Pollution and its types
Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Transcripts - Pollution and its types
Assignment of Environment Science
Topic: Waste Pollution
Sir Dr. Ameer Khan
Muhammad Irfan Hussain
Roll # 39
Department Of Statistics
Types of pollution are:
1. Air Pollution.
2. Water Pollution.
3. Noise Pollution.
4. Land Pollution
Air pollution is the human introduction into the atmosphere of chemicals,
particulate matter, or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or
other living organisms, or damage the environment.
Examples of air pollution:-
Indoor Air Pollution
Causes of Air Pollution;-
1. Smoke from chimneys of factories.
2. Smoke from Vehicles.
3. Smoke from burning of fire.
Prevention of air pollution:-
1. We should share vehicles for going to office.
2. We should get a regular pollution check of our vehicle.
3. We should use a bicycle for going to near by places.
4. Chimneys of factories should be fitted with proper filters to prevent smokes from coming out
and effect atmosphere.
Water pollution is the introduction into fresh or ocean waters of chemical, physical, or
biological material that degrades the quality of the water and affects the organisms living in
Examples of Water pollution:-
Mining and Agricultural Wastes
Sewage Disposal and Domestic Wastes
Causes of water pollution:-
1. Factories throw their waste in water bodies.
2. People bath and wash clothes in water bodies.
3. Some oil ships drown in water which hardly affects the aquatic life.
4. Smoke from vehicles lets the river to dry.
Prevention of water pollution:-
1. Factories should not throw their waste in water bodies.
2. People should not bath and wash clothes in rivers or lakes.
3. People should not take their animals to take bath in rivers or lakes.
Noise pollution is unwanted human-created sound that disrupts the environment.
The dominant form of noise pollution is from transportation sources, principally motor
vehicles, referred to as environmental noise.
Examples of Noise Pollution:-
Causes of noise pollution:-
1. Jet planes.
2. Loud speakers and other loud speaking things.
3. Cinema halls.
5. Road traffic
Prevention of noise pollution:-
1. We should not use loud speakers.
2. Factories should be made out of the city.
3. There should be not more noise making vehicles on the roads.
Land pollution is the degradation of the Earth's land surface through misuse of the
soil by poor agricultural practices, mineral exploitation, industrial waste dumping, and
indiscriminate disposal of urban wastes.
Examples of Land pollution:-
Causes of land pollution:-
1. People Cut forest for furniture.
2. Plastic is the main source of land pollution.
3. People throw house garbage on roads.
4. Some industries throw their waste on land.
Prevention of land pollution:-
1. People should not cut trees for making furniture.
2. People should not throw garbage on land.
3. Plastic bags should be avoided for prevention of land pollution.
4. Industries should not throw their waste on land.
Atmospheric Chemical Compositions:-
Gas Symbol Percent by
Argon Ar 0.92
Neon Ne 18.2
Helium He 5.2
Krypton Kr 1.14
Xenon Xe 0.09
Carbon Dioxide 𝑪𝑶 𝟐 280.0 370.0
Methane 𝑪𝑯 𝟒 0.750 1.77
Nitrous Oxide 𝑵 𝟐o 0.270 0.318
Water Vapor 𝑯 𝟐o Variable
(0.004 to 4)
What impact does agriculture have on water pollution?
The greatest agricultural contributions to water pollution are through nutrient and
sediment pollution. Livestock waste and fertilizers contain nitrogen and phosphorus, which, if
carried to lakes and streams through runoff, can cause significant problems resulting in excess
In the last ten years, the number of livestock in Manitoba has increased by about 65 percent,
mostly in the form of pigs and cows. The livestock produce a large amount of waste, which
many farmers use as fertilizer on their fields. In the Winnipeg area, thousands of hectares of
farmland have been designed for efficient runoff, which minimizes flooding. However, when the
water runs off, it carries organic matter from the fertilizers straight into the creeks that feed Lake
Winnipeg. Agricultural practices in Manitoba are estimated to be responsible for about 17
percent of the phosphorus problem in Lake Winnipeg. There are several best management
practices that can reduce the amount of agricultural water pollution, such as collecting animal
wastes in a lagoon, or spraying pesticides in small amounts and at minimal runoff times.
Agricultural practices are the leading cause of sediment pollution, because bare lands are
susceptible to large amounts of erosion. Erosion causes problems both for the water source and
the farmland, which loses significant amounts of topsoil each year.
Where is all of this pollution coming from?
There are two main sources of water pollution; point sources and non-point sources. Point
sources include factories, wastewater treatment facilities, septic systems, and other sources that
are clearly discharging pollutants into water sources. Non-point sources are more difficult to
identify, because they cannot be traced back to a particular location. Non-point sources include
runoff including sediment, fertilizer, chemicals and animal wastes from farms, fields,
construction sites and mines. Landfills can also be a non-point source of pollution, if substances
leach from the landfill into water supplies.
The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) divides water pollution into the
following six categories:
1. Biodegradable waste consists mainly of human and animal waste. When biodegradable
waste enters a water supply, the waste provides an energy source (organic carbon) for
bacteria. Organic carbon is converted to carbon dioxide and water, which can cause
atmospheric pollution and acid rain; this form of pollution is far more widespread and
problematic than other forms of pollutants, such as radioactive waste. If there is a large
supply of organic matter in the water, oxygen-consuming (aerobic) bacteria multiply
quickly, consume all available oxygen, and kill all aquatic life.
2. 3. Heat can be a source of pollution in water. As the water temperature increases, the
amount of dissolved oxygen decreases. Thermal pollution can be natural, in the case of
hot springs and shallow ponds in the summertime, or human-made, through the discharge
of water that has been used to cool power plants or other industrial equipment. Fish and
plants require certain temperatures and oxygen levels to survive, so thermal pollution
often reduces the aquatic life diversity in the water.
3. Sediment is one of the most common sources of water pollution. Sediment consists of
mineral or organic solid matter that is washed or blown from land into water sources.
Sediment pollution is difficult to identify, because it comes from non-point sources, such
as construction, agricultural and livestock operations, logging, flooding, and city runoff.
Each year, water sources in the United States are polluted by over one billion tones of
sediment! Sediment can cause large problems, as it can clog municipal water systems,
smother aquatic life, and cause water to become increasingly turbid. And, turbid water
can cause thermal pollution, because cloudy water absorbs more solar radiation.
4. Hazardous and toxic chemicals are usually human-made materials that are not used or
disposed of properly. Point sources of chemical pollution include industrial discharges
and oil spills. The Oil Pollution fact sheet includes more detailed information about oil
spills, as well as other sources of oil pollution. Non-point sources of chemical pollution
include runoff from paved roads and pesticide runoff. Many people think industries
produce the greatest amount of chemical pollution. But domestic and personal use of
chemicals can significantly contribute to chemical pollution. Household cleaners, dyes,
paints and solvents are also toxic, and can accumulate when poured down drains or
flushed down the toilet. In fact, one drop of used motor oil can pollute 25 liters of water!
And, people who use pesticides on their gardens and lawns tend to use ten times more
pesticide per acre than a farmer would!
5. Radioactive pollutants include wastewater discharges from factories, hospitals and
uranium mines. These pollutants can also come from natural isotopes, such as radon.
Radioactive pollutants can be dangerous, and it takes many years until radioactive
substances are no longer considered dangerous.