NAO Guide Initiating_Successful_Projects
Tenga en cuenta al iniciar su proiyecto NIIF un claro entendimiento de los riesgos, beneficios y entregables del proyecto. La experiencia nos dice que de la calidad del proceso de iniciación es un buen predicitivo del éxito del proyecto. Sin duda!
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Transcripts - NAO Guide Initiating_Successful_Projects
GUIDEInitiatingsuccessfulprojects1 December 2011
2 Initiating successful projects Our vision is to help the nationspend wisely.We apply the unique perspectiveof public audit to help Parliamentand government drive lastingimprovement in public services.The National Audit Office scrutinisespublic spending on behalf ofParliament. The Comptroller andAuditor General, Amyas Morse, isan Officer of the House of Commons.He is the head of the NAO, whichemploys some 880 staff. He andthe NAO are totally independent ofgovernment. He certifies the accountsof all government departments anda wide range of other public sectorbodies; and he has statutory authorityto report to Parliament on theeconomy, efficiency and effectivenesswith which departments and otherbodies have used their resources.Our work led to savings and otherefficiency gains worth more than£1 billion in 2010-11.
ContentsIntroduction 4Summary 4Initiating successful projects 5
4 Initiating successful projects Introduction Summary The National Audit Office exists to provide In the last three years the National Audit Office has independent opinion and evidence to assist examined some 40 major government projects, a Parliament hold government to account. We can number comparable to previous years. One clear only do this effectively if we comment objectively lesson we have learned from the evidence base which and independently on what government does, and our back catalogue provides is that the quality of we cannot therefore act as an adviser on specific project initiation is highly predictive of project success. decisions government takes. We can, however, We are therefore re-focusing our studies earlier in the reasonably and helpfully draw on our value for money project lifecycle to better assess the quality of, and to studies to help public bodies to make sensible influence successful, project initiation. We will follow decisions and routinely deliver government objectives these early interventions with results based studies in an efficient and effective manner. as the project rolls out. In preparing this Guide, and undertaking our evaluation work, we find it helpful to In this guide we highlight National Audit Office reports focus on a few key elements which, in our experience, which illustrate the different approaches departments have affected project delivery. These are: take to initiating projects. We show how they develop a realistic understanding of the risks, benefits and OO Purpose – having clarity on the overall priorities deliverability of projects. The reports can be found at and desired outcomes; www.nao.org.uk/publications. OO Affordability – understanding what delivery will cost and not being over-optimistic; OO Pre-commitment – having robust internal assessment and challenge to establish if the project is feasible; OO Project set-up – the detailed specification, procurement, contract and incentive design; and OO Delivery and variation management – maintaining delivery pressure throughout the life of the contract and flexibility to recover the integrity of the project in light of unanticipated events or significant variations from the original plan. This will not come as a surprise to experienced project delivery professionals. However, our examination of central government projects repeatedly shows that too few projects bring all of these factors together well. This Guide sets out some of the key elements we will look for in the studies that we undertake early in the project lifecycle. It draws on our previous reports to highlight the impact these have on the successful delivery of projects.
5 Initiating successful projectsInitiating successful projectsWhere public sector projects are delivered well the Some are cancelled before they are completed afterresults are impressive. The progress of the Olympics spending considerable sums of money with little toconstruction programme1 and the introduction of show for it.3 Poorly performing projects reflect badlythe Asset Protection Scheme2 are good examples. on government, attract high media interest and areHowever, the evidence shows that two-thirds of public poor value for money for the taxpayer. The tracksector projects are completed late, over budget or do record of project delivery in the private sector isnot deliver the outcomes expected. equally mixed.Examples of good project planningPreparations for the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games: Progress reportDecember 20111 – The Olympic Delivery Authority developed a robust procurement policy andprocess, including change control, and actively sought independent and expert challenge of itsprocurement activities. The Authority has also established financial incentives for the contractorsto deliver ahead of time and under budget. As at November 2011 the Delivery Authority was on trackto deliver its work on the Olympic Park on time, within budget and to the standard required.Support to business during a recession2 – the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills took aconservative approach to risk, for example in pricing products, capping liability and limiting eligibility. Withthe exception of one riskier scheme, this allowed it to provide fast support to business whilst protectingthe taxpayer from the associated uncertainty.Department for Work and Pensions implementation of Employment and Support Allowance 3 –The complex programme was on track for completion on time and under budget, helped by phasedimplementation, strong monitoring and risk management processes, collaborative contractor relations,experienced staff, and buy-in from staff and senior management.The Procurement of the National Road Telecommunications Service4 – the Highways Agencynegotiated a private finance deal that transferred some key risks to the private sector: when we reportedsome risks had already materialised and been borne by the contractor, not the taxpayer.The BBC’s Efficiency Programme 5 – clear monitoring processes and accountabilities created strongincentives to deliver savings, and the BBC is on track to exceed its target of delivering £487 millionsustainable, cash releasing net savings by 2012-13.The Academies Programme 6 – investing time to understand stakeholder needs at the design stagehelped deliver one of the programme’s key aims; good quality school buildings.NOTES1 Preparations for the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games: Progress report December 2011, HC 1596, Session 2010-122 Support to business during a recession (HC490 2009-10)3 Department for Work and Pensions Information technology Programmes (Memorandum to House of Commons Work and Pensions Committee, November 2008)4 The Procurement of the National Road Telecommunications Service (HC340 2007-08)5 The BBC’s Efficiency Programme (Report to the BBC Trust, September 2011)6 The Academies Programme (HC254 2006-07 and HC288 2010-11)1 Preparations for the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games: Progress report December 2011, HC 1596, Session 2010–12.2 The Asset Protection Scheme (HC 567, 2010-11).3 Failure of the Fire Control Project (HC 1272, 2010–12).
6Initiating successful projects Major public sector projects are inherently risky. They Our work shows that very few projects do enough often run over long timescales and are of a significant feasibility work to develop a robust understanding of scale, ambition and complexity. Typically they what is needed, if this is deliverable and how much it involve multiple stakeholder groups with conflicting will cost. Departments should make the most of their interests. Political imperatives can lead to challenging power to set the framework for successful delivery. timescales and the failure to manage political and Striking strong and appropriate deals with contractors public expectations compounds the risks. The can put in place the necessary arrangements to establishment of the Major Projects Authority in the enable them to run the project effectively. Cabinet Office is a positive step, as are plans for a Major Projects Academy. Drawing on our extensive back catalogue of reports and understanding of current thinking in the project The delivery of public sector projects can be delivery professions, we have distilled a few of the adversely affected by optimism bias. We have key lessons that must be addressed when initiating identified two main explanations. Technical causes projects. Applying these elements effectively will boost comprise imperfect forecasting techniques, mistakes, the chances of successfully delivering the project. inadequate data, and the obvious problems in predicting the future.4 A lack of objectivity and rigour in rational thinking can result in the over-estimation of benefits and under-estimation of costs.5 Often such biases are strategically motivated in order to increase the likelihood that a project gains funding.6 4 PFI in Housing (HC 71, 2010-11). 5 Management of the Typhoon Project (HC 755, 2010-11). 6 Delivering multi-role tanker aircraft capability (HC 433, 2009-10).
7 Initiating successful projectsFive key elements for initiating successful projects1 Purpose Are priorities and desired outcomes realistic and understood? Are the aspirations for what the project should deliver realistic? Have stakeholders been engaged and their expectations managed?2 Affordability Is the budget available realistic? Has sufficient allowance been made for optimism bias and risk? Are leaders creating the conditions for success?3 Pre-commitment Is the project realistic and feasible? Have alternative ways to achieve the outcomes and the flexibility of solutions been considered? Is the level of risk understood? Does it match the departmental risk appetite? Has the idea been tested? 4 Project Set-up Is there a clear specification of business requirements? Does the procurement strategy identify who is best placed to manage risk? Has the department mitigated the risks from skills shortfalls which may affect its ability to act as an intelligent client? 5 Delivery & Variation Management Do the contractual terms incentivise good behaviours, delivery and innovation at a realistic level and offer flexibility and break points? Is there sufficient openness and data sharing to deal with changes? Are suitable governance and performance management systems set up?
8Initiating successful projects The elements are inter-related. A driver in the success result is that projects are delayed or de-scoped of projects is the way public bodies balance the or that progressively more financial pain is felt by inevitable tensions between the elements and plan to other projects as the department tries to juggle its deal with the turbulence that affects most projects. unaffordable portfolio.10 Neither solution is efficient or The elements are set out below. effective. Leaders, whether senior professionals, civil servants 1 Setting realistic priorities and or politicians, not only take the key decisions to initiate desired outcomes and commit to projects, but also create the conditions Delivering public sector projects involves aligning for success or failure. Without certainty of funding the, often conflicting, aspirations and interests of a provision or clarity about the priority of the project wide variety of groups including politicians, senior within the overall portfolio, project teams will not have management, users, citizens and commercial a firm basis to deliver the project.11 providers. Failure to understand the end customers’ needs may result in missed opportunities,7 while a lack 3 Pre-commitment – internal of buy-in from staff can be detrimental to the smooth assessment and challenge implementation of the project.8 We have reported regularly on overambitious projects In order to avoid unrealistically high expectations, which have not met policy aspirations.12 Our reports departments need to improve their strategies for show that departments commonly embark on projects reconciling these conflicting perspectives and manage without developing a rigorous understanding of the expectations about what is achievable. Seeking to feasibility of delivery and without a robust process to achieve “gold-plated” outcomes drives up cost and enable evaluation of the pros and cons of alternative increases project risk. Illustratively, scaling back on solutions. Alternative ways of achieving the outcome the aspiration of a project by 20 per cent can reduce are ruled out too early13 and the focus is too often on cost and risk exposure by 80 per cent. From our delivering an output quickly. experience, the unwillingness of the various parties with an interest in the project to accept this 80:20 Public bodies need to understand, at a strategic philosophy is at the heart of many of the difficulties level, their appetite for risk on individual projects or on which we have reported.9 across their portfolio of projects.14 Understanding the risks associated with alternative options is of equal importance.15 Piloting is an important way of evaluating 2 Affordability options early to avoid waste, but it is only effective if well The trick to secure funding for public sector designed and if departments are willing to learn from projects is to demonstrate that they are affordable. the results.16 In Civil Service terms this translates as there being “budget capacity”. There is a strategically motivated perverse incentive to under-estimate costs to secure funding which is compounded by the optimism bias endemic in the public sector. Given that projects are seldom cancelled once they are underway the 7 Helping over-indebted consumers (HC 292, 2009-10). 8 Crown Prosecution Service: the introduction of the Streamlined Process (HC 1584, 2010-12). 9 The Cost-Effective Delivery of an Armoured Vehicle Capability (HC 1029, 2010-12). 10 Carrier Strike (HC 1092, 2010-12), Successive Ministry of Defence Major Projects Reports (e.g. HC 1520-I, 2010-12). 11 Carrier Strike (HC 1092, 2010-12). 12 Failure of the Fire Control Project (HC 1272, 2010-12), The Administration of the Single Payment Scheme by the Rural Payments Agency (HC 10, 2007-08, HC 880, 2008-09 and HC 1631, 2005-06). 13 Procurement of the M25 Private Finance Contract (HC 566, 2010-11). 14 Home Office Management of Major Projects (HC 489, 2009-10). 15 Delivering Multi-Role Tanker Aircraft Capability (HC 433, 2009-10). 16 Support to Incapacity Claimants through Pathways to Work (HC 21, 2010-11).
9 Initiating successful projects A pre-condition for successfully starting a projectFailure of the Fire Control Project and running an effective competition for commercial(HC 1272, 2010–12) partners is that everyone involved in delivering the project needs to clearly understand what mustThe Project aimed to improve the resilience, efficiency and be delivered, and when. Immature or incompletetechnology of the Fire and Rescue Service by replacing 46 specifications lead to scope creep,17 confusion acrosslocal control rooms with a network of nine purpose-builtregional control centres. The project relied on support the supply chain18 and make it difficult to incentivisefrom the Fire and Rescue Services, but the Department for commercial partners to deliver effectively or to holdCommunities and Local Government initiated the project them to account for subsequent shortcomings.without securing their commitment or providing incentives Developing commonly understood specificationsfor them to use the regional facilities. The Department also can avoid tying contractors down too early to deliverfailed to build suitable incentives into the IT contract. It did the wrong things, which can make subsequentnot retain enough control over key outputs, and did not set change expensive.19interim milestones to hold the contractor to account. Theregional control centres remain empty and the Project has Public sector projects are often started quicklywasted a minimum of £469 million. to stimulate economic activity or to meet political priorities. It is vital that this pressure does not undermine the public sector negotiating position.4 Project set-up – the lead up to If some of these impacts are unavoidable the procurement strategy should flex to take account ofbinding commitment them. Building in sufficient flexibility and a prudentBefore committing to a project departments must level of time and cost contingency to the project toundertake a series of tests and processes to ensure enable it to deal with the greater level of uncertaintythat the project is “fit for purpose”. Getting the and the increased risk and of emerging changes canjudgements wrong not only reduces the chance of an offer a way of mitigating the impact.efficient project result (the immediate output with time,cost and performance parameters met) but makes it It is also important to be realistic about where thehighly unlikely the project will be effective (achieve the project risks should lie. A contract that tries to transferpolicy objectives and longer-term benefits anticipated). inappropriate levels of risk to the contractor may not work as planned. Departments must evaluate who is best placed to manage the risks (and the opportunities) between departments and commercial providers.20 If a department feels it has more to lose than the contractor it will be pointless paying a cost premium to pass the risk on. A common theme running through our reports is that, irrespective of the contractual terms, the cost and performance risk of project failures reverts back to government when the contract goes wrong because it is reluctant to cancel and recognise failure. The risk increases further when contracts are placed with “special purpose vehicles” which can insulate partner companies from the effects of failure.17 The BBC’s Management of Three Major Estate Projects (Report to the BBC Trust, 30 November 2009).18 The Failure of Metronet (HC 512, 2008-09) and London Underground PPP: Were they Good Deals? (HC 645, 2003-04).19 The Administration of the Single Payment Scheme by the Rural Payments Agency (HC 10, 2007-08, HC 880, 2008-09 and HC 1631, 2005-06).20 The Failure of Metronet (HC 512, 2008-09) and London Underground PPP: Were they Good Deals? (HC 645, 2003-04).
10Initiating successful projects In setting projects up departments should recognise 5 Delivery and variation – maintaining where they have capability gaps. These can include delivery pressure throughout the life the lack of depth of expertise in commercial, project of the contract and programme management, financial management and technical aspects.21 Sufficient capability in these If departments rigorously apply the four elements for areas is essential if departments are to act as intelligent successful project initiation outlined above, managing clients and deal with their private sector counterparts execution effectively will depend on whether the on an equal footing. Commercial arrangements can detailed project arrangements can respond to be put in place which mitigate the risks. Departments inevitable changes. Experience of PFI illustrates the should take a more ruthlessly realistic and modest effects of not doing so with significant cost escalation approach to their capacity and design of projects and due to contract variation during the life of the the underpinning commercial arrangements in a way contracts.22 which best protects their interests. Specific evidence we look for includes whether the commercial and governance arrangements The Asset Protection Scheme allow enough flexibility to recover the integrity of (HC 567, 2010-11) the project in the light of unanticipated events or significant variations from the original plan as Announced in January 2009, the Scheme aimed to uncertainties or risks crystallise. A strong contract provide financial stability by protecting the Royal Bank with appropriate break points will incentivise good of Scotland (RBS) against certain exceptional losses. supplier performance and positive behaviours whilst The Treasury considered a variety of options to achieve this including public ownership and purchases of banks’ protecting both contracting parties.23 Negotiating the assets. Having opted for an asset protection arrangement, inevitable changes on contracts will be more effective the Treasury maintained flexibility by allowing several where there are “open-book” arrangements which months for detailed due diligence before it finalised the ensure both parties have a full and realistic common agreement. The Treasury designed a series of stress understanding of risks, underpinned by robust and tests to calculate a range of possible losses under up-to-date performance information. different economic scenarios, to help set loss protection conditions at a level that gave RBS an incentive to manage its assets effectively. It took a conservative approach to uncertainties where the Treasury judged RBS had not provided sufficient data, it did not allow assets into the scheme and the risk remained with the RBS. The due diligence period resulted in significantly tighter terms than those originally proposed. We found that, with one exception relating to potential fees, the Treasury had conducted a robust assessment, and while the long term outcome of the scheme cannot be foreseen, it had, to date, contributed to its overriding aim of financial stability. 21 PFI in Housing (HC 71, 2010-11), Lessons from PFI and other projects (HC 920, 2010-12). 22 Making Changes in Operational PFI Contracts (HC 205, 2007-08). 23 The Failure of Metronet (HC 512, 2008-09) and London Underground PPP: Were they Good Deals? (HC 645, 2003-04).
11 Initiating successful projects The Administration of theSingle Payment Scheme by theRural Payments Agency(HC 10, 2007-08, HC 880, 2008-09and HC 1631, 2005-06)The Single Payment Scheme was introduced in 2005 aspart of EU reforms to farm subsidies. The Rural PaymentAgency experienced serious difficulties administeringthe scheme in the first two years of its operation. Wefound it lacked mechanisms to provide early warning ofthese difficulties: the system was not tested in its entiretybefore implementation, and there was a lack of reliabledata on contractors’ progress. Although many of the ITcontracts for supporting the Scheme expired in 2009, thehigh degree of customisation in the systems restrictedthe Agency’s scope to investigate alternative suppliers.Our 2009 report found errors in Scheme data persisted,and the cost of administration had risen by 22 per cent to£1,743 per claim.Within departments weak governance structuresand poor performance management systems haveresulted in missed benefits, or escalating costs andtimescales.24 Projects that succeed have strongdata systems, oversight of performance throughoutthe project, and strong accountability for delivery.25Successful delivery requires stronger leadershipsetting the tone by encouraging honesty in estimates,challenging optimism bias and assumptions and beingwilling to stop projects which no longer make sense.24 Regenerating the English Coalfields (HC 84, 2009-10), The BBC’s Management of Three Major Estate Projects (Report to the BBC Trust, 30 November 2009).25 The BBC’s Efficiency Programme (Report to the BBC Trust, September 2011).
12 Initiating successful projects Where to find out moreThe National Audit Office website iswww.nao.org.ukIf you would like to know more aboutthe NAO’s work on Initiating successfulprojects, please contact:Tim BanfieldDirector020 7798 firstname.lastname@example.orgAlison Hood www.nao.org.ukManager0191 269 email@example.comTwitter: @NAOorgukDesign & Production byNAO CommunicationsDP Ref: 009782-001© National Audit Office | December 2011Printed by Precision Printing