Politics and society
Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Transcripts - Politics and society
-Political system is the
institution that meets the
society’s needs for protection
from external enemies,
resolution of group
differences, and the definition
and internal order, pursuit of
-Political system of a country
should be design to give people a
strong voice in determining what
their government should do.
Voting for political leaders is an
important way to express their
will. Young people have the
greatest stake in political
-The central concern of
political institution on policy
is power. The ability to
control other people’s
behavior and carry out
one’s will despite
Is power exercised by
leaders that is generally
approved or accepted as
appropriate by members
of a group or a society.
• Is a power based on the threat or
use of force, and is therefore
considered illegitimate by the
people who are forced to act
against their will.
• Illegitimate use of power such as
obstruction of justice or demanding
bribe from someone seeking
personal favors is regarded as
• Power can be used illegitimately
by people who are not officials, for
example, gangsters extort
“protection money” from store
owners, and robbers, steal from
• When most citizens believe that a
leader’s authority is legitimate, the
exercise of power will be
• group or groups of people,
permanently occupying a definite
• State is composed of numerous
societies united by a common
sense of right and mutual
participation of its members.
(Cicero, an eminent Roman orator
• State as a union of families and
villages having for its end a
perfect and self-sufficing life.
• “a relatively large group of people
inhabiting a more or less definite
area of land, possessing
sovereignty, and living under
government that is generally
obeyed at home and recognized
• State is the dominant political
institution in modern societies.
• State is the sole source of
legitimate physical force. (Weber,
• It is the only institution that can
impose taxes, declare war and
imprison the violators.
VARIETY OF FUNCTIONS OF ANVARIETY OF FUNCTIONS OF AN
• the enactment of law
• the protection of personal
safety and public order
• the protection of violated
rights (Administration of
• the protection of violated rights
(Administration of Justice)
• the cultivation of hygienic,
educational, social welfare, and
other cultural interest (Various
branches of Administration)
• the armed protection against
outside attack (military
FOUR ELEMENTS OF STATEFOUR ELEMENTS OF STATE
• Exists in all human groups and
• Organization through which the state
expresses and enforces its will.
• Exists for the benefit of the governed.
It is important for the protection of the
inhabitants, the administration of
justice and the promotion of the
physical, economic, social and
cultural well-being of the people.
• Preservation of the state from internal
and external danger is one of the
primary functions of the government.
• Needless to say, without an
organized structure form of
government, a feeling of fear and
insecurity, and political anxiety will
prevail and therefore, progress and
development will not be realized.
THREE MAJOR FORMS OFTHREE MAJOR FORMS OF
• Ultimate power is held by a single
• An autocrat may gain position
through heredity (an absolute
monarch) or by the rule of force
(dictator). Among the most
recognizable autocratic ruler in
the world today is Mummar
• Autocrats rely on their ability to
control the military and police
systems of their countries and to
maintain the unquestioning loyalty of
large number of their subjects.
• Criticism of the government and the
autocrat is usually prohibited.
• The government censors the media
and sometimes uses terror to strife
• Form of government involving
state control and regulation of
major institution in the society.
• Form of government involving
state control and regulation of
major institution in the society.
• State is represented by a small
ruling clique of physical force and
terror to maintain social order.
• Exerts over a nation and makes
little distinction between public
and private concern.
• Seeks to control family life as well
as economic and political
[Friedrich and Brzenzinski
• A single political power.
Totalitarian government led by a
dictator or by ruling clique. The
one political party is the only legal
party in the state.
• Control of the Economy.
Totalitarian states exercise control
over all portion of the economy.
The state may set goals for
economic production, established
prices and supplies for goods and
dissolve private ownership of
either industry or farm.
• Control of Media. Totalitarian
states control television, radio,
newspaper, magazines. They
deny a public forum to dissenting
opinions so that no party position
is communicated to the people.
• Control of Weapons. Totalitarian
states monopolize the use of
weapon denying the individual
right to own arms.
• Ideology. Totalitarian states use
an elaborate ideology to explain
every aspect of social life. Social;
goals and values are described in
– simple terms and distortions are
often made about the state
• Terror. Totalitarian states rely on
terror to maintain social control,
secret police, torture and
punishment without trial are
(Nazi Germany is a major
example of totalitarian rule.)
• Derived from the Greek roots
demos, which means people and
kratia, which means rule.
Democracy then is rule by people.
• Form of government in which there
are periodic opportunities for the
people being governed to retain or
replace governing officials
• A country is democratic when a
large part of the population is able
to “influence major decisions by
choosing among contenders” for
• Periodic Elections Position
representative, governors, mayors
and other elected officials.
THE PHILIPPINE POLITICALTHE PHILIPPINE POLITICAL
• Political behavior is the
participation of individuals in
politics why and how they
vote, what political opinions
they hold, why they belong to
political parties and support
Political Behavior of FilipinosPolitical Behavior of Filipinos
• There is evidence that people do
not expose themselves to both
sides of the propaganda. If one
belongs to LAKAS ( a party) he
is more likely listen to LKAS
speeches read LAKAS literature
and associate with friends and
• Economic interest is a strong
determinant of party
identification. Other factors such
as nationalism, religion and
morality play a minor role. A
network of kinship and “utang na
loob” relationship affects the
• More men that women vote
because more women believe
that politics is a man’s affair.
Many older people than younger
participate in politics.
• Voting for the same party,
without examining the issues
involved and the capacity of the
candidates seem to be the
• Educational and occupational
factors affect voting behavior.
Candidates identify themselves
with masses during campaigns.
“Erap para sa Mahirap”.
• Upper and middle classes
exhibit more rational political
involvement than lower class.
• The family exerts strong
influence on the voting behavior
of the individual. Persons vote
for the same party and
candidates as their parents or
Since Philippine politics is
democratic in nature, the powers
exercised by the officials come
from the people and the officials
are responsible to the people.
Elected officials are expected to
exercise their power of their
respective offices to serve people
The existence of Nepotism and the
practice of Graft and Corruption
became the background of
Filipino because of strong
influence of the family.
Kinship ties and loyalties are
important in exerting pressures on
government officials to consider
family or private interest above
• Most government legislator
comes from the elite or upper
class and growing middle class
too. There is a tendency towards
marriages between families with
economic power and with political
influence resulting in the
perpetuation of political dynasties.
Elected leaders usually serve that
interest group which has enough
power in the community.
Parties or candidates usually
acquire campaign funds, editorial
support, the assumption that is
elected; they would serve the
wishes and objectives of those
who have extended their
THE PROBLEM OF CORRUPTION INTHE PROBLEM OF CORRUPTION IN
THE PHILIPPINESTHE PHILIPPINES
• Corruption diverts money from the
poor and acts as the major barrier to
economic development in poor
• It has been estimated that corruption
causes a yearly loss of P2 billion
funds: scholarships, hospitals,
irrigation systems, roads and
WHAT IS CORRUPTION?WHAT IS CORRUPTION?
• The common idea is that a
government official or
employees is “corrupted” when
he or she accepts “grease
money” or a gift from a private
person in consideration for a
decision or actions that would
promote the interest of the
THREE ACTIVITIES OFTHREE ACTIVITIES OF
• Bribery: The giving of money or
gift to promote the interest of the
• Extortion: When the official or
employee demands a bribe, gift or
favor to carry out public duty.
• Nepotism: The
appointment of unqualified
relatives, friends and
associates to government
positions regardless of the
effect of their appointment
on the public welfare.
STUDIES GIVE THESTUDIES GIVE THE
OTHER CAUSES OFOTHER CAUSES OF
• The weakness of religion and
• lack of education
• absence of stiff sensitive
• the structure of government
• The state and society –
corruption in the bureaucracy
affects the state of the entire
ECONOMIC INSTUTIONSECONOMIC INSTUTIONS
• Concerned with the
production, distribution and
consumption of goods and
services to satisfy the basic
needs of man. Basically, their
primary purpose is to provide
people with material benefits
• Interested in resources that are
scarce in relation to human
wants. Various resources are
combined to produce economic
goods, which in turn to satisfy
• Concerned with human behavior,
with the choices ones make and
the consequence of these choices
for himself and other people.
INDUSTRIAL SOCIETIESINDUSTRIAL SOCIETIES
• Defined as a society that relies
chiefly on mechanization for the
production of its economic goods
• Industrial revolution proceeded,
societies relied on new inventions
and technology and facilitated
agricultural and industrial
production and on new sources of
• Factors of production are land,
labor and capital.
• Economic system in which the
means of production are
largely in private hands and
the main incentive for
economic activity is the
accumulation of profits.
Laissez-faireLaissez-faire (“let them do”)(“let them do”)
•- People could
compete freely with
intervention in the
Contemporary capitalismContemporary capitalism
•- The tolerance of
• - A monopoly exists in
a market when it is
controlled by a single
• - Domination of an industry allows
the firms o effectively control a
commodity so that I can dictate
pricing, standards of quality and
• - Buyers have little choice but
to yield to the firm’s decision,
there is no other place to
purchase the product or service
• has its roots in he writings of
Karl Marx and Friedrich Engles
a European radicals disturbed
b he exploitation of the working
• In their view of Capitalism, it
pays workers less than the
value of goods produced.
• Socialist economic system
represents an attempt to
eliminate such economic
• Under socialism, the means of
production and distribution of
goods and services in a
society are collectively rather
than privately owned.
• The fundamental objective of this
economic system is to meet
peoples needs rather than to
• The reject Laissez-faire. Instead
they believe that basic economic
decisions should be made b the
government, which acts as the
representative of the people.
Government ownership of all
• All property is communally
owned and no social
distinctions are made on the
people’s ability to produce.
Mr. Fernan D.C. Ventura