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# Porosity by saturation method

Porosity by saturation method report
Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Published in: Engineering

#### Transcripts - Porosity by saturation method

• 1. KOYA UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING SCHOOL OF PETROLEUM AND CHEMICAL RESERVIOR LAB NAME OF EXPEREMENT: Porosity by Saturating Method NAME OF STUDENT: Kamal Abdurahman Group: B SUPERVISED BY: Mr.Ali Kamal
• 2. Aim of Experiment: In this test we will try to determine the porosity by using the saturation method.
• 3. Introduction Knowledge of the physical properties of the rock and interaction between hydrocarbon system and the formation rock is crucial in understanding and evaluating the performance of a given reservoir, porosity could be measured from the saturation method
• 4. Theory For any porous material (for instance cores or cuttings), porosity is defined by: ……………………………………….3-1 Where the Vs is volume of solid,Vt the total (or bulk) volume and Vp the pore volume. Porosity can be calculated using any combination of two of these three parameters: • Volume of solid, • Volume of pores, • Bulk volume. Volume of solid Gas expansion pycnometer We will come on this method later in the next section. Bulk volume 1- Geometrical volume Forcylindrical cores,the total volume is generally obtained by measuring the diameter and the length of the cylindrical sample. This method is not applicable for pieces of cores of irregular shape.
• 5. 2- Mercury pycnometer Mercury is a non-wetting fluid with respect to air for all the rocks. Consequently,mercury does not enter in a sample filled by air if no pressure is applied. The mercury pycnometer method consists in measuring the volume of mercury without and with the core immersed. Due to safety reasons,this method is no longerused in mostof laboratories. 3- Powder pycnometer The principle is the same as for mercury but mercury is replaced by a fine powder. A commercial apparatus is the Geopyc from Micromeritics. The powderis first packed in a piston using a controlled vibration and force.The positionof the piston is measured with high accuracy (Figure 3-2). Then, the sample is introduced in the cell, keeping the same volume of powder. The powderis packed again under the same vibrating process and the volume of the sample is derived from the difference in position of the piston, knowing the section of the cell.
• 6. Figure (3-2) Pore volume There are mainly more than one method and techniques to determine the pore volume of cores here we will go through the mostpopular one which is: Saturation method Using Manual saturating Method It is defined as the ratio of the volume of fluid phase (oil, water and gas) in a given core sample to the pore volume (porosity) of the sample. The pore volume is derived from the mass of the sample saturated with brine and after drying.
• 7. Objective The objective of this test is to determine the bulk volume, grain volume, pore volume and effective porosityof interconnected pores of a core sample with the use of liquid saturation method, (Figure 3-3).
• 8. Principle A fluid of known density will drive into dry vacuumed sample, and the difference between saturated and dry sample can give us the pore volume invated.
• 9. Apparatus of experiment Main Components The manual saturator permits to perform a sequence of vacuum and saturation cycles on plug size samples. The standard apparatus includes a plug sized core cell, a vacuum pump, hand operated pressure pump (2,000 psi output), a saturant vacuum tank and necessary hand operated valves and plumbing. A larger capacity cell to accommodate full size core samples is also available. Equipment and sample requirements 1- Caliper 2- Stopwatch 3- Vacuum pump 4- Brine 5- Core saturator 6- Analytical balance 7- Core sample
• 10. Procedure 1- Record the temperature in the laboratory. 2- Measure each dimension three times to take the average dimensions of the core samples and record. 3- Measure the weight of the dry core sample. 4- Wait till the weight reading will stabilize, and record. 5- Put the core plug in the core cell chamber sample. 6- Turn on valve No.1 betweenthe vacuum pump and core sample container. 7- Close the valve No.2 between the core sample container and the brine reservoir. 8- Turn on the vacuum pump. 9- When the vacuum pressure will be stable, wait for 2 minute and then turn off vacuum pump. 10- Open valve No.2 to allow brine to flow to the core sample container. 11- Once the liquid level in the saturant vacuum tank takes it is stabile level, then turn off valve No.2. and vacuum pump. 12-Start to pressurize the core chambercell manually and slowly up to 2000 psi.
• 11. 13-Monitor and keep the pressure on2000psi till it will stabilize on this value. 14- Waite for 5 minute. 15- Open valve. No.2 and wait for the pressure gauge to go back to Zero pressure reading. 16- Gently take out the core sample and wipe out the liquid on the sample surface by rolling it on a piece of paper. 17- Measure and record the weight of the saturated core sample. 18- Measure the difference and find the pore volume and Porosity.
• 12. Discussion Q: Discuss what type of porosity you found and why? Effective porosity measured on core samples which are dried in a humidity oven so that clays retain one or two molecular layers of bound water—however, this CBW tends to a minimum and is likely not reservoir representative. Q: Why we take the core plugging? -We take the core plug to determined the physical properties of the rock like (porosity ,permeability ,saturation ,capillary pressure ,surface & interfacial tension &…..so on). Q: What are the objectives porosity? -To measure the volume of oil in place &gas in place,and many other objectives.
• 13. Result of Experiment Report the porosity value or the sample to the nearest 0.1%.
• 14. Reference 1. Log Interpretation Principles/Applications. 1989. Houston, Texas: Schlumberger. 2. Log Interpretation Charts. 2000. Sugar Land, Texas: Schlumberger. 3. McCoy, D.D., Jr., H.R.W., and Fisher, T.E. 1997. Water-Salinity Variations in the Ivishak and Sag River Reservoirs at Prudhoe Bay.SPE Res Eng 12 (1): 37-44. SPE-28577- PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/28577-PA. 4. Rathmell, J., Atkins, L.K., and Kralik, J.G. 1999. Application of Low Invasion Coring and Outcrop Studies to Reservoir Development Planning for the Villano Field. Presented at the Latin American and Caribbean Petroleum Engineering Conference, Caracas, Venezuela, 21-23 April 1999. SPE-53718-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/53718- MS. 5. Rathmell, J.J., Bloys, J.B., Bulling, T.P. et al. 1995. Low Invasion, Synthetic Oil-Base Mud Coring in the Yacheng 13-1 Gas Reservoirfor Gas-in-Place Calculation. Presented at the International Meeting on Petroleum Engineering, Beijing, China, 14-17 November 1995. SPE- 29985-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/29985-MS.
• 15. 6. Barber, T.D. 1985. Introduction to the Phasor Dual Induction Tool. J Pet Technol 37 (9): 1699-1706. SPE-12049- PA.http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/12049-PA.