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- 1. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology ENGINEERING – INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, Sep- Dec (2012) © IAEME AND TECHNOLOGY (IJMET) ISSN 0976 – 6340 (Print) ISSN 0976 – 6359 (Online) IJMET Volume 3, Issue 3, Septmebr - December (2012), pp. 187-202 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijmet.html Journal Impact Factor (2012): 3.8071 (Calculated by GISI) ©IAEME www.jifactor.com NATURAL CONVECTION IN A TWO-SIDED LID-DRIVEN INCLINED POROUS ENCLOSURE WITH SINUSOIDAL THERMAL BOUNDARY CONDITION Sabyasachi Mondal *1 ,Tapas Ray Mahapatra 2, Dulal Pal 3 *1 Department of Mathematics, BITM, Santiniketan-731236, West Bengal,India 2,3 Department of Mathematics, Visva Bharati (A Central University), Santiniketan-731 235, West Bengal, India Email:sabya.mondal.2007@gmail.com *1, trmahapatra@yahoo.com 2, dulalp123@rediffmail.com3ABSTRACTNatural convection in a two-sided lid-driven inclined porous enclosure with sinusoidal thermal boundary conditionon one wall using staggered grid finite-difference method is studied in this paper. The governing equations aresolved numerically for streamlines, isotherms, local Nusselt number and the average Nusselt number for variousvalues of the thermal radiation and heat generation parameters for three different inclination angles. The resultsindicate that the flow pattern and temperature field are significantly dependent on the physical parameters.Keywords: Natural convection; two-sided lid-driven inclined cavity; finite-difference method; thermal radiation;heat generation.I. INTRODUCTIONFluid flow and heat transfer in closed cavities which are mechanically driven by tangentially moving wallsrepresents a basic problem in fluid mechanics. Flow of fluid in a cavity due to moving lid is a classical problemwhich has wide applications in engineering such as geothermal energy, lubrication, chemical processes, dryingtechnologies, crude oil production, storage of nuclear waste, compacted beds for the chemical industry and thermalinsulation etc. In the past several decades, a number of experimental and numerical studies have been performed toanalyze the flow field and heat transfer characteristics of lid-driven cavity flow such as heat exchangers, solarpower collectors, packed bed catalytic reactors and so on (Nield and Bejan [1]). Furthermore, heat transfer in a lid-driven cavity flow is widely used in applied mathematics as indicated by Bruneau and Saad [2]. The lid-drivenflows with a constant heat flux are frequently faced in the application of cooling of electronic devices (Hsu andWang [3]). Khanafer and Chamkha [4] studied the unsteady mixed convection flow in a lid-driven encloser filledwith Darcian fluid-saturated uniform porous medium is the presences of internal heat generation. Al-Amiri [5] 187
- 2. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, Sep- Dec (2012) © IAEMEinvestigated the momentum and heat transfer for square lid-driven cavity filled in a porous medium heated from adriving wall.Roy and Basak [6] studied the influence of uniform and non-uniform heating of the bottom wall and one verticalwall on flow and heat transfer characteristics due to natural convection within a square enclosure. Later, Basak etal. [7] investigated a natural-convection flow in a square cavity filled with a porous medium considering bothuniform and non-uniform heating of cavity wall from below using Darcy-Forchheimer model. Oztop et al. [8]studied numerical simulation in a non-isothermally heated square enclosure.Also, the problem of natural convection in an inclined enclosure has considerable attention due to its relevance to awide variety of application area in engineering and science. The study of mixed convection in inclined lid-drivenenclosure filled with viscous fluid was studied by Sharif [9]. He observed that the average Nusselt numberincreases with increase in the inclination angle. Recently, Ogut [10] investigated a laminar, mixed convection flowin an inclined lid-driven rectangular enclosure heated from moving one side wall of the cavity with a constant speedand cooled from the stationary adjacent side while the other sides are kept stationary and adiabatic. Sivakumar et al.[11] analyzed numerically the mixed convection heat transfer and fluid flow in a lid-driven cavity for differentlengths of the heater and different locations of it. It is found that a better heat transfer rate is obtained on reducingthe heater length of the hot wall. Oztop and Varol [12] investigated the flow field, temperature distribution and heattransfer in a lid-driven cavity filled with porous medium in the presence of non- uniformly heated bottom wall.Kuhlmann et al. [13] conducted numerical and experimental studies on the steady flow in a rectangular two-sidedlid-driven cavity. Alleborn et al. [14] analyzed numerically the mixed convection in a shallow inclined two-sidedlid-driven cavity with a moving heated lid. They simulated the problem and found that both heat and masstransports are affected from the change of cavity inclination angle. Moreover, the bifurcation topologies of differentcreeping flows have been studied by Brons and Hartnack [15] for the two-sided lid-driven cavity problem bychanging the driving or geometry parameters. Understanding the mixed convection heat transfer process in inclinedcavities is thus very important for designing purposes in the event when the inclined orientation is required. When technology processes take place at high temperatures thermal radiation heat transfer become very important.Recent developments in hypersonic flights, missile reentry rocket combustion chambers and gas cooled nuclearreactors have focused attention of researchers on thermal radiation and emphasize the need for inclusion of heattransfer in these processes. Very recently, Mahapatra et al. [16] studied natural convection in a lid-driven squarecavity filled with fluid-saturated porous medium in the presence of thermal radiation considering Darcy-Forchheimer model. Not much of attention has been given on the study of laminar natural convection flow in aninclined two-sided lid-driven enclosure with thermal boundary conditions as far as authors’ knowledge. Thus thepresent study deals with the unsteady laminar natural convection flow in an inclined enclosure heated non-uniformly in the presence of thermal radiation and heat generation from the left vertical wall, heated uniformlyfrom bottom wall and cooled from the top wall by keeping right wall in adiabatic state. The numerical results forstreamlines, isotherms and the heat transfer rate at the heated walls in terms of local Nusselt number and averageNusselt number are presented graphically and in tabular form.II. GOVERNING EQUATIONS AND BOUNDARY CONDITIONSThe two-sided lid-driven inclined enclosure under investigation is filled with a fluid-saturated porous medium andwith impermeable walls. The schematic configuration of the problem is illustrated in Fig. 1, with H denoting thelength of the sides of the square enclosure. The fluid is assumed as incompressible and the porous medium isconsidered to be homogeneous and isotropic. Furthermore, the porous medium is assumed to be in local thermalequilibrium with the fluid. The top and bottom walls of the cavity are of different temperatures, the right side wallis adiabatic and the left side wall temperature varies sinusoidally. The Brinkman-Darcy model is adopted for thefluid flow in the porous medium.The dimensionless governing equations take the following form: 188
- 3. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, Sep- Dec (2012) © IAEME∂u ∂v + = 0, (1)∂x ∂yδ u Pr σ ∂p ∂ 2u ∂ 2u σ ∂u 2 ∂uv Pr σ u Ra *Pr σ = - +Prϵσ 2 + 2 - + – + ө sinφ, (2)δt Da ∂x ∂x ∂y ε ∂x ∂y Da Da δv Pr σ ∂p ∂ 2 v ∂ 2 v σ ∂v 2 ∂uv Pr σ v Ra *Pr σ =- + Prϵ σ 2 + 2 - + - + θ cos φ, (3)δt Da ∂y ∂x ∂y ε ∂y ∂x Da Da ∂θ ∂ 2θ ∂ 2θ ∂uθ ∂vθ 4 ∂ 2θ = + - + + + He θ. (4)∂t ∂x 2 ∂y 2 ∂x ∂y 3 N R ∂y 2 Now we define the following non-dimensional variables:x = X/H, y =Y/H, u =UH/αm, v =VH/αm, θ = (T- Tc)/(Th - Tc), p =KP /μαm , Pr = νf /αm , Da=K/H2 ,NR =(κk*/4σ Tc3 ), He =QH2/κ .Where Pr, NR and He are Prandtl, thermal radiation parameter and heat generation parameter,respectively. Here φ is the inclined angle of the cavity. The heat capacity ratio σ and Rayleigh- Darcynumber Ra* (Wang et al. [19]) are defined as σ=(ρc)f/(ρc)m, Ra* =gKβ(Th-Tc) H/ νf αm.Non-dimensional boundary conditions areu= v=0 and θ= sin (πy) at x=0,u=v=0 and ∂θ/∂x=0 at x=1,u=A, v=0 and θ=1 at y=0,u=A, v=0 and θ=0 at y=1where `A(=HU0 /αm)’ is a parameter.The heat transfer coefficient in terms of the local Nusselt number (Nu) is defined by Nu = -(∂θ/∂n), wheren denotes the normal direction on a plane. The local Nusselt number at the bottom wall (Nub) and leftvertical wall (Nul) are defined asNub = -(∂θ/∂y)| y=0 and Nul = -(∂θ/∂x)| x=0.The average Nusselt number at the hot walls is given by, 1 1NuH|y=0 = ∫ Nu b dx and NuH|x=0= ∫ Nu l dy. 0 0III. SOLUTION PROCEDURE AND NUMERICAL STABILITY CRITERIAControl-volume based finite-difference discretization of the above equation has carried out in the present work instaggered grid, popularity known as MAC cell. In this type of grid alignment, the velocities and the pressure areevaluated at different locations of the control volume, the pressure and temperature are evaluated at same locationsof control volume as shown in Figure 1(b). The difference equations have been derived in distinct types of cells forthe four equations, viz., (i) continuity cell, (ii) u-momentum cell, and (iii) v-momentum cell [24], (iv) temperaturecell. These distinct cells have been shown in the Figures 2(a) and 2(b). We now describe the iteration process toobtain the solutions of the basic equations with appropriate boundary conditions. In the derivation of pressure nPoisson equation, the divergence term at n-th time level ( Dij ) is retained and evaluated in the pressure-Poisson niteration. It is done because the discretized form of divergence of velocity field, i.e, ( Dij ) is not guaranteed to bezero. The solution procedure starts with the initializing the velocity field. This is done either from the result of 189
- 4. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, Sep- Dec (2012) © IAEMEprevious cycle or from the prescribed initial and boundary conditions. Using this velocity field pressure-Poissonequation is solved using Bi-CG-Stab method. Knowing pressure field u-momentum, v-momentum and equation fortemperature are updated to get u, v, θ at (n + 1)th time level. Using the values of u and v at (n + 1)th time level, thevalue of the divergence of velocity field is for its limit. If its absolute value is less than 0.5 ×105 and steady statereaches then iteration process stops, otherwise again pressure-Poisson equation is solved for pressure.Linear stability of fluid flow is δ x δ y δ t1 ≤ Min , , which is related to the convection of fluid, i.e., fluid should not move more than one cell | u | v width per time step (Courant, Friedrichs and Lewy condition). Also, from the Hirt’s stability analysis, we have δ x .δ y 2 2 1δ t2 ≤ Min . .This condition roughly stated that momentum cannot diffuse more than one cell 2 Pr (δ x 2 + δ y 2 ) width per time step. The time step is determined from δt = FCT × [Min (δt1, δt2)], where the factor FCT varies from uδ t vδ t 0.2 to 0.4. The upwinding parameter β is governed by the inequality condition. 1 ≥ β ≥ Max , . As a δx δy rule of thumb, β is taken approximately 1.2 times larger than what is found from the above inequality condition.IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONSNumerical results for contours of the streamlines and isotherms inside the inclined square cavity and the averageThe working fluid is chosen as air with Prandtl number Pr = 0.7 and the value of ϵ = 0.6 are taken in the presentNusselt number distribution at the heated surface of the cavity for various values of radiation parameter, heatgeneration parameter and inclination angle φ have been examined and presented graphically and in tabulated form.study. The inclination angle φ of the enclosure are chosen as 200, 450, 600, 800, 900.In order to get a grid independent solution to the present problem, a grid refinement study is performed for Ra* =103, Da = 10-3 and φ= 200, 450, 800 and a parameter A (1.0 ≤ A ≤ 200). The results of grid independence test areshown in Table 1. As observed from the results 80×80 grid is sufficient to achieve good results in the entire study.As shown in Table 2, the average Nusselt numbers are in good agreement with the Darcy-Brinkman solutionsreported by Lauriat and Prasad [20]. These comprehensive verification efforts demonstrated the accuracy of thepresent numerical method. Table 3 presents the computed values of NuH|y=0 and NuH|x=0 for various values of φ, NRand He, keeping the other parameters fixed. From this table, it is seen that NuH|y=0 and NuH|x=0 decreases withTable 1: Grid independence study for Pr = 0.7, Ra* = 103, Da = 10-3, ϵ = 0.6, NR = 1.0 and He = 1.0.increase in NR and He for all the three inclination angle, φ = 200, 450, 800. Grid 20×20 40×40 80× 80 points φ Iteration |ψmin| Iteration |ψmin| Iteration |ψmin| 200 17469 28.5321 34729 27.4674 101051 26.9837 450 16475 26.9936 31954 25.7738 74572 25.1866 800 12714 20.1185 24601 19.0905 58398 18.5109Stream function and isotherm contours for various values of φ ,NR and He with non-uniform heating of the left walland uniform heating of the bottom wall in the two-sided driven cavity flow are displayed in Figs. 2-5. As expected,due to hot left vertical wall, fluids rise up along the side of the hot which then flow down along the cold wall, 190
- 5. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, Sep- Dec (2012) © IAEMEforming a roll with anti-clockwise rotation inside the cavity. Counter-clockwise circulations are shown withpositive sign of stream functions. Fig. 2(a) depicts the plot of the stream function for NR = 1.0 and He = 1.0,keeping the other parameters fixed. It is seen from this figure that the values of stream function in the coredecreases with increasing the inclination angle of the cavity i.e, the flow rate decreases and it is also observed thatthe streamlines are more concentrated near the side walls due to stronger circulation which results in lower heattransfer rate due to convection and increase in the inclination angle. Similar flow pattern is observed in the Figs.2(b) and 2(c). It is interesting to note that when inclination angle are fixed (for 200 and 800), the values of streamfunction in the core increases with increase in the value of NR i.e, the flow rate increases with increase in theradiation parameter. But when φ = 450 there is not much change in the value of stream function in the core for thevalue of NR > 3.0.Table 2: Comparison of average Nusselt number predictions with the computed data of Lauriat and Prasad [20]when Pr = 1.0 and A = 0.0. Ra* Da ε Present Study Lauriat & Prasad [20] 104 10-4 0.4 25.74 25.70 103 10-6 0.4 13.30 13.22 102 10-6 0.4 3.08 3.06Table 3: Computed values of NuH|y=0 =0 and NuH|x=0 =0 when Pr = 0.7, A = 1.0, Ra* = 103, Da = 10-3, ϵ = 0.6 forvarious values of φ, NR and He. φ NR He NuH|y=0 NuH|x=0 0 20 1.0 6.9437 -4.2071 3.0 1.0 5.1820 -5.2032 5.0 4.4149 -6.0774 1.0 6.9437 -4.2071 1.0 3.0 6.7958 -4.3654 5.0 6.6331 -4.5459 450 1.0 1.0 7.3142 -3.7731 3.0 5.3929 -4.8953 5.0 1.0 4.5677 -5.8316 3.0 7.3142 -3.7731 1.0 5.0 7.1752 -3.8693 7.0286 -3.9744 800 1.0 1.0 6.9926 -3.1420 3.0 5.1191 -4.4739 5.0 1.0 4.2956 -5.5441 3.0 6.9927 -3.1420 1.0 5.0 6.8542 -3.1826 6.7113 -3.2256 191
- 6. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, Sep- Dec (2012) © IAEME Figure 1. Geometry and the coordinate system 192
- 7. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, Sep- Dec (2012) © IAEME Figure 2. Streamlines for He=1.0, A=1.0 and (a) NR =1.0, (b) NR =3.0, (c) NR =5.0. 193
- 8. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, Sep- Dec (2012) © IAEME Figure 3. Streamlines for NR=1.0, A=1.0 and (a) He=1.0, (b) He=3.0, (c) He=5.0. 194
- 9. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, Sep- Dec (2012) © IAEME Figure 4. Isotherms for He=1.0, A=1.0 and (a) NR =1.0, (b) NR =3.0, (c) NR =5.0. 195
- 10. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, Sep- Dec (2012) © IAEME Figure 5. Isotherms for NR=1.0, A=1.0 and (a) He=1.0, (b) He=3.0, (c) He=5.0. 196
- 11. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, Sep- Dec (2012) © IAEMEFigure 6. Local Nusselt number at bottom wall for different values of φ, NR and He when Pr=0.7, Ra* =103,Da=10-3, A=1.0 and ε=0.6. 197
- 12. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, Sep- Dec (2012) © IAEMEFigure 7. Local Nusselt number at left vertical wall for different values of φ, NR and He when Pr=0.7, Ra* =103,Da=10-3, A=1.0 and ε=0.6. 198
- 13. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, Sep- Dec (2012) © IAEME Figure 8. Plot of avarage Nusselt number vs. inclination angle of the cavity 199
- 14. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, Sep- Dec (2012) © IAEME Figure 9. Local Nusselt number at bottom wall for different values of AFig. 3 shows that as inclination angle increases the flow patterns are different from those shown in Fig. 2. Threecases arise when inclination angle is fixed i.e. (i) when φ = 200, the value of stream function in the core increaseswith increase the value of He (ii) when φ= 450, there is not much flow rate change after He > 3.0 (iii) when φ = 800,the value of stream function in the core changes with increase in value of He, whereas not effect is seen near thewalls.Figs. 4(a) presents isotherms are concentrated near the edges of hot walls and cold walls due to stronger circulation,which results in higher heat transfer rate due to convection. It is seen from this figure that as inclination angleincreases, the boundary layers are relatively thick and a very small core region occurs such that the isothermsbecome almost parallel to the vertical walls indicating that conduction regime is approached due to the fact that themiddle cells of the cavity get enhanced compressing shear cells generated due to moving lids. However, the shearcells near the walls become more vigorous. The isotherm patterns realize the effect of shear cell near the walls. Butin the middle portion of the enclosure, the feature of the natural convection is maintained. Similar flow patterns areshown in Figs 4(b), 4(c) with less concentrated streamlines near the hot and cold walls. Fig. 5 depicts the variousstreamlines patterns for different values of He for fixed value of NR = 1.0. The flow patterns are almost similar tothose shown in Fig. 4 which shown the isotherm for different values of thermal radiation parameters. Carefulobservation of Figs. 5(a) and 5(c), show that there is significant change in the streamlines pattern by increasing thevalues of internal heat generation. The effect of NR and He on the local Nusselt numbers at the bottom and leftvertical walls (Nub and Nul) for different values of the inclination angle (200, 450 and 800) by keeping the otherparameters fixed are displayed in Figs. 6 and 7. In the case when uniform heating at the bottom wall (Fig. 6) is veryhigh at the left edge of the bottom wall due to the discontinuity present at this edge in the temperature boundarycondition then the heat transfer rate reduces towards the right corner of the bottom wall for all values of NR and He.It is also seen that heat transfer rate decreases with increase in NR and He, for any inclination angle. It is also 200
- 15. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, Sep- Dec (2012) © IAEMEobserved from Fig. 7 that in the case of non-uniform heating condition at the left wall, the heat transfer rate is veryhigh at both left edge and right edge and it is minimum near the left corner of the left wall. The effect of theinclination angle on average Nusselt number is investigated and demonstrates in Fig. 8. As can be seen from theFig. 8(a), the average Nusselt number on walls reaches its maximum value at the inclination angle of around 550due to uniform heating at bottom wall. This angle is nothing but a ’critical angle’ (Nor Azwadi et al. [21]) wherethe natural convection is at the maximum point. But there is no ’critical angle’ due to non-uniform heating at leftvertical wall which is seen in Fig. 8(b). It is also seen that average Nusselt number increases with increase ininclination angle of the cavity. This phenomenon is explained in the discussion for Table 2. Fig. 9 shows that asparameter A increases from 1 to 200, the local Nusselt number at the bottom wall (Nub) increases upto a certainvalue of x and thereafter opposite trend is observed. This is occurs due to change of the speed of the lid of thecavity. V. CONCLUSIONSThe present paper deals with the study of thermal radiation and heat generation effects on unsteady two-dimensional laminar natural convection flow in a two-sided lid-driven inclined enclosure non-uniformly heatedfrom the left vertical wall, uniformly heated from bottom wall and cooled from the top wall while right vertical wallis kept adiabatic by using staggered grid finite-difference method. Following conclusions are drawn from thisstudy:(i) Flow rate decreases with increase in the inclination angle.(ii) Increasing in the thermal radiation parameter enhances the flow rate by keeping the inclination angle fixed.(iii) The value of stream function in the core does not change for any value of He when φ = 800.(iv) Average Nusselt number decreases with increasing the value of both NR and He.(v) ’Critical angle’ is formed due to uniform heating at the bottom wall, whereas no ’Critical angle’ is found in thecase of non-uniform heating at the bottom wall. REFERENCES[1] D.A. Nield, A. Bejan, Convection in porous media, 3rd ed., Springer, New York, 2006.[2] C.H. Bruneau, M. Saad, The 2D lid-driven cavity problem revisited, Comput. Fluids, 35(2006) 326–348.[3] T.H. Hsu, S.G. Wang, Mixed convection in a rectangular enclosure with discrete heat sources, Numer. HeatTransfer, Part A. 38 (2000) 627–652.[4] K.M. Khanafer, A.J. Chamkha, Mixed convection flow in a lid-driven enclosure filled with a fluid-saturatedporous medium, Int. J. Heat Mass Transf. 42 (1999) 2465–2481.[5] A.M. Al-Amiri, Analysis of momentum and energy transfer in a lid-driven cavity filled with a porous medium,Int. J. Heat Mass Transf. 43 (2000) 3513–3527.[6] S. Roy, T. Basak, Finite element analysis of natural convection flows in a square cavity with non-uniformlyheated wall(s), Int. J. Engg. Sci. 43 (2005) 668–680.[7] T. Basak, S. Roy, T. Paul, I. Pop, Natural convection in square cavity filled with a porous medium: Effects ofvarious thermal boundary conditions, Int. J. Heat Mass Transf. 49 (2006) 1430–1441. 201
- 16. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, Sep- Dec (2012) © IAEME[8] H.F. Oztop, M. Oztop, V. Varol, Numerical simulation of magnetohydrodynamic buoyancy induced flow in anon-isothermally heated square enclosure, Comm. Nonlinear Sci. Num. Simu. 14(3) (2009) 770–778.[9] M.A.R. Sharif, Laminar mixed convection in shallow inclined driven cavities with hot moving lid on top andcooled from bottom, Appl. Therm. Engg. 27 (2007) 1036–1042.[10] E.B. ¨Og¨ut, Mixed convection in an inclined and lid-driven rectangular enclosure heated and cooled onadjacent walls, CSME Transactions, 32 (2008) 213–226.[11] V. Sivakumar, S. Sivasankaran, P. Prakash, J. Lee, Effect of heating location and size on mixed convection inlid-driven cavities, Computers and Mathematics with Applications, 59 (2010) 3053–3065.[12] H.F. Oztop, A. Varol, Combined convection in inclined porous lid-driven enclosures with sinusoidal thermalboundary condition on one wall, Progress in computational Fluid Dyanamics, 9 (2009) 127–131.[13] H.C. Kuhlmann, M. Wanschura, H.J. Rath, Flow in two-sided lid-driven cavitie: nonuniqueness, instabilitiesand celular structurs, J. Fluid Mech. 336 (1997) 267–299.[14] N. Alleborn, H. Raszillier, F. Durst, Lid-driven with heat and mass transport, Int. J. Heat Mass Transf. 42(1999) 833–853.[15] M. Brøns, J.N. Hartnack, Streamline topologies near simple degenerate critical points in two-dimentional flowaway from boundaries, Phys. Fluids, 11 (1999) 314–324.[16] T.R. Mahapatra, D. Pal, S. Mondal, Natural convection in a lid-driven square cavity filled with Darcy-Forchheimer porous medium in the presence of thermal radition, Int. J. Nonlinear Science, 11(3) (2011) 366–379.[17] T.S. Lundgren, Slow flow through stationary random beds and suspensions of spheres, J. Fluid Mech. 51(1972) 273–299.[18] I. Zahmatkesh, Influence of thermal radiation on free convection inside a porous enclosure, Emirates J. Engg.Research, 12(2) (2007) 47–52.[19] G. Wang, Q. Wang, M. Zeng, H. Qzoe, Numerical study of natural convection heat transfer in an inclinedporous cavity with time-periodic boundary conditions, Transp. Porous Media, 74 (2008) 293–309.[20] Lauriat, G., Prasad, V. (1989). Non-Darcian effects on natural convection in a vertical porous enclosure, Int. J.Heat Mass Transf. 32, 2135–2148.[21] C.S. Nor Azwadi, M.Y. Mohd Fairus, S. Syahrullail, Virtual study of natural convection heat transfer in aninclined square cavity, J. of Applied Science, 10(4)(2010) 331–336. 202