Narrative features (small)
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Transcripts - Narrative features (small)
Karen Falconer FEATURES OF NARRATIVESA narrative is a text in which a story is told. The story is usually fiction (imaginary),although it may be based on actual events (partially factual).Purpose:To entertain, teach or inform the reader.All of the following texts can be narratives:♦ novels♦ short stories, fables and legends.♦ Most picture books.Different types of narrative genreTypes:• Adventure – they can be improved by using suspense and character development.• Fantasy – fantasies contain at least some events that could not ‘really’ happen or characters that could not ‘really’ exist.• Mystery• Science fiction.• horror stories• adventure stories• fables, myths and legends• historical narratives• balladsText OrganisationA typical narrative structure includes an orientation, a sequence of events, acomplication and a resolution.• The orientaton gives the background / setting of the storyline and introduces the characters.• The narrative outlines a sequence of events.• A complication such as a disruption / problem / change, affects the sequence of events. The complication must be resolved by one or more of the characters.• When the problem is solved, or the main character accepts a change in circumstances, this is the resolution of the narrative.
Karen FalconerGrammarNarratives are:• Often written in the past tense.• May be written in either first person (I, we) or third person (he, she, they)• Specific nouns: Strong nouns have more specific meanings, eg. oak as opposed to tree.• Active nouns: Make nouns actually do something, eg. ‘It was raining’ could become: Rain splashed down or ‘There was a large cabinet in the lounge’ could become: ‘ A large cabinet seemed to fill the lounge.’• Action verbs provide interest to the writing. For example, instead of: “The old woman was in his way” - try “The old woman barred his path.” Instead of “She laughed,” try, “She cackled.”• Adjectives and adverbs are used to create ‘word pictures’ describing actions, characters and settings;• Conjunctions such as when, then and meanwhile are used to sequence events.• The characters thoughts and feelings are described using verbs and adjectives.• Paragraphs are used when natural breaks occur in the story. This may be when the setting or time changes. A new paragraph must also be taken to show direct speech. When planning writing of narratives, focus on: • Plot: What is going to happen? • Setting: Where will the story take place? When will the story take place? • Characterisation: Who are the main characters? What do they look like?
Karen Falconer • Structure: How will the story begin? What will be the problem? How is the problem going to be resolved? • Theme: What is the theme / message the writer is attempting to communicate? • Use of the senses: Where appropriate, the senses can be used to describe and develop theexperiences, setting and character: What does it smell like? • • What can be heard? • What can be seen - details? • What does it taste like? • What does it feel like? Imagery • Simile: A direct comparison, using like or as or as though, eg. The sea looked as rumpled as a blue quilted dressing gown. Or “The wind wrapped me up like a cloak.” • Metaphor: An indirect or hidden comparison, eg. “She has a heart of stone” or “He is a stubborn mule” or “The man barked out the instructions.” • Onomatopoeia: A suggestion of sound through words, eg. crackle, splat, ooze, squish, boom, eg. The tyres whir on the road. The pitter- patter of soft rain. The mud oozed and squished through my toes. • Personification: Giving non-living (inanimate) things, living characteristics eg. ‘The steel beam clenched its muscles.’ ‘Clouds limped across the sky.’ ‘The pebbles on the path were grey with grief.’ • Rhetorical Questions: Often the author asks the audience questions, knowing of course there will be no direct answer. This is a way of involving the reader in the story at the outset, eg. Have you ever built a tree hut? Variety in sentence beginnings. There are a several ways to do this eg by using:
Karen Falconer • Participles: "Jumping with joy I ran home to tell mum my good news." • Adverbs: "Silently the cat crept toward the bird" • Adjectives: "Brilliant sunlight shone through the window" • Nouns: "Thunder claps filled the air" • Adverbial Phrases: "Along the street walked the girl, as if she had not a care in the world." • Conversations/Dialogue: (These may be used as an opener.) This may be done through a series of short or one-word sentences or as one long complex sentence. • Show, Dont Tell: When we write, it is always tempting to TELL our readers what we want them to see and know, or to TELL them what we want them to believe about our characters or setting. This can make our writing dull. SHOWING our readers, by involving the characters in action, is usually more effective. • Personal Voice: Using your own personal voice, means investing something of yourself in your writing. The writing will then make an impact on the reader. It reaches out and touches the reader. A connection will be made.