Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Transcripts - Pom assignment
Product Layout: Possible Advantages:(1) Low total flow time of the product from the input stage to theoutput stage (i.e. higher rates of output) due to:(a) Continuous flow without intermediate stoppages and storages;(b) Repetitive, small, fragmented jobs learnt to perfection by theconcerned workers; and(c) Minimum set-up times of machines.(2) Production planning and control is simple; less paper work(3) Inspection required is less(4) Lower degrees of skills in the manpower may suffice(5) Raw materials and other inputs can be planned better, even to theextent of ‘Just in Time’, resulting in lower inventories.(6) Lower work-in-process inventories needed.(7) Lower material handling costs(8) By ‘balancing’ the line, labor utilization can be high.Product Layout: Possible Disadvantages:(1) None or very little variety possible.(2) Less flexibility to changes, particularly to other than minorchanges.(3) Entire line or significant portions of the line may come to agrinding halt if any equipment in the line breaks down, resulting inhigh stoppage costs.(4) Larger maintenance crew needed.(5) Very low job variety and therefore lower job satisfaction andhigher boredom for the workers.(6) More coordination required by supervisors.(7) Duplication of machines and equipments may be necessaryresulting in higher capital investment.(8) More space may be required.Process Layout: Possible Advantages:(1) Very high degree of variety in products is possible.(2) Flexibility and adaptability to changes is high.(3) Machine breakdowns do not cause crippling productionstoppages.(4) Requires small maintenance crew.(5) Good level of variety, skills requirement and therefore higher jobsatisfaction.(6) Coordination and supervision is simpler as the processes aresimilar and the staff is skilled.Process Layout: Possible Disadvantages:(1) Higher flow times of products due to:(a) Intermittent flows of the material; and (b) More numerous machineset-ups.
(2) Production planning and control is more complex; much paperwork is necessary.(3) Worker skills need to be high in order to complete all componentsof the job.(4) Higher inventories of basic raw materials may be necessary dueto much uncertainty of demand.(5) Higher work-in-process inventories due to necessary intermediatestorages, if the machine and labor utilization is to be at a satisfactorylevel and if the flow times of the products are to be at acceptablelevels.(6) More handling of materials.Optimization in a Product/Line Layout:The product or line layout is relatively easy to plan as the layout isaccording to the flow of the product as it takes shape from the rawmaterial state to the finished goods state. The equipment and thework areas are laid out according to the sequence of the operationsinvolved in converting the raw material to the finished product. Theproblem in the Line layout may not be that of how to sequence orrelatively position the work areas, but rather to group the workelements in such a way that there is very little idle time at any of thegrouped work centers. The problem in Line layout is therefore one ofbalancing the flow line of work (and also of the material) in such away as to minimize the idle time at the different work centers(alternatively called ‘work stations’). This is technically termed asAssembly Line Balancing. This procedure automatically minimizesthe relevant costs associated with Line layout.Optimization in a Process Layout:The problem in Process layout is one of arranging the different workareas in such a way that the inter-area material movement costs arekept to a minimum. Of course, one has to take into account,simultaneously, the total plant area available and any constraints onthe individual area requirements or position requirements of the workcenters. A mathematical treatment for this problem is available; butone ought to note that the mathematical optimizing models take intoconsideration only the cost of material handling. It is assumed, atbest, that the other relevant costs of layout will also be reduced onaccount of this optimizing procedure. The material handling costsbetween two work areas (departments) is the product of the distancebetween the two work areas and the number of loads that arehandled between the two departments during a unit period of time.The sum of these products, for all the combinations of departments,should be minimum for an optimal plant layout.The starting point in such a mathematical optimization procedure forthe Process layout is therefore, the gathering of the data on the
number of loads per unit time moved between different combinationsof the work areas. This data is called ‘load summary’ and ispresented in matrix fashion.–more at http://www.citeman.com/4615-merits-and-demerits-of-product-and-process-layouts.html#ixzz1c3gGRvEi