Political System of the USA
Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Transcripts - Political System of the USA
The Political System of the USA The American political system is generally described as a constitutional democracy. Under the Constitution, the federal government is divided into three branches. The legislative power is vested in the Congress and made up of two houses: the Senateand the House of Representatives. There are 435 members in the House of Representativesand 100 senators in the Senate. Each state elects two members every two years for a six-yearterm to the 100-member Senate. A senator must be 30 years old, 9 years a citizen and aninhabitant of the state, which elects him. A representative must be 25, a US citizen and live inthe state from which he is elected. The Congress makes laws, controls finances (foreign anddomestic spending). The executive branch is headed by the President, who proposes bills to theCongress, enforces federal laws, controls foreign policy, serves as Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces and with the approval of the Senate, makes treaties andappoints secretaries (ministers). President can veto a bill unless Congress by a two-thirds vote shall overrule it. The President is chosen in nation-wide elections every 4 yearstogether with the Vice-President. A US president must be 35 or older, a US citizen born in theUSA and have lived in the USA at least 14 years. He can only serve two terms. Before 1951 thelaw was different, thats why Franklin D. Roosevelt was elected 4 times. The Vice-President, elected from the same political party as the President, acts asChairman of the Senate, and takes Presidents office if President is unable to finish his term. The judicial branch is made up of Federal District Courts, 11 Federal Courts and theSupreme Court. Nine Federal judges are appointed by the President for life. Federal courtsdecide cases involving federal law, and conflicts between citizens of different states. TheSupreme Court interprets constitution, tests laws and may rule the law to be unconstitutional.No veto is possible. In principle, these branches are independent and maintain a balance of power. Inpractice, they sometimes come into conflict and can exercise more or less power thanoriginally intended. The work of the national or federal government is also distributed among variousdepartments, such as the Department of State, Defense, Labour, Interior, or Education. There are two main political parties in the US, the Republican Party (the Elephant)and the Democratic Party (the Donkey). The Republicans tend to be more conservativeand have more support among the upper classes. The Democrats tend to be moreliberal and to have more support among the working classes. The Constitution of the USA The Constitution of the USA is the central instrument of American government andthe supreme law of the land. For 200 years, it has guided the evolution of governmentalinstitutions and has provided the basis for political stability, individual freedom,economic growth and social progress. Its fundamental principles continue to guide thenation and its people. It began to function in 1789. The American Constitution is the worlds oldestwritten constitution in force, one that has served as the model for a number of otherconstitutions around the world. The US Constitution establishes a division of power and authority between thestates and the federal government. The Constitutions first 10 amendments, known as the Bill of Rights (adopted in1791), enumerate certain "unalienable" rights that belong to every person, among themfreedom of religion, of speech and of press.
Presidents of the USALearn the new words: To be elected – быть избранным; elector – выборщик, избиратель Election – избрание (голосованием); nationwide election campaign – избирательная кампания в масштабе всей страны Polls – избирательный пункт; ballot – избирательный бюллетень To vote ones choice – проголосовать за своего избранника To be appointed – быть назначенным Inauguration – официальное вступление в должность To serve a term – отслужить срок Corrupt administration – продажная администрация Impeachment – обвинение, процедура привлечения к суду высших должностных лиц государства To resign the office – уходить в отставку To be assassinated – быть убитым; assassin – убийца; assassination – убийство. The President of the USA Do you want to be president of the USA? Maybe you can apply for the job. Answerthese three questions. Are you a U.S. citizen? Are you 35 years old or older? Have youbeen a resident of the U.S. for 14 years or longer? Did you say "yes" to all threequestions? Then you can take the first steps to the White House. You become president for a term. A term is 4 years. You can only serve two terms.This means that you can only be president twice. This became law in 1951. Before that,the law was different. In fact, Franklin D. Roosevelt became president in 1933. He was stillpresident when he died in 1945. He was president for twelve years. No one was presidentlonger than he was. As president of the U.S., you earn $200,000 a year. You also get an extra 450,000 forexpenses, tax-free. You have your own limousine, jet, and housekeepers, all free. Youalso live rent free, in the White House in Washington, D.C. And you are head of the richestcountry in the world. Presidents of the United States are very different people. Twenty-two were lawyers,four soldiers, four farmers, four teachers, two writers, two businessmen, one tailor, andone actor. Eight of them did not have a college education! The most common first namefor a president is James or some variation of it. I. Из нижеперечисленных слов найдите слова, подходящие по смыслу выделенным словам. Term, earn, resident, a limousine, serve, U.S. citizen, expenses, in fact 1. To be president, you must be a person who lives in the USA for 14 years. 2. To be president, you must be a person whose country is the U.S. 3. You become president for a fixed period of time. 4. A president can only work for two terms. 5. When you are a president, you make $200,000 a year. 6. You also get $50,000 for money to pay for other things you need. 7. As president, you get free use of an expensive car with a driver. 8. Before 1951, you could be president for more than eight years. In truth, F.D. Roosevelt was president for 12 years. II. Найдите правильные ответы. 1. You can be president for … . a. a term b. twelve years c. two terms of four years. 2. How many presidents were lawyers? a. 2 b. 4 c. 22 III. Найдите неверное слово в каждом предложении и замените его на верное. 1. To be president, you must be forty-five years old or older. 2. To be president, you must be a lawyer in the U.S. for 14 years. 3. A term is 8 years. 4. Franklin D. Roosevelt was president for two terms. 5. Eight presidents did not have a teacher education.
6. As president, you are the businessman of the richest country in the world.