vasopressin
and calcitonin are improved when prepared into enamine derivatives.
Chemical modification of salmon calcitonin to ecatonin (C-N bond
replaces the S-S bond) showed better bioavailability.
Particulate drug delivery
Microspheres, nanoparticles and liposomes
Nasal enzyme inhibitors
peptidases and proteases
tripsin, aprotinin, borovaline, amastatin, bestatin and boroleucin
For Nasal Gels
• Mucoadhesive testing
• A 1x1 cm piece of goat nasal mucosa was tied to a glass slide
using thread. Microparticles spread on the tissue specimen and
the prepared glass slide was hung on one of the groves of a USP
tablet disintegration test apparatus.The tissue specimen was
given regular up and down movements in the beaker of the
disintegration apparatus containing phosphate buffer pH 6.4.
• Time required for complete washing of microparticles was noted.
• In vitro drug diffusion study
• The drug diffusion from different formulation was determined using
treated cellophane membrane and Franz diffusion cell.
• Drug was placed on cellophane membrane in the donor compartment
contained phosphate buffer (pH 6.4).
• Samples were analyzed spectrophotometrically.
• In vitro drug release studies of the gels
• 1 ml of the gel was taken into a small test tube. The open end of the
test tube was closed with the nasal membrane of the pig by tying it
with a thread. Then this was placed in a beaker containing the media.
• Measurement of Gelation Temperature (T1) and Gel
Melting Temperature (T2):
• A 2ml aliquot of gel was taken in a test tube, immersed in a water bath.
• The temperature of water bath was increased slowly and left to
equilibrate for 5min at each new setting.
• The sample was then examined for gelation, the meniscus would no
longer moves upon tilting through 900. i.e GELATION temp T1.
• Further heating of gel causes liquefaction of gel and form viscous
liquid and it starts flowing, this temperature is noted as T2 GEL
MARKETED DRUGS Local Delivery
Drug Brand Main
Azelastine Astelin Benzalkonium
Beclometasone Beconase Microcrystalline
Levocabastine Livostin Benzalkonium
Drug Brand Main
Olapatadine Patanase Benzalkonium
Mupirocin Bactroban Paraffin and a
GlaxoSmithKline Eradication of
Drug Brand Main
Nicotine Nicotrol NS Disodium
Oxytocin Syntocinon Citric acid,
Novartis Labour induction;
Buserelin Suprefact Sodium
Sanofi-Aventis Treatment of
Drug Brand Main
Miacalcin Sodium chloride,
Novartis Treatment of
Sumatriptan Imigran Potassium
GlaxoSmithKline Treatment of
Estradiol Aerodiol Methylbetadex,
PATENTED DRUGS FOR NASAL DELIVERY
US3874380 May 28, 1974 1975 Dual nozzle
US4895559 Oct 11, 1988 Jan 23, 1990 Nasal pack
US6610271 Feb 21,2001 Dec15,2002 Intranasal
US4767416 Dec 1, 1986 Aug 30, 1988 Johnson &
Spray nozzle for
Cited Patent Filing date Issue date Original
US5064122 Aug 10, 1990 Nov 12, 1991 Toko Yakuhin
US5601077 Aug 7, 1991 Feb 11, 1997 Becton,
US8118780 Aug 23, 2004 Feb 21, 2012 Liebel-Flarsheim
for a medical
Currently,the majority of intranasal products on the market are targeted
toward local relief or the prevention of nasal symptoms. The trend
toward the development of intranasal products for systemic absorption
should rise considerably over the next several years. The development
of these products will be in a wide variety of therapeutic areas from
pain management to treatment for erectile dysfunction.
However, the primary focus of intranasal administration, correlated
with increasing molecular scientific knowledge and methods, will be
the development of peptides, proteins, recombinant products, and
vaccines. The nasal cavity provides an ideal administration site for
these agents because of its accessibility, avoidance of hepatic first-pass
metabolism, and large vascular supply.
Future technologies in the intranasal arena will be concentrated on
improved methods for safe, efficient delivery systems primarily for
molecular agents, but also for numerous therapeutic categories.
Delivery of non-peptide Pharmaceuticals
• Adrenal corticosteroids
• Sex hormones: 17ß-estradiol, progesterone, norethindrone, and
• Vitamins: vitamin B
• Cardiovascular drugs: hydralazine, Angiotensin II antagonist,
nitroglycerine, isosobide dinitrate, propanolol.
• CNS stimulants: cocaine, lidocaine
• Narcotics and antagonists: bupemorphine, naloxane
• Histamine and antihistamines: disodium cromoglycate, meclizine
• Antimigrane drugs: dierogotamine, ergotamine, tartarate
• Phenicillin, cephalosporins, gentamycin
• Antivirals: Phenyl-p-guanidine benzoate, enviroxime.
Delivery of peptide-based pharmaceuticals
• Peptides and proteins are hydrophilic polar molecules of
high molecular weight, poorly absorbed.
• Absorption enhancers like surfactants, glycosides, cyclodextrin
and glycols increase the bioavailability.
Examples are insulin, calcitonin, pituitary hormones etc.
Delivery of diagnostic drugs
• Phenolsulfonphthalein is used to diagnose kidney function.
Secretin for Pancreatic disorders of the diabetic patients.
Delivery of Vaccines through Nasal Routs
• Anthrax and influenza are treated by using the nasal vaccines
• prepared by using the recombinant Bacillus anthracis protective
• antigen (rPA) and chitosan respectively.
• Delivery of Drugs to Brain through Nasal Cavity
Conditions like Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease or pain
Considering the widespread interest in nasal drug delivery and the
potential benefits of intranasal administration, it is expected that novel
nasal products will continue to reach the market. They will include not
only drugs for acute and long term diseases, but also novel nasal
vaccines with better local or systemic protection against infections.
The development of drugs for directly target the brain in order to attain
a good therapeutic effect in CNS with reduced systemic side effects is
feasible. However, it was also stated that intranasal route presents
several limitations which must be overcome to develop a successful
nasal medicine Physiological conditions, physicochemical properties
of drugs and formulations are the most important factors determining
nasal drug absorption.
• The use of prodrugs, enzymatic inhibitors, absorption enhancers,
mucoadhesive drug delivery systems and new pharmaceutical
formulations are, nowadays, among the mostly applied strategies. Each
drug is one particular case and, thus, the relationship between the drug
characteristics, the strategies considered and the permeation rate is
PULMONARY DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM
ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS
THE RESPIRATORY TRACT
FORMULATIONS APPROACHES AND DEVICES
The respiratory tract is one of the oldest routes used for the
administration of drugs.Over the past decades inhalation therapy has
established itself as a valuable tool in the local therapy of pulmonary
diseases such as asthma or COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary
This type of drug application in the therapy of these diseases is a clear
form of targeted drug delivery.
Currently, over 25 drug substances are marketed as inhalation aerosol
products for local pulmonary effects and about the same number of
drugs are in different stages of clinical development.
The drug used for asthma and COPD eg.- β2-agonists such as
salbutamol (albuterol), Terbutalin formoterol, corticosteroids such as
budesonide, Flixotide or beclomethasone and mast-cell stabilizers such
as sodium cromoglycate or nedocromi,.
The latest and probably one of the most promising applications of
pulmonary drug administration is
1) Its use to achieve systemic absorption of the administered
2) Particularly for those drug substances that exhibit a poor
bioavailability when administered by the oral route, as
for example peptides or proteins, the respiratory tract
might be a convenient port of entry.
ADVANTAGES OF PULMONARY DRUG
• It is needle free pulmonary delivery.
• It requires low and fraction of oral dose.
• Pulmonary drug delivery having very negligible side effects since rest
• of body is not exposed to drug.
• Onset of action is very quick with pulmonary drug delivery.
• Degradation of drug by liver is avoided in pulmonary drug delivery.
Stability of drug in vivo.
Drug irritation and toxicity.
Immunogenicity of proteins
Drug retention and clearance.
THE RESPIRATORY TRACT
The human respiratory system is a complicated organ system of very
close structure–function relationships.
The system consisted of two regions:
The conducting airway
The respiratory region.
The airway is further divided into many folds: nasal cavity and the
associated sinuses, and the nasopharynx, oropharynx, larynx, trachea,
bronchi, and bronchioles.
The respiratory region consists of respiratory bronchioles, alveolar
ducts, and alveolar sacs
The human respiratory tract is a branching system of air channels with
approximately 23 bifurcations from the mouth to the alveoli.The major
task of the lungs is gas exchange, by adding oxygen to, and removing
carbon dioxide from the blood passing the pulmonary capillary bed.
Pulmonary delivered drugs are rapidly absorbed except large
macromolecules drugs, which may yield low bioavailability due to
enzymatic degradation and/or low mucosal permeability.
Pulmonary bioavailability of drugs could be improved by including
various permeation enhancers such as surfactants, fatty acids, and
saccharides, chelating agents and enzyme inhibitors such as protease
The most important issue is the protein stability in the formulation: the
dry powder formulation may need buffers to maintain the pH, and
surfactants such as Tween to reduce any chance of protein aggregation.
The stabilizers such as sucrose are also added in the formulation to
prevent denaturation during prolonged storage.
Pulmonary bioavailability largely depends on the physical properties
of the delivered protein and it is not the same for all peptide and
Insulin liposomes are one of the recent approaches in the controlled
release aerosol preparation. Intratracheal delivery of insulin liposomes
(dipalmitoylphosphatidyl choline:cholesterol ,7:2) have significantly
enhanced the desired hypoglycemic effect.
The coating of disodium fluorescein by hydrophobic lauric acid is also
an effective way to prolong the pulmonary residence time by
increasing the dissolution half time. In another method, pulmonary
absorption properties were modified for protein/peptide drug
(rhGCSF)in conjugation with polyethylene glycol (PEGylation) to
enhance the absorption ofthe protein drug by using intratracheal
instillation delivery in rat.
Aerosol preparations are stable dispersions or suspensions of solid
material and liquid droplets in a gaseous medium. The drugs, delivery
by aerosols is deposited in the airways by: gravitational sedimentation,
inertial impaction, and diffusion. Mostly larger drug particles are
deposited by first two mechanisms in the airways, while the smaller
particles get their way into the peripheral region of the lungs by
There are three commonly used clinical aerosols:
1. Jet or ultrasonic nebulizers,
2. Metered–dose Inhaler (MDI)
3. dry-powder inhaler (DPI)
The basic function of these three completely different devices is to
generate a drug-containing aerosol cloud that contains the highest
possible fraction of particles in the desired size range.
Nebulizers are widely used as aerosolize drug solutions or suspensions
for drug delivery to the respiratory tract and are particularly useful for
the treatment of hospitalized patients.
Delivered the drug in the form of mist.
There are two basic types:
1) Air jet
2) Ultrasonic nebulizer
Jet nebulizers Ultrasonic nebulizers
Dry powder inhalers(DPI)
DPIs are bolus drug delivery devices that contain solid drug in a dry
powder mix (DPI) that is fluidized when the patient inhales.
DPIs are typically formulated as one-phase, solid particle blends.The
drug with particle sizes of less than 5μm is used
Dry powder formulations either contain the active drug alone or have a
carrier powder (e.g. lactose) mixed with the drug to increase flow
properties of drug.
DPIs are a widely accepted inhaled delivery dosage form, particularly
in Europe, where they are currently used by approximately 40% of
Less need for patient co-ordination.
Less formulation problems.
Dry powders are at a lower energy state, which reduces the rate of
Dependency on patient’s inspiratory flow rate and profile.
Device resistance and other design issues.
Greater potential problems in dose uniformity.
More expensive than pressurized metered dose inhalers.
Not available worldwide
Single dose powder inhalers are devices in which a powder containing
capsule is placed in a holder. The capsule is opened within the device
and the powder is inhaled.
This device is truly a metered-dose powder delivery system. The drug
is contained within a storage reservoir and can be dispensed into the
dosing chamber by a simple back and forth twisting action on the base
of the unit.
48 Dry Powder inhalers 22-Apr-12
Metered Dose Inhalers (MDI)
Used for treatment of respiratory diseases such as asthma and COPD.
They can be given in the form of suspension or solution.
Particle size of less than 5 microns.
Used to minimize the number of administrations errors.
It can be deliver measure amount of medicament
Advantages of MDI
It delivers specified amount of dose.
Small size and convenience.
Usually inexpensive as compare to dry powder inhalers and nebulizers.
Quick to use.
Multi dose capability more than 100 doses available.
Disadvantages of MDI
Difficult to deliver high doses.
There is no information about the number of doses left in the MDI.
Accurate co-ordination between actuation of a dose and inhalation is
MARKETED DRUGS Dry Powder Inhaler
Active Ingredient Brand Manufacturer Country
Terbutaline 0.25mg Bricanyl AstraZeneca UK
Becloforte Cipla Limited India
Fluticasone propionate Flixotide GlaxoSmith
Salbutamol Salbutamol Dry
Cipla Limited India
Xinafoate Seretide Evohaler GlaxoSmithKline UK
Metered Dose Inhalers (MDI)
Active Ingredient Brand Manufacturer Country
Asthalin Cipla India
albuterol Ventolin GlaxoSmithKline India
levalbuterol HCl Xopenex 3M Pharnaceuticals U.S.A.
Fluticasone50 μg Flixotide GlaxoSmithKline New Zealand
Filing date Issue date Original
US2470296 Apr 30, 1948 May 17, 1949 INHALATOR
US2533065 Mar 8, 1947 Dec 5, 1950
US4009280 Jun 9, 1975 Feb 22, 1977 Fisons Limited Powder
Mar 28, 1996 Aug 18, 1998 Glaxo Group
US6136295 Dec 15, 1998 Oct 24, 2000 MIT Aerodynamically
light particles for
Cited Patent Filing date Issue date Original
US6254854 May 11, 2000 Jul 3, 2001 The Penn
for deep lung
US6921528 Oct 8, 2003 Jul 26, 2005 Advanced
delivery of a large
US7842310 Nov 19, 2002 Nov 30, 2010
US7954491 Jun 14, 2004 Jun 7, 2011 Civitas
The Aerogen Pulmonary Delivery Technology
AeroNeb portable nebulizer
• AeroGen specializes in the development, manufacture, and
commercialization of therapeutic pulmonary products for local and
The technology being developed at AeroGen consists of a proprietary
aerosol generator (AG) that atomizes liquids to a predetermined
AeroGentechnologies produce a low-velocity, highly respirable aerosol
that improves lung deposition of respiratory drugs and
These delivery platforms accommodate drugs and biopharmaceuticals
formulated as solutions, suspensions, colloids, or liposomes.
The AERx Pulmonary Drug Delivery System
The AERx dosage form.
The AERx device (with dosage forms).
59 AERx nozzle array.
The AERx aerosol drug delivery system was developed to efficiently
deliver topical and systemically active compounds to the lung in a way
that is independent of such factors as user technique or ambient
A single-use,disposable dosage form ensures sterility and robust
aerosol generation. This dosage form is placed into an electronically
controlled mechanical device for delivery.
After the formulation is dispensed into the blister, a multilayer
laminate is heat-sealed to the top of the blister. This laminate, in
addition to providing the same storage and stability functions as the
blister layer, also contains a single-use disposable nozzle array.
The Spiros Inhaler Technology
The inhaler has an impeller that is actuated,when the patient inhales, to
disperse and deliver the powder aerosol for inhalation.The core
technology was initially developed to overcome the patient
coordination required for metered-dose inhalers and the inspiratory
effort required for first-generation dry powder inhalers in treating
All motorized Spiros powder inhaler platforms use the same core
technology to achieve powder dispersion that is relatively independent
of inspiratory flow rate over a broad range. The high-speed rotating
impeller provides mechanical energy to disperse the powder.
The Spiros DPI blister disk powder storage system is designed for
potentially moisture-sensitive substances (e.g., some proteins,
peptides, and live vaccines). The blister disk powder storage system
contains 16 unit doses.
A) Blisterdisk powder storage system.
B) The interior of a well in a
blisterdisk. Aerosol generator “core” technology
The DirectHaler™ Pulmonary device platform
• DirectHaler™ Pulmonary is an innovative and new device for
dry powder Each pre-metered, pre-filled pulmonary dose has its own
DirectHaler™ Pulmonary device.
• The device is hygienically disposable and is made of only 0,6 grammes
of Polypropylene. DirectHaler™ Pulmonary offers effective, accurate
and repeatable dosing in an intuitively easy-to-use device format.
• The powder dose is sealed inside the cap
with a laminate foil strip,which is easily
torn off for dose-loading into the
PowderWhirl chamber, before removing
the cap and delivering the dose.
Deep lung delivery
High drug payloads
New types of combination dosing
Dr Reddy's launches 'Dose Counter Inhalers' in India Friday, April 16, 2010
Dr Reddy's Laboratories (DRL) has launched an innovation in the
metered dose inhaler (MDI) space with launch of 'Dose Counter
Inhalers (DCI) for the first time in India. This the first MDI in India
that gives patients an advance indication of when the inhaler is going
to be empty. DCI is a new drug delivery device with a single device
having 120 metered doses. There is a window in the inhaler that
changes color from green to red. Green indicates the inhaler is full and
red indicates the inhaler is empty. Half green and half red in the
window indicate it's time to change the inhaler.
The lung has served as a route of drug administration for thousands of
years. Now a day’s pulmonary drug delivery remains the preferred
route for administration of various drugs. Pulmonary drug delivery is
an important research area which impacts the treatment of illnesses
including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and various
diseases. Inhalation gives the most direct access to drug target. In the
treatment of obstructive respiratory diseases, pulmonary delivery can
minimize systemic side effects, provide rapid response and minimize
the required dose since the drug is delivered directly to the conducting
zone of the lungs .
It is a needle free several techniques have been developed in the recent
past, to improve the Quality of pulmonary drug delivery system
without affecting their integrity. Because of advancement in
applications of pulmonary drug delivery it is useful for multiple
diseases. So pulmonary drug delivery is best route of administration.
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