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  • 1. Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine 3 (2007) 20 – 31 Clinical Nanomedicine The present and future of nanotechnology in human health care S.K. Sahoo, PhD4, S. Parveen, MS, J.J. Panda, MS Institute of Life Sciences, Nanomedicine Laboratory, Chandrasekharpur, Bhubaneswar, Orissa, India Received 3 March 2006; revised 4 October 2006; accepted 21 November 2006 Abstract Nanotechnology is a multidisciplinary field that covers a vast and diverse array of devices derived from engineering, physics, chemistry, and biology. The burgeoning new field of nanotechnology, opened up by rapid advances in science and technology, creates myriad new opportunities for advancing medical science and disease treatment in human health care. Applications of nanotechnology to medicine and physiology imply materials and devices designed to interact with the body at subcellular (i.e., molecular) scales with a high degree of specificity. This can be potentially translated into targeted cellular and tissue-specific clinical applications designed to achieve maximal therapeutic efficacy with minimal side effects. In this review the chief scientific and technical aspects of nanotechnology are introduced, and some of its potential clinical applications are discussed. D 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Key words: Nanotechnology; Nanomedicine; Drug delivery; Nanodiagnostic; Molecular imaging Nanotechnology can be defined as the science and is too vast and diverse to discuss in detail, but without engineering involved in the design, synthesis, characteriza- doubt, one of the greatest values of nanotechnology will be tion and application of materials and devices whose smallest in the development of new and effective medical treatments functional organization in at least one dimension is on the [1,7-10]. This review focuses on the potential of nanotech- nanometer scale (one-billionth of a meter) [1,2]. In the past nology in medicine, including the development of nano- few years nanotechnology has grown by leaps and bounds, particles for drug and gene delivery and diagnostics. These and this multidisciplinary scientific field is undergoing technologies will extend the limits of current molecular explosive development [3-6]. It can prove to be a boon for diagnostics and permit accurate diagnosis as well as the human health care, because nanoscience and nanotechnol- development of personalized medicine. ogies have a huge potential to bring benefits in areas as diverse as drug development, water decontamination, Background of nanotechnology information and communication technologies, and the production of stronger, lighter materials. Human health-care The prefix bnanoQ derives from the Greek word for nanotechnology research can definitely result in immense bdwarf.Q One nanometer (nm) is equal to one-billionth of a health benefits. The genesis of nanotechnology can be meter, or about the width of 6 carbon atoms or 10 water traced to the promise of revolutionary advances across molecules. A human hair is approximately 80,000 nm wide, medicine, communications, genomics, and robotics. A and a red blood cell is approximately 7000 nm wide. Atoms complete list of the potential applications of nanotechnology are smaller than 1 nm, whereas many molecules including some proteins range between 1 nm and larger [11]. The conceptual underpinnings of nanotechnologies were No conflict of interest was reported by the authors of this paper. 4 Corresponding author. Institute of Life Sciences, Nanomedicine first laid out in 1959 by the physicist Richard Feynman in his Laboratory, Chandrasekharpur, Bhubaneswar, Orissa, India. lecture, bThere’s plenty of room at the bottom.Q Feynman E-mail address: (S.K. Sahoo). explored the possibility of manipulating material at the scale 1549-9634/$ – see front matter D 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.nano.2006.11.008
  • 2. S.K. Sahoo et al. / Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine 3 (2007) 20–31 21 of individual atoms and molecules, imagining the whole of Advantages of drug delivery to disease sites the Encyclopedia Britannica written on the head of a pin and with nanotechnology foreseeing the increasing ability to examine and control The pathophysiological condition and anatomical matter at the nanoscale. The term bnanotechnologyQ was not changes of diseased or inflamed tissues offers many used until 1974, when Norio Taniguchi, a researcher at the advantages for the delivery of various nanotechnological University of Tokyo, used it to refer to the ability to engineer products. Drug targeting can be achieved by taking materials precisely at the nanometer level. The primary advantage of the distinct pathophysiological features of driving force for miniaturization at that time came from the diseased tissues [17]. Actually, the physiology of diseased electronics industry, which aimed to develop tools to create tissues may be altered in a variety of physiological smaller (and therefore faster and more complex) electronic conditions and can be exploited for passively targeting of devices on silicon chips. Furthermore, at IBM in the United drugs. Thus, it exploits the anatomical differences between States, a technique called electron beam lithography was used normal and diseased tissues to achieve site-specific and to create nanostructures and devices as small as 40 to 70 nm in targeted delivery of drugs. Nanotechnological products thus the early 1970s. have an advantage over other normal drugs. An ideal targeting system should have long circulating time, it should Anticipated economic impact on nanotechnology be present at appropriate concentrations at the target site, and it should not lose its activity or therapeutic efficacy In recognition of the enormous scientific and commercial while in circulation. Various nanosystems, as a result of potential for nanotechnology, President Clinton established their larger size, are accumulated at higher concentrations the National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) in 2000. than normal drugs [18]. In addition, the increased vascular NNI is a multiagency umbrella program to build, character- permeability coupled with an impaired lymphatic drainage ize, and understand nanoscale devices. The NNI lists in tumors allows an enhanced permeability and retention medicine, manufacturing, material sciences, information effect of the nanosystems in the tumors or inflamed tissues technology, energy, and environmental sciences as target [19,20]. Thus, this pathophysiological opportunity allows beneficiaries. The program is slated to spend nearly $1 billion extravasation of the nanosystems and their selective in fiscal year 2005 as compared with $464 million in 2001 localization in the inflamed tissues [21]. The tendency of [12,13]. The National Science Foundation receives $305 nanosystems to specifically localize in the reticuloendothe- million for fiscal year 2005, reflecting its broad mission lial system also presents an excellent opportunity for passive across scientific disciplines [14]. The Department of Defense targeting of drugs to the macrophages present in the liver will spend $276 million, whereas the Department of Energy and spleen. Thus, this natural system can be used for receives $211 million. The National Institutes of Health targeting drugs for intracellular infections [18]. meanwhile will spend $89 million on nanotechnology in The therapeutic value of many promising drugs for the 2005, including nearly $30 million for the National Cancer treatment of various neurological disorders is diminished by Institute’s new Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer, a the presence of the blood-brain barrier [22]. The blood-brain 5-year program announced in September. barrier is a unique membrane that tightly segregates the Estimates of the impact from advances emerging from brain from the circulating blood [23]. Thus, drug delivery to nanotechnology developments over the next 15 to 20 years this organ is a challenge, because the brain benefits from have been estimated to be approximately $1 trillion by studies very efficient protection. Nanotechnology offers a solution conducted at the National Science Foundation. In anticipation for using the numerous chemical entities for treating brain of this economic impact, nanotechnology research programs disorders that are not clinically useful because of the in several countries have increased substantially in recent presence of the blood-brain barrier. Nanoparticles can be years. In fiscal year 2005 federal agencies are slated to spend effectively used to deliver relevant drugs to the brain more than $1 billion on nanotechnology. They are attracting [24,25]. Drug loading onto nanoparticles modifies cell rapidly increasing investments from the government and and tissue distribution and leads to a more selective delivery from various business communities across many parts of the of biologically active compounds to improve drug efficacy world. It has been estimated that the total global investment in and reduces drug toxicity [26-28]. Thus, various nano- nanotechnologies is currently around o5 billion, o2 billion systems can be successfully used as new drug carriers for of which comes from the private sector. In addition, the brain delivery. number of published patents in nanotechnology increased fourfold from 1995 (531 parents) to 2001 (1976 patents). Although many people believe that nanotechnologies will Applications of nanotechnology have an impact across a wide range of sectors, a survey Nanotechnology in drug delivery of experts in nanotechnologies across the world identified hype (bmisguided promises that nanotechnology can fix From nanotechnology there is only one step to nano- everythingQ) as the issue most likely to result in a negative medicine, which may be defined as the monitoring, repair, backlash [15,16]. construction, and control of human biological systems at the
  • 3. 22 S.K. Sahoo et al. / Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine 3 (2007) 20–31 molecular level, using engineered nanodevices and nano- systemically. Common deleterious consequences of system- structures [1,9,10,29]. It can also be regarded as another ic biodistribution include toxicity to nontarget tissues, implementation of nanotechnology in the field of medical difficulty in maintaining drug concentrations within thera- sciences and diagnostics. One of the most important issues peutic windows, and metabolism and excretion of drugs— is the proper distribution of drugs and other therapeutic all of which can reduce efficacy [39]. Drug solubility and agents within the patient’s body [7,14,29,30]. cell permeability issues are also common with small During the past two decades, however, researchers molecules and biologically active compounds. Nanotech- involved in the development of pharmaceuticals have nology-based delivery systems could mitigate these prob- understood that drug delivery is a fundamental part of drug lems by combining tissue- or organ-specific targeting with development, and a wide range of drug delivery systems has therapeutic action. Multifunctional nanodelivery systems thus been designed. Ideally, all these systems would could also combine targeting, diagnostic, and therapeutic improve the stability, absorption, and therapeutic concen- actions [32,40,41]. tration of the drug within the target tissue, as well as permit In the near term, the most important clinical applications reproducible and long-term release of the drug at the target of nanotechnology are likely to be in pharmaceutical site [31,32]. In addition to reducing the frequency of drug development. There are already an astonishing number of administration and thus improving patient comfort, novel emerging applications [42,43]. These applications either drug delivery systems would offer protection and improve take advantage of the unique properties of nanoparticles as the pharmacokinetics of easily degradable peptides and drugs or components of drugs per se or are designed for new proteins, which often have short half-lives in vivo [33]. For approaches to controlled release, drug targeting, and salvage the pharmaceutical industry the field of drug delivery of drugs with low bioavailability. For example, nanoscale represents a strategic tool for expanding drug markets, polymer capsules can be designed to break down and release because new delivery technologies could repackage classi- drugs at controlled rates and to allow differential release in cal drugs, offering a competitive edge after the expiry of certain environments, such as an acid milieu, to promote patents and avoiding competition from generics. Demon- uptake in tumors versus normal tissues. Substantial research strating this advantage clearly, 13% of the current global is now designed for creating novel polymers and exploring pharmaceutical market is related to the sale of products that specific drug-polymer combinations [44,45]. include a drug delivery system [34]. Drug bioavailability is a related problem with potential The final aim of pharmaceutical research is the delivery nanotechnology solutions. Nanotechnology is opening new of any drug at the right time in a safe and reproducible therapeutic opportunities for many agents that cannot be manner to a specific target at the required level [2,17]. For used effectively as conventional oral formulations because many drugs, however, these ideal requirements constitute of their poor bioavailability. In some cases, reformulation of hype rather than hope. For example, although the oral route a drug with smaller particle size may improve oral is one of the preferred methods of drug delivery, because it bioavailability [46,47]. Nanoparticles formulations provide is noninvasive, adequate peptide or protein drug delivery protection for agents susceptible to degradation or denatur- has not yet been attained via this route [35,36]. This is partly ation in regions of harsh pH, and also prolong the duration due to the acidic conditions of the stomach, the first-pass of exposure of a drug by increasing retention of the effect of the liver (i.e., the loss of drug as a result of formulation through bioadhesion [48,49]. metabolic processes that occur before it enters the systemic Another broad application of nanotechnology is the circulation), and the resistance exerted by the intestine—all delivery of antigens for vaccination [50-52]. Mucosal of which alter, destroy, or reduce absorption of nearly all immunity is extremely important in disease prevention but macromolecules, thus reducing their bioavailability. As a continues to be limited by both degradation of the vaccine result, millions of diabetics worldwide have to self- and limited uptake. Recent advances in encapsulation and administer insulin injections daily, provoking a high development of suitable animal models have demonstrated percentage of negligence in this treatment. that microparticles and nanoparticles are capable of enhanc- Applications of nanotechnologies in medicine are espe- ing immunization. It has been shown that M cells in the cially promising, and areas such as disease diagnosis, drug Peyer’s patches of the distal small intestine are capable of delivery targeted at specific sites in the body, and molecular engulfing large microparticles, and recent studies have imaging are being intensively investigated and some explored the benefits of nanoencapsulation. Lutsiak et al products undergoing clinical trials [7,9,37,38]. Nanotech- have recently demonstrated uptake of poly(d,l-lactic-co- nology is relatively new, and although the full scope of glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles by human dendritic contributions of these technological advances in the field of cells in vitro. PLGA nanoparticles loaded with tetrame- human health care remains unexplored, recent advances thylrhodamine-labeled dextran were prepared using a suggest that nanotechnology will have a profound impact on solvent evaporation technique and administered to cultures disease prevention, diagnosis, and treatment [2,4,10,29,38]. of dendritic cells and macrophages established from The current generation of drugs is based chiefly on small peripheral blood leukocytes. After 24 hours, confocal molecules with a mass of 1000 Da or less that circulate microscopy revealed the internalization of these nano-
  • 4. S.K. Sahoo et al. / Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine 3 (2007) 20–31 23 spheres by dendritic cells as well as macrophages, with the interaction have been used extensively as nonviral vectors same level of uptake in each cell type. This work has for the intracellular delivery of reporter or therapeutic genes implications in selective activation of a T cell–mediated in culture and in vivo [62,67,68]. Most lipoplexes are immune response [53]. thought to be taken up via endocytosis, followed by their release from an early endosomal compartment. Liu et al [69] Nanotechnology in gene delivery have shown that composite liposomes containing poly Gene therapy is a recently introduced method for (cationic lipid) and cholesterol showed much higher treatment or prevention of genetic disorders by correcting transfection in the liver than naked DNA alone. This work defective genes responsible for disease development based focused on lipoplexes consisting of poly(cationic lipid), on the delivery of repaired genes or the replacement of cholesterol, and DNA injected directly into the portal incorrect ones [54-57]. The most common approach for circulation following a partial hepatectomy. The reporter correcting faulty genes is insertion of a normal gene into a gene expression (luciferase) was observed to be much nonspecific location within the genome to replace a higher in these lipoplexes than in naked DNA alone. nonfunctional gene. An abnormal gene could also be Considerable research has been directed toward delivery swapped for a normal gene through homologous recombi- of the tumor suppressor gene p53 via cationic liposome- nation or repaired through selective reverse mutation, which based vectors [70-72]. The p53 gene has been shown to be returns the gene to its normal function [58-60]. involved in the control of DNA damage-induced apoptosis, Three main types of gene delivery systems have been and malfunction of this p53-mediated apoptotic pathway described: viral vectors, nonviral vectors (in the form of could be one mechanism by which tumors become resistant particles such as nanoparticles, liposomes, or dendrimers), to chemotherapy or radiation. Transferrin (Tf)-lipoplex has and the direct injection of genetic materials into tissues demonstrated high efficiency in tumor-targeted gene deliv- using so-called gene guns [30,54,55,61,62]. Viral vectors ery and long-term therapeutic efficacy in systemic p53 gene are attractive in terms of the scientific strategy exploiting the therapy in humans for both head and neck cancer and natural mechanisms. However, such systems could suffer prostate cancer [71,73]. It has been shown that Tf from the inherent difficulties of effective pharmaceutical significantly increased the transfection efficiency for JSQ- processing and scale-up, and the possibility of the reversion 3 cells, established from a squamous cell carcinoma of the of an engineered virus to the wild type. There are also head and neck, in culture (a 6- to 10-fold increase) when serious questions about the immunogenicity of the viral compared with the liposome alone even in the presence of vectors [62,63]. high levels of serum [74]. The intratumoral delivery of p53 Applications of nanotechnological tools in human gene gene to a mouse tumor xenograft model of human prostate therapy has been reviewed widely by Davis, who described PC-3 carcinoma cells using a Tf-lipoplex vector resulted in nonviral vectors based on nanoparticles (usually 50-500 nm inhibition of tumor growth and an increase in animal in size) that were already tested to transport plasmid DNA. survival. Injection of Tf-liposome-p53 via the tail vein to He emphasized that nanotechnology in gene therapy would nude mice bearing DU-145 subcutaneous tumors resulted in be applied to replace the currently used viral vectors by a high level of extrogenous wild-type p53 expression. In potentially less immunogenic nanosize gene carriers. So contrast, no significant extrogenous p53 expression was delivery of repaired genes or the replacement of incorrect observed in tumors from the mouse injected with non- genes are fields in which nanoscale objects could be targeted liposome-p53. The in vivo efficacy of p53 gene introduced successfully [64]. therapy mediated by Tf-lipoplex was further investigated and resulted in improved efficacy in systemic p53 gene Liposomes therapy of human prostate cancer. Moreover, when com- Liposomes are small artificial vesicles of spherical shape bined with radiation, the group treated with Tf-lipoplex-p53 that can be produced from natural nontoxic phospholipids showed complete tumor regression and had no signs of and cholesterol [2]. One of the most investigated approaches recurrence 6 months after treatment. The long-term efficacy to gene therapy uses liposomes as submicron-scale delivery of Tf-liposome-p53 radiosensitization was also observed in vehicles consisting of a lipid shell surrounding a core a head and neck cancer animal model. Therefore, a novel containing a therapeutic molecule or gene. Liposomes are strategy combining current molecular medicine with con- particularly useful as gene therapy devices because of their ventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy has the potential ability to pass through lipid bilayers and cell membranes, in the clinical treatment of cancer [70-72,75]. and several groups have recently reported convincing results Targeted therapy can also be achieved using liposomes. following local delivery [65,66]. Zhang et al showed that PEGylated (treated with polyeth- Cationic liposomes are composed of positively charged ylene glycol) liposomes linked to a monoclonal antibody for lipid bilayers that can form complexes with negatively the human insulin receptor led to widespread reporter charged naked DNA by simple mixing. The resulting expression in the brains of rhesus monkeys [76]. Plasmids cationic liposomes-DNA complexes (lipoplexes) formed encoding luciferase or h-galactosidase were administered by a combination of electrostatic attraction and hydrophobic via the bimmunoliposomeQ through the common circulation
  • 5. 24 S.K. Sahoo et al. / Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine 3 (2007) 20–31 and were localized primarily to the brain. Such complexes antiproliferative activity of nanoparticles. Studies with give a hint at the future of targeted therapy and the fluorescently labeled DNA using confocal microscopy and importance of nanometer-sized constructs for the advance- quantitative analyses using a microplate reader demonstrat- ment of molecular medicine. ed sustained intracellular localization of DNA with nano- particles, suggesting the slow release of DNA from Nanoparticles nanoparticles localized inside the cells. Cells that were Nanoparticles are colloidal particles having a size of transfected with naked DNA demonstrated transient intra- 10 to 1000 nm [77]. Nanoparticles and microparticles cellular DNA retention [82]. formulated using PLGA and PLA polymers are being investigated as a nonviral gene delivery system because of Dendrimers their sustained-release characteristics, biocompatibility, bio- Dendrimers are macromolecular compounds that are degradability, and ability to protect DNA from degradation made up of a series of branches around an inner core [83]. in endolysosomes [78]. Although PLGA/PLA nanoparticles Dendritic polymers provide another avenue for delivery of are under extensive investigation for drug and protein genes. They can form extremely small particles, on the order delivery, their application as a gene expression vector is of nanometers, and have been shown to be effective as DNA recent. Recently it has been demonstrated that rapid escape conjugates [84,85]. The resulting dendrimer-DNA complex of nanoparticles takes place from the endolysosomal differs from encapsulation in that the primary interaction compartment to the cytoplasmic compartment following causing gene retention is caused by electrostatic interactions their intracellular uptake via an endocytotic process. The between the negatively charged phosphate groups on the rapid escape of nanoparticles from the endolysosomal DNA backbone and the positively charged amino groups on compartment could protect nanoparticles as well as the the polymer [86,87]. The complex is formed by simply encapsulated DNA from the degradative environment of the mixing the components in an aqueous solution. Polyamido- endolysosomes [79]. Prabha et al investigated the gene amines (PAMAMs) are the most often used and character- transfection levels of different size fractions of nano- ized dendrimers for gene delivery, and several groups have particles. Nanoparticle fractions were separated by mem- recently demonstrated their efficacy. Kukowska-Latallo et al brane filtration (100-nm size cutoff), and the transfection used ninth-generation PAMAM dendrimers in complex with levels of the different fractions were evaluated in cell the pCF1CAT plasmid for intravascular and endobronchial culture. These workers showed that smaller size produced delivery of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) to 27-fold higher transfection in COS-7 cells and 4-fold higher eventually treat cystic fibrosis. Intravenous administration transfection in HEK-293 cells for the same dose of of the complex showed transgene expression in the lung with nanoparticles. Higher transfection efficiency of the smaller peaks at 12 to 24 hours and 3 to 5 days. The 114-2 fraction was not related to the differences in the DNA dendrimer-plasmid complexes were completely localized to loading, cellular uptake, or the release of DNA from the two the lung, whereas the naked plasmid was randomly fractions. These results suggest that smaller particle size and distributed. In comparison, endobronchial delivery of naked uniform size distribution are important to enhance the plasmid was more effective than the dendrimer complex nanoparticle-mediated gene expression [80]. [88]. Maksimenko et al have also shown improved trans- Recently, the same group has demonstrated that nano- fection using PAMAM conjugates [87]. This study showed particles formulated using PLGA polymer demonstrated that the transfection of several cell lines by plasmid greater gene transfection than those formulated using PLA cytomegalovirus h-galactosidase plasmid-dendrimer com- polymer in breast cancer (MCF-7) and prostate cancer cell plexes was enhanced by the presence of anionic oligomers lines (PC-3), and this was attributed to the higher DNA including oligonucleotides or dextran sulfate. release from PLGA nanoparticles [81]. PLGA with a higher Nanotechnology as a tool in imaging molecular weight resulted in the formation of nanoparticles with higher DNA loading, which demonstrated higher gene Noninvasive imaging techniques have had a major expression than those formulated with lower molecular impact in medicine over the past 25 years or so. The weight PLGA. In another study these workers have shown current drive in developing techniques such as functional that cells transfected with wild-type (WT) p53 DNA-loaded magnetic resonance imaging is to enhance spatial resolution nanoparticles demonstrated a sustained and significantly and contrast agents. Nanotechnology has a potential to greater antiproliferative effect than those with naked WT- transform the field of medicine, because it offers novel p53 DNA or WT-p53 DNA in complex with a commercially opportunities for sensing clinically relevant markers, mo- available transfecting agent (Lipofectamine, Gibco BRL, lecular disease imaging, and tools for therapeutic interven- Life Technologies, Inc., Gaithersburg, MD). Cells trans- tion [89]. Nanotechnologies already afford the possibility of fected with WT-p53 DNA-loaded nanoparticles demonstrat- intracellular imaging through attachment of quantum dots ed sustained p53 mRNA levels as compared with cells that (QDs) or synthetic chromophores to selected molecules, for were transfected with naked WT-p53 DNA or the WT-p53 example proteins, or by the incorporation of naturally DNA–Lipofectamine complex, thus explaining the sustained occurring fluorescent proteins that, with optical techniques
  • 6. S.K. Sahoo et al. / Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine 3 (2007) 20–31 25 such as confocal microscopy and correlation imaging, allow Moreover, nanoparticles have also been incorporated into intracellular biochemical processes to be investigated a polymer matrix for controlled drug release. In vivo directly [38,89,90]. QDs are semiconductor nanocrystals applications of nanoparticles are also starting to emerge. with unique optical and electrical properties. Among others, For example, Ruoslahti and co-workers linked QDs to a one of their most valuable properties is their fluorescence peptide for labeling tumor vasculatures in live mice; silica spectrum, which renders them optimal fluorophores nanoparticles coated with gold nanoshells have photo- for biomedical imaging. Moreover, because of their quan- thermal capabilities for cancer treatment; and iron magnetic tum confinement of charge carriers in tiny spaces, QDs particles were used to track progenitor cells in vivo using show some fascinating optimal properties, which are magnetic resonance imaging [103]. Nie and co-workers characterized as sharp and symmetrical emission spectra, reported the first simultaneous in vivo targeting and imaging high quantum yield, broad absorption spectra, good of tumors in live animals using QDs tagged to antibodies chemical and photostability, and size-dependent emission [104]. Thus, the applications of nanotechnology to biolog- wavelength tenability [92-95]. ical systems will undoubtly transform the foundations of Thus, QDs are more appealing as in vivo and in vitro disease diagnosis, treatment, and prevention in the future. fluorophores in a variety of biological investigations in Nanotechnology for molecular diagnostics which traditional fluorescent labels based on organic molecules fall short of providing long-term stability and Because of the small dimensions, most of the applica- simultaneous detection of multiple signals [96]. QDs have tions of nanobiotechnology in molecular diagnostics fall also been successfully used as new fluorescent tags in many under the broad category of biochips/microarrays but are biological and biomedical fields and show definite promise more correctly termed nanochips and nanoarrays. Biochips as a new tool in biomedical studies, clinical diagnostics, constructed with microelectromechanical systems are on a drug delivery, and photodynamic therapy. Nanotechnology micron scale and related to micromanipulation, whereas has also been identified as a field of great promise to detect nanotechnology-based chips are on a nanoscale and related and diagnose cancer. For instance, semiconductor QDs can to nanomanipulation [105,106]. Even though microarray/ allow the detection of tens to hundreds of cancer biomarkers biochip methods making use of the detection of specific in blood assays, on cancer tissue biopsies, or as contrast biomolecular interactions are now an indispensable tool for agents for medical imaging [96-98]. molecular diagnostics, there are some limitations. DNA Recent advances in nanosensors includes nanosensors microarrays and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays rely based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer, which is on the labeling of samples with a fluorescent or radioactive capable of detecting low concentrations of DNA in a tag, a highly sensitive procedure that is time-consuming and separation-free format. It uses QDs linked to DNA probes to expensive. The chemical modification and global amplifi- capture DNA targets. Actually, in this system, a fluores- cation of the nucleic acid samples are achieved by cence resonance energy transfer donor-acceptor ensemble polymerase chain reaction, which can introduce artifacts forms as a result of the binding of the target strand to a dye- caused by the preferential amplification of certain sequen- labeled reporter strand. In addition, the QD also functions as ces. Alternative label-free methods include surface plasmon a concentrator that amplifies the target signal by confining resonance and quartz crystal microbalance, which rely several targets in a nanoscale domain [99]. However, on mass detection. Nanotechnologies also provide label- although fluorescent QDs hold great potential for molecular free detection. Nanotechnology is thus being applied imaging in vivo [96,100], the utility of existing QDs is to overcome some of the limitations of biochip techno- limited because they require excitation from external logy [29,31,105,107]. illumination sources to fluorescence. This results in a strong Nanotechnology on a chip is one more dimension of autofluorescence background and a paucity of exciting light microfluidic/lab-on-a-chip technology. Biological tests mea- at nonsuperficial locations. These drawbacks can be suring the presence or activity of selected substances effectively overcome by the self-illuminating QD conju- become quicker, more sensitive, and more flexible when gates. So et al have devised a QD technology that permits certain nanoscale particles are put to work as tags or labels. improved imaging in vivo compared with existing QDs in Magnetic nanoparticles, bound to a suitable antibody, are the absence of an external excitor [101]. The new probes used to label specific molecules, structures, or micro- rely on bioluminescence resonance energy transfer [102], organisms. Magnetic immunoassay techniques have been which converts chemical energy into photon energy, developed in which the magnetic field generated by the resulting in dramatic increases in fluorophore excitation as magnetically labeled targets is detected directly with a well as reductions in the effects of tissue autofluorescence. sensitive magnetometer. Gold nanoparticles tagged with The conjugates are prepared by coupling carboxylate- short segments of DNA can be used for detection of genetic presenting QDs to a mutant of the bioluminescent protein sequence in a sample. Multicolor optical coding for Renilla reniformis luciferase. Thus, compared with existing biological assays has been achieved by embedding QDs, self-illuminating QD conjugates have greatly en- different-sized QDs (nanocrystals of cadmium selenide) hanced sensitivity [101]. into polymeric microbeads. This spectral coding technology
  • 7. 26 S.K. Sahoo et al. / Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine 3 (2007) 20–31 is expected to open new opportunities for medical diag- already succeeded in developing microscale instruments to nostics [29,107]. open blocked arteries and to treat other cardiovascular Nanotechnology on a chip is a new paradigm for total diseases. However, these tools are bulky, infection prone, chemical analysis systems. The ability to make chemical and subject to other disorders. Currently nanotechnology and biological information much cheaper and easier to offers a broad platform in the field of cardiovascular science obtain is expected to fundamentally change health care, food by offering tools to explore the frontiers of cardiac science safety, and law enforcement. Lab-on-a-chip technology at the cellular level. Nanotechnology-based tools can be involves micro-total analysis systems that are distinguished effectively used to treat the cardiovascular diseases. These from simple biosensors because they conduct a complete tools can be used in the areas of diagnosis, imaging, and analysis: a raw mixture of chemicals goes in and an answer tissue engineering [110]. Miniaturized nanoscale sensors comes out. There are several lab-on-a-chip products. Sandia like QDs, nanocrystals, and nanobarcodes can sense and National Laboratories (Albuquerque, NM) is developing a monitor biological signals such as the release of proteins or hand-held lab-on-a-chip that will be used in the analysis of antibodies in response to cardiac or inflammatory events airborne chemical warfare agents and liquid-based explo- [90]. Nanotechnology can also help in revealing the sives agents [29]. This development project brings together mechanisms involved in various cardiac diseases. It also an interdisciplinary team with areas of expertise including helps in designing atomic-scale machines by imitating or microfabrication, chemical sensing, microfluidics, and bio- incorporating biological systems at the molecular level. The informatics. A hand-held lab-on-a-chip is in development to use of these newly designed nanomachines can have a detect airborne chemical warfare agents and liquid-based paradigm-shifting impact in the treatment of the dreaded explosives agents. Nanopore technology for analysis of cardiovascular diseases. These machines have three key nucleic acids converts strings of nucleotides directly into elements meant for sensing, decision making, and carrying electronic signatures. DNA nanomachines can be used as out the intended purpose. For instance, abciximab, a biomolecular detectors for homogeneous assays. Nano- chimeric mouse-human monoclonal antibody used to lessen barcodes, sub-micronic metallic barcodes with striping the chance of heart attack in people who need percutaneous patterns prepared by sequential electrochemical deposition coronary intervention (a procedure to open blocked arteries of metal ions, show differential reflectivity of adjacent of the heart), can be considered as an example of a simple stripes permitting identification of the striping patterns by nanomachine. It has sensors that bind to the GP2b3a conventional light microscopy. This can be used in receptor and also has an beffectorQ that inhibits the receptor population diagnostics and in point-of-care hand-held through steric hindrance. Thus, by inhibiting the ability of devices [108]. the GP2b3a receptor to bind fibrinogen, abciximab changes NanoChip (Nanogen, San Diego, CA), although it carries platelet behavior, impeding platelet aggregation and activa- the name bnanoQ is actually a microelectronic chip for tion [109]. Tenecteplase (TNK-rt-PA), another nanomachine analysis of nanoliter quantities of samples rather than a chip used in cardiac therapy, is a tissue plasminogen activator based on nanotechnology. The NanoChip system integrates (tPA) produced by recombinant DNA technology using an advanced microelectronics and molecular biology into a established mammalian cell line (Chinese hamster ovary platform technology with broad commercial applications in cells). It differs from rt-PA by three sets of substitution the fields of biomedical research, genomics, medical mutations that decrease its plasma clearance rate and is used diagnostics, genetic testing, and drug discovery. The Nano- to dissolve blood clots that have formed in the blood vessels Chip system uses electronically accelerated hybridization of the heart that seriously lessen the flow of blood in the under minimal salt conditions, potentially avoiding prob- heart [109]. lems with DNA conformation and secondary structures, Restenosis, the obstruction of an artery after interven- whereas most sequencing and primer extension technologies tional procedures such as balloon angioplasty, remains a require high-salt conditions. The hybridization is not only major problem, in that 30% to 50% of patients develop accelerated by an electrical potential, but (after switching) reocclusion, with 20% requiring additional intervention this potential can be used to considerably enhance the [77,111,112]. Although different therapeutic strategies have specificity [105,106]. been investigated for the inhibition of restenosis, the main drug therapy approach is targeted toward inhibiting the Nanotechnology in cardiac therapy proliferation and migration of smooth muscle cells [113]. At present, cardiac diseases are the major cause of Systemic administration of therapeutic agents has been mortality, morbidity, and disability. Ever more people are ineffective in preventing restenosis. The main reason for the dying of various cardiac problems including atherosclerosis, failure of drugs in clinical trials is the inefficacy of such an myocardial infarction, arrhythmias, ischemic heart disease, approach in providing therapeutic drug levels in the target and restenosis [109]. Oral and systemic administration of tissue for a sustained period of time. Therefore, researchers drugs, though effective, does not provide appropriate have a great hope that nanotechnology-based localized drug therapeutic drug levels in the target arteries for sufficient therapy using sustained-release drug delivery systems could periods of time. Moreover, biomedical engineers have be more effective, because it can provide higher and
  • 8. S.K. Sahoo et al. / Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine 3 (2007) 20–31 27 prolonged drug levels in the target tissues without causing subgingival surfaces at least once a day, metabolizing systemic toxicity [78]. Nanotechnology could also have an trapped organic matter into harmless and odorless vapors impact in the diagnosis and treatment of unstable plaques and performing continuous calculus debridement [121]. and in the management of other cardiovascular problems Nanotechnology in orthopedic applications like calcification of valves. Thus, nanotechnology could be an effective treatment modality to achieve localized and An ageing population and an increased occurrence of sustained arterial and cardiac drug therapy for the preven- sports-related injuries have made musculoskeletal disorders tion of cardiovascular diseases. one of the major health concerns. Current treatment modalities include orthopedic implants used for internal Nanotechnology in dental care fixing of fractured bones, but these are limited by the large Nanotechnology will have future medical applications in number of implant failures. In addition, these engineered the field of nanodentistry. Nanodentistry will make it implants are stiffer than those of cortical bones, and removal possible to maintain near-perfect oral health through the of the implants require a second operation. Besides, the use of nanomaterials [114,115], biotechnology [116-119], polymers used suffer from the drawbacks of loss of and nanorobotics. Through this it will be possible to provide mechanical strength within a time interval and also high-quality dental care to the millions of the world’s development of a sterile sinus at the site of implantation. population who currently receive no significant dental care Biomaterials proposed as ideal scaffolds for cell growth [120,121]. In the years to come it will be possible through should be biocompatible, osteoinductive, osteoconductive, nanodentistry to induce local anesthesia. A colloidal integrative, porous, and mechanically compatible with suspension containing millions of active analgesic dental native bone to fulfill their desired role as bone implants nanorobotic particles could be instilled on the patient’s and substitutes. Current treatments have some but not all of gingivae. These nanorobots, after contacting the surface of these properties. This has prompted orthopedic surgeons and the crown or mucosa, reach the dentin by migrating into the scientists to look for viable alternatives. Nanotechnology gingival sulcus and pass painlessly to the target site. On can provide an alternative platform with higher mechanical reaching the dentin, the nanorobots enter dentinal tubule strength, enhanced bioactivity, and resorbability in improv- holes that are 1 to 4 Am in diameter [122-124] and proceed ing the quality of life of patients who suffer from toward the pulp, guided by a combination of chemical debilitating bone fractures. gradients, temperature differentials, and even positional Nanostructure materials with sizes 1 to 100 nm can act as navigation, all under the control of the onboard nano- new and effective constituents of bone materials, because computer as directed by the dentist. bone is also made up of nanosized organic and mineral Apart from this, nanodental techniques for major tooth phases. Several studies have reported improved osseointe- repair may also evolve. Orthodontic nanorobots could gration on nanostructure surfaces created from a wide range directly manipulate the periodontal tissues (gingivae, of chemistries including ceramics, metals, polymers, and periodontal ligament, cementum, and alveolar bone), composites. For instance, studies show that alumina allowing rapid and painless tooth straightening, rotating, nanometer fibers significantly stimulate osteoblast responses and vertical repositioning within minutes to hours. Another such as adhesion, alkaline phosphatase activity, and calcium pathological phenomenon that may be benefited by nano- deposition, when compared with conventional grain size dental treatment is dentin hypersensitivity [121]. Dentin alumina [130,131]. Greater in vitro osteoblast adhesion has hypersensitivity is a common condition of transient tooth also been observed on helical rosette nanotube-coated pain associated with a variety of exogenous stimuli. There is titanium compared with uncoated titanium, because these substantial variation in the response to such stimuli from helical rosette nanotubes mimic the dimensions of the one person to another. Except for sensitivity associated with nanostructure of the bone components [132]. tooth bleaching or other tooth pathology, the clinical cause Nanomaterials, nanopolymers, carbon nanofibers, nano- of dentin hypersensitivity is exposed dentinal tubules as a tubes, and nanocomposites of ceramics will also lead to result of gingival recession and subsequent loss of more efficient deposition of calcium-containing minerals on cementum on root surfaces [125-127]. Reconstructive dental the implants. Recent studies have demonstrated that the nanorobots could selectively and precisely occlude specific adsorption and conformation of proteins that mediate tubules within minutes, offering patients a quick and specific osteoblast adhesion (such as fibronectin and permanent cure. Nanodentistry could also play a vital role vitronectin) are enhanced on nanospaced materials like 3D in natural tooth maintenance [128]. The appearance and nanofibrous scaffolds [133-135]. It is also estimated that durability of teeth may be improved by replacing upper nanophase materials attract more proteins to their surface enamel layers with covalently bonded artificial materials because of their altered surface energetics, brought about by such as sapphire [129] or diamond, which have 20 to a higher exposed surface area and altered electron distribu- 100 times the hardness and strength of natural enamel. A tion as compared with conventional materials. The greater subocclusal-dwelling nanorobotic dentifrice delivered by wettability and presence of surface features close to the size mouthwash or toothpaste could patrol all supragingival and of the proteins (on the nanoscale) leads to alteration of the
  • 9. 28 S.K. Sahoo et al. / Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine 3 (2007) 20–31 bioactivity of the selected proteins on the nanophase contact during production or use is most likely to occur via material as compared with their conventional counterparts. the lungs, from which a rapid translocation is possible to Specifically, the peptide sequence arginine–glycine–aspartic other vital organs through the bloodstream. On the cellular acid is more exposed when vitronectin is adsorbed to level, an ability to act as a gene vector has been nanophase materials than with conventional ceramics, and demonstrated for nanoparticles. Carbon black nanoparticles this leads to greater adhesion of osteoblast cells to the have been implicated in interfering with cell signaling. proteins already adsorbed to the implants. There is work that demonstrates uses of DNA for the size Similarly, increased unfolding and exposure of osteo- separation of carbon nanotubes. The DNA strand just wraps blast-adhesive epitopes was demonstrated on fibronectin around it if the tube diameter is right. Though excellent for adhered on nanostructure ceramics, encouraging osteoblast the purposes of separation, this tendency raises some function. Studies also imply that cell responses are more concerns over the consequences of carbon nanotubes sensitive to changes in surface roughness on the nanometer entering the human body [3,138]. scale as compared with conventional regimes. This leads to increased osteoblast and osteoblast activity with simulta- Conclusions neous decreased fibroblast function, thus improving osseointegrative potentials [136]. All of this evidence The multidisciplinary field of nanotechnology is bringing demonstrates that nanostructure materials represent an the science of the almost incomprehensibly small device important and growing area of research that may improve closer and closer to reality. The effects of these develop- bonding between an implant and surrounding bone by ments will at some point be so vast that they will probably increasing bone cell interactions, and this will certainly aid affect virtually all fields of science and technology. As such, in improving orthopedic implant efficacy while drastically nanotechnology holds the promise of delivering the greatest minimizing patient compliance problems. technological breakthroughs in history. Over the next couple Nanotechnology as a risk to human health of years it is widely anticipated that nanotechnology will continue to evolve and expand in many areas of life and Although the benefits of nanotechnology are widely science, and the achievements of nanotechnology will be publicized, discussion of the potential effects of their applied in medical sciences, including diagnostics, drug widespread use in consumer and industrial products is just delivery systems, and patient treatment. beginning. Both pioneers of nanotechnology and its opponents are finding it extremely hard to argue their case because of the limited information available to support one Acknowledgments side or the other. Given the rapid rate of development in this S.K.S. would like to thank the director of the Institute of area and the amount of publicity it is attracting, it is not Life Sciences for providing all the necessary facilities, and surprising that concerns should have been raised relating to S.P. and J.J.P. would like to thank the Department of the safety of nanomaterials in a variety of products. Some Biotechnology, Government of India for the award of a have drawn an analogy between high-aspect-ratio nano- Junior Research Fellowship. particles and asbestos fibers [5,137]. In the United Kingdom, the Prince of Wales has requested advice on nanotechnology from the Royal References Society, whereas Greenpeace and the Canadian Action [1] Emerich DF, Thanos CG. Nanotechnology and medicine. 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