Portal of entry of infective endocarditis
New trial for evaluation of infective endocarditis portal of entry
Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Transcripts - Portal of entry of infective endocarditis
Systematic Search for Present and Potential Portals of Entry for
JACC JAN 1016
Infective endocarditis (IE) is a severe disease, with an in-hospital mortality
rate of about 20% . Five 5 to 10% of patients will have additional episodes
of IE . Thus, looking for and treating the portal of entry (POE) of IE is
particularly important. The POE of the present episode must be identified
in order to treat it. The potential POE of a new episode must be searched
for in order to eradicate it and thus lower the risk for a new IE episode.
Yet published research on this topic is nonexistent. The search for and
treatment of the POE are not even mentioned in the most recent
guidelines on IE . This is the study was conducted to acesses the
performance of a systematic search for the POE of the present episode of
IE and of a potential new episode of IE.
Since January 2005, They have been prospectively enrolling all patients
hospitalized at tertiary hospital for definite IE according to the Duke-Li
criteria . Since then, they have been systematically looking for the POE of
the present IE episode and for the potential POE of a new IE episode .
Patients were informed of the study but did not have to provide
individual consent, in accordance with French ethics laws. Patients were
systematically seen by a stomatologist (who performed an
orthopantomogram), an ear, nose, and throat (ENT) specialist, and a
urologist; women were systematically seen by a gynecologist. When
there were cutaneous or periorificial mucous lesions on the initial
examination, patients were seen by a dermatologist. Cerebral and
thoracoabdominopelvic scans were systematically performed.
Colonoscopy and gastroscopy were performed if the microorganism
came from the gastrointestinal tract, in patients >50 years of age, and in
those with familial histories of colonic polyposis.
For each microorganism, the most probable POE was inferred from its
natural habitat or site of colonization in humans on the basis of a search
of published research . Treatment, if any, of the POE was systematically
considered. It was either performed during the patient’s stay in hospital
Health care–associated IE was defined as either IE developing in a patient
hospitalized for more than 48 h before the onset of signs or symptoms
consistent with IE or IE diagnosed within 48 h of admission in an
outpatient with extensive health care contact (received intravenous
therapy, wound care, or specialized nursing care at home within 30 days;
underwent hemodialysis; received intravenous chemotherapy; resided in
a nursing home or long term care facility).
Community-acquired IE was defined as IE diagnosed at the time of
admission (or within 48 h of admission) in a patient not fulfilling the
criteria for health care–associated infection.
Among 444 patients hospitalized at institution between 2005 and 2011,
318 (320 episodes) were included in the present study (They excluded 82
patients who died during hospitalization; 44 medical charts were
unavailable for technical reasons). The median age of the patients was 61
+-2 years; 75% were men; 29% had native valve disease, 22% had >1
valvular prosthesis, and 49% did not have previously known heart
disease; 11% had cardiac implantable electronic devices (pacemakers or
defibrillators). Microorganisms were streptococci in 41%, staphylococci in
31%, and enterococci in 8%.
POE FOR THE PRESENT IE EPISODE.
The POEs for the present IE episodes were identified in 238 patients
(74%). Among identified POEs, 40% were cutaneous, 29% were oral or
dental, and 23% were gastrointestinal (Table 2).
POEs were cutaneous in 96 patients. Cutaneous POEs were health care
associated in 41%of these patients, community acquired in 34%, related
to intravenous drug use in 22%, and related to inoculation diseases in 3%
(louse bite, Bartonella quintana, n 1; tick bite, Coxiella burnetii, n 1; cat
scratch disease, Bartonella henselae, n 1). Vascular access was the main
health care– associated cutaneous POE (44%), followed by infection of a
cardiac implantable electronic device (28%) and infection of the
operative site (28%) (Table 3). Wounds, nonsuppurative skin and soft-
tissue infections, and diabetic foot ulcers were the most frequent
community-acquired cutaneous POEs. Staphylococci were responsible
for 87% of the 39 cases of IE with health care–associated cutaneous
POEs (Staphylococcus aureus, 38%; coagulasenegative staphylococci,
49%) (Table 4). S. aureus was responsible for 82% of 33 cases of IE with
community-acquired cutaneous POEs and for 52% of cases of IE in
intravenous drug users.
Oral or dental POE.
Overall, a stomatologist saw 62% of patients during their stays in
hospital. Oral or dental POEs were identified in 68 patients. The
distribution of lesions is detailed in Table 5, and the distribution of
microorganisms is presented in Table 6. Oral streptococci were
responsible for 69% of the cases of IE with oral or dental POEs. Sixty-five
of the 68 patients with oral or dental POEs (96%) saw a stomatologist
during their stay in our hospital. For organizational reasons, the other 3
patients with oral or dental POEs did not see a stomatologist during their
hospital stays but had seen their dentists within the previous 3 months.
Dental procedures to treat POEs were undertaken during 24 patients’
stays in our hospital. All other patients were given instructions on dental
procedures to be performed.
Gastrointestinal POEs were identified in 56 patients. Colonic polyps
were present in 46% of these patients (Table 7). Colorectal
adenocarcinoma was diagnosed in 14% of the patients. Streptococcus
bovis group and Enterococcus faecalis were responsible for 50% and
29% of cases of IE with gastrointestinal POEs, respectively (Table 8).
Urinary POEs were acute pyelonephritis (n 4), benign prostatic
hypertrophy with acute urine retention (n 1), transurethral
resection of the prostate (n ¼ 1), prostate needle biopsy (n ¼ 1),
transurethral resection of bladder cancer (n 1), and urinary self-
probing because of chronic urethral stenosis (S. bovis group, n 2;
Enterococcus, n 1; Streptococcus agalactiae, n 1; Escherichia coli,
Among 82 episodes with nonidentified POEs, the microorganism
habitat was cutaneous in 49%, oral or dental in 22%, and
gastrointestinal in 22% .
POTENTIAL POE OF A NEW IE. Potential POEs for future IE episodes
were as follows:
1.continuation of intravenous drug use in 21 patients;
2. cutaneous disease in 2 patients: Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome with
varicose ulcer and psoriasis with scratching lesions;
3. oral or dental infective foci in 66 of 125 patients (53%) who
underwent stomatologic examinations: dental infectious focus in 41,
radiological dental infectious focus (cyst, granuloma) without clinical
lesion in 9, endodontal and periodontal disease in 11, and periodontal
disease in 5;
4.Colonic lesions (polyps, diverticulosis, adenocarcinoma) in 32 of 80
patients (40%) who underwent colonoscopy because they were >50
years of age or had familial histories of colonic polyposis: polyps in 13
patients, sigmoid diverticulosis in 15 patients, sigmoid diverticulosis
with polyps in 2 patients, diffuse angiodysplasia in 1 patient, and
colorectal adenocarcinoma in 1 patient;
5. urinary lesions in 11 of 52 patients (21%) who underwent urinary
examinations: prostate cancer in 3 patients, benign prostatic
hypertrophy with urine retention in 2 patients, urethral stenosis in 2
patients, pyelonephritis in 1 patient, cystinuria with repetitive renal
lithiasis in 1 patient, postradiotherapy bladder in 1 patient, and
extrinsic urethral compression by colon cancer in 1 patients (no
gynecologic lesions were found in the 16 women >79 years of age who
underwent gynecologic examinations); and ENT lesions (sinusitis,
otomastoiditis, and so on)
in 6 of 180 examinations.
It seems obvious that the POE in a patient with IE should be searched
for and eradicated, ideally during the initial stay, while the patient is
receiving antibiotics. Many physicians probably look for and treat the
POEs in their patients with IE. Yet there is no recommendation about
the POE in recent guidelines on IE , and there is almost never
information on the POE in reports of large series of IE. At This
institution, where the POE of IE is systematically searched for, the POEs
of the current IE episodes were found in as many as three-quarters of
patients. We consider this very good performance and an a subsequent
justification of the systematic search for IE POE.
The most frequent POE was cutaneous (40% of identified POEs). It was
mainly (62%) associated with health care and with intravenous drug
use. The most frequent microorganisms were staphylococci, which
were identified in 78% of episodes of IE with cutaneous POEs, as
expected from their ecology , S. aureus in 55%, and coagulase negative
staphylococci in 23%.
second most frequent POE was oral or dental (29%). Among oral or
dental POEs, a dental infectious focus was much more often involved
(59% of oral or dental POEs) than dental procedures (12%). Periodontal
disease was involved in 28%. The most frequent microorganisms were
oral (viridans) streptococci (69%), then HACCEK bacteria (Haemophilus
spp., Aggregatibacter [Actinobacillus] actinomycetemcomitans,
Capnocytophaga spp., Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens,
and Kingella kingae) (10%). The habitat of viridans streptococci is dental
plaque, oral mucosa, and the oropharynx
The third most frequent POE was gastrointestinal (23%). Colonic polyps
were found in almost one-half of the patients and colorectal
adenocarcinoma in 14%. As may be expected, the most frequent
responsible microorganisms were S. bovis group (S. gallolyticus) (50%)
and E. faecalis (29%). The habitat of the S. bovis group is the
gastrointestinal tract, and its POEs are colorectal adenoma and
Potential POEs for additional IE episodes were obvious in drug users
continuing drug use and in some patients with chronic cutaneous
lesions. The performance of a systematic search for potential POE was
low for the ENT region and the genitourinary tract. Performance was
good regarding the search for oral or dental or colonic potential POEs,
which were found in 53% and 40% of patients, respectively. THEY
limited systematic colonoscopy to patients who had familial histories of
colonic polyposis or were >50 years of age, because the incidence of
colorectal cancer increases in patients aged >50 years
THIS study showed that with a systematic approach to source
identification, the POE can often be identified, and in a substantial
proportion of these patients, risk modification can be attempted.
This topic is of clinical importance, as it relates to our
understanding of the sources of infection in patients with IE and
also influences management of patients (e.g., ordering colonoscopy
in a patient with S. bovis group IE, recommending better
maintenance of oral hygiene).
A systematic search for the POEs of IE was successful in as many as
74% of patients. Systematically searching for potential oral or dental,
gastrointestinal, or genitourinary POEs of new IE episodes was also
successful in many patients. We would advise the systematic
performance of a stomatologic examination in patients with IE and
performance of colonoscopy in patients > 50 years of age or at high
risk for colorectal cancer. A flowchart for the identification and
treatment of POEs is shown in the Central Illustration.