Popular methodology: Approaches, Methods, Procedures and Techniques <br />This chapter looks at how theory has been realiz...
Popular methodology
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Popular methodology

Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Published in: Education      Technology      

Transcripts - Popular methodology

  • 1. Popular methodology: Approaches, Methods, Procedures and Techniques <br />This chapter looks at how theory has been realized in methodological practice. Within the general area of methodology, people talk about approaches, methods, techniques, procedures and models, all of which go into the practice of English teaching. These terms, though somewhat vague, are definable:ApproachPeople use the term approach to refer to theories about the nature of language and language learning which are the source of the way things are done in the classroom and which provide the reasons for doing them. An approach describes how language is used and how its constituent parts interlock - it offers a model of language competence. An approach describes how people acquire their knowledge of the language and makes statements about the conditions which will promote successful language learning.Methoda method is the practical realization of an approach. The originators of a method have arrived at decisions about types of activities, roles of teachers and learners, the kinds of material which will be helpful and some model of syllabus organization. Methods include various procedures and techniques (see below) as part of their standard fare.When methods have fixed procedures, informed by a clearly articulated approach, they are easy to describe. However, if a method takes procedures and techniques from a wide range of sources (some of which are used in other methods or are informed by other beliefs), it is more difficult to continue describing it as a ‘method'. Procedurea procedure is an ordered sequence of techniques. For example, a popular dictation procedure starts when students are put in small groups. Each group then sends one representative to the front of the class to read (and remember) the first line of a poem which has been placed on a desk there. Each student then goes back to their respective group and dictates that line. Each group then sends a second student up to read the second line. The procedure continues until acne group has written the whole poem.A procedure is a sequence which can be described in terms such as First you do this, then you do that.... Smaller than a method, it is bigger than a technique.Techniquea common technique when using video or film material is called silent viewing This is where the teacher plays the video with no sound. Silent viewing is a single activity rather than a sequence, and as such is a technique rather than a whole procedure. Likewise the finger technique is used by some teachers; they hold up their hands and allocate a word to each of their five fingers, e.g. He is not playing tennis and then t bringing the is and the not fingers together, show how the verb is contracted into is not another technique is to tell all the students in a group to murmur a new word or phrase I themselves for a few seconds just to get their tongues round it.This use and misuse of these terms can make discussions of comparative methodology somewhat confusing. Some methodologists, for example, have new insights and claim a new approach as a result. Others claim the status of method for a technique or procedure. Son methods start as procedures and techniques which seem to work and for which an approach is then developed. Some approaches have to go in search of procedures and techniques will which to form a method. Some methods are explicit about the approach they exemplify an the procedures they employ; others are not.What the interested teacher needs to do when confronted with a new method, for example is to see if and/or how it incorporates theories of language and learning. What procedures do. it incorporate? Are they appropriate and effective for the classroom situation that teacher work with? In the case of techniques and activities, two questions seem worth asking: Are they satisfy if for both students and teachers? and Do they actually achieve what they set out to achieve?Popular methodology includes ideas at all the various levels we have discussed, and is these methods, procedures and approaches which influence the current state of English language teaching.<br />